Andrew Barclay Sons & Co.
Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. are a builder of steam and fireless and diesel locomotives. The company's history dates to foundation of an engineering workshop in 1840 in Kilmarnock, Scotland. After a long period of operation the company was acquired by the Hunslet group in 1972 and renamed Hunslet-Barclay. In 2011 Brush Traction and Brush-Barclay were acquired from FKI by Wabtec - as of 2012 the company still operates in Kilmarnock providing rail engineering services as Wabtec Rail Scotland. Born in 1814, Andrew Barclay was only 25 years of age when he set up a partnership with Thomas McCulloch to manufacture mill shafts in Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland, it was only a couple of years that he branched out on his own to manufacture his patented gas lamps. In 1847 he set up workshops specializing in the manufacture of winding engines for the local coal mining industry. However, the money from the gas lamp patent sale was never paid and sequestration of the company came the following year. By 1859 Barclay had recovered from this setback and his newly formed company produced its first locomotive.
Sometime around 1871 Andrew Barclay set up a second locomotive building business known as Barclays & Co. He had set up this company for his younger brother and his four sons; this business remaining associated with Andrew Barclay. Again not all went well and the companies were declared bankrupt in 1874 and 1882 respectively. Four years after this latest collapse, Andrew Barclay’s business was relaunched as Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. Barclays & Co was revived. Further difficulties arose. In 1892 the firm became a limited liability company as Andrew Barclay Co. Ltd.. Just two years Andrew was removed from control of the company which bore his name by its shareholders. Barclay sued the company for unpaid wages, a matter, settled out of court 5 years later. In 1930 the company bought the business of John Cochrane Ltd, engine makers and in 1963 it acquired the goodwill of the North British Locomotive Company, Glasgow. In 1972 the company was acquired by the Leeds-based Hunslet Group of companies and its name was changed in 1989 to Hunslet-Barclay Ltd.
As such, it operated six ex-British Rail Class 20 diesels to provide motive power for weed-killing trains used on the national rail network. The locomotive interests of Hunslet-Barclay were bought by LH Group, Staffordshire on 31 December 2003, with Hunslet-Barclay at Kilmarnock continuing in the business of design and refurbishment of multiple units, rolling stock and wheel-sets; some Barclay locomotives were supplied through Lennox Lange. After going into financial administration in 2007 the company was acquired by the locomotive builder Brush Traction of Loughborough through its parent, the FKI Group, it was renamed Brush-Barclay. On 28 February 2011, Wabtec announced; the Kilmarnock works became Wabtec Rail Scotland. The company was noted for constructing simple robust locomotives, chiefly for industrial use, many of its products survive in use on heritage railways, over 100 in Britain. A typical product would be an 0-4-0 with squared-off saddle tank. Barclay was the largest builder of fireless locomotives in Britain, building 114 of them between 1913 and 1961.
Few fireless locomotives are seen in action today. This is due to the low power of the locomotives, the long time needed to charge a locomotive from cold and the low steam pressures available for charging; the only exception was "Lord Ashfield" at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester that ran for a while in the 1990s sharing a steam supply with the stationary exhibits in their exhibition hall. The company built diesel shunting locomotives for British Rail. Classes included British Rail Class D2/5, British Rail Class 01 and British Rail Class 06. Over 80 Andrew Barclay locomotives were supplied to railways in Ireland, New Zealand and Sri Lanka. A large number of various ABS&Co locomotives have been preserved, proving popular on many Heritage Railways and Railway Centres, as listed below. No' 699 "Swanscombe" - Preserved and running at the Buckinghamshire Railway Centre, Quainton Road in Buckinghamshire No' 776 "Firefly" - Preserved and under restoration on the Northampton and Lamport Railway in Northampton.
No' 782 "Kinlet" - Preserved and on display at Blists Hill Victorian Town No' 807 "Bon Accord" - Preserved and undergoing overhaul on the Royal Deeside Railway in Scotland No' 880 Crane Tank "Glenfield No' 1" - Preserved and awaiting restoration at the Ribble Steam Railway in Lancashire No' 885 - Preserved and awaiting restoration at the Cambrian Heritage Railway in Oswestry, Shropshire No' 945 "Annie" - Preserved and under overhaul at the Whitwell & Reepham Railway in Norfolk No' 1015 "Horden" - Preserved and under restoration at Tanfield Railway in County Durham, North-East England No' 1047 "Storefield" - Preserved and running at the East Anglian Railway Museum in Essex No' 1142 NCB "No' 29" - Preserved and undergoing restoration by the Shed 47 railway restoration group in Scotland No' 1147 "John Howe" - Preserved and on Display on the Ribble Steam Railway in Lancashire No' 1116 Dalemellington "No' 16" - Preserved and on Display at the Scottish Industrial Railway Centre in Scotland No' 1175 NCB "No' 8 Dardanelles" - Preserved and on Display at Polkemmet Country Park in Scotland No' 1193 Lady Victoria Colliery "No' 6" - Preserved and awaiting restoration at the Tanfield Railway in County Durham, North-East England No' 1219
Llandovery railway station
Llandovery railway station serves the market town of Llandovery, Wales. The station is on the Heart of Wales Line 42 miles north east of Swansea and is located at Tywi Avenue, it was opened by the independent Vale of Towy Railway company in 1858 as the terminus of a branch from Llandeilo, although the VoTR was soon leased by the Llanelly Railway. The Llanelly company in turn soon became part of the GWR; the LNWR's Central Wales Extension Railway arrived from the north a decade to complete the through route between Craven Arms and Swansea, with the LNWR and GWR taking joint control of the Llandovery to Llandeilo section. The station sits at the bottom of an 8 1⁄2 miles descent from the line's southern summit at Sugar Loaf tunnel and until August 1964, a locomotive shed was in operation here to house the engines used for assisting northbound trains. All trains serving the station are operated by Transport for Wales, who manage it. There is a passing loop and level crossing at the station, but the signal box that operated them was closed in 1986.
The token instruments for the single line and crossing barriers are both operated by the train crew under the supervision of the signaller at Pantyffynnon. The loop had been temporarily decommissioned between 2008 & 2010, but is in use again after the automatic point machines were renewed in June 2010. Refurbished station buildings were opened by Prince Charles in June 2011, some 19 years after they were closed; the station is unstaffed and has no ticket machine, so all tickets need to be purchased prior to travel or on board the train. There are shelters, CIS screens and customer help points on each platform, whilst a local volunteer group runs a cafe and gallery in the main station building. Step-free access is provided to both platforms. There are four trains a day northbound to Shrewsbury from Monday to Saturday and five southbound to Swansea. Body, G. PSL Field Guides - Railways of the Western Region, Patrick Stephens Ltd, Wellingborough, ISBN 0-85059-546-0 Organ, John. Mitchell, Vic, ed. Craven Arms to Llandeilo.
West Sussex: Middleton Press. Figs. 100-110. ISBN 9781906008352. OCLC 648080889. Train times and station information for Llandovery railway station from National Rail
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
National Coal Board
The National Coal Board was the statutory corporation created to run the nationalised coal mining industry in the United Kingdom. Set up under the Coal Industry Nationalisation Act 1946, it took over the United Kingdom's collieries on "vesting day", 1 January 1947. In 1987, the NCB was renamed the British Coal Corporation, its assets were subsequently privatised. Collieries were taken under government control during the Second World Wars; the Sankey Commission in 1919 gave R. H. Tawney, Sidney Webb and Sir Leo Chiozza Money the opportunity to advocate nationalisation, but it was rejected. Coal reserves were nationalised during the war in 1942 and placed under the control of the Coal Commission, but the mining industry remained in private hands. At the time, many coal companies were small, although some consolidation had taken place in the years before the war; the NCB was one of a number of public corporations created by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government to manage nationalised industries.
The Coal Industry Nationalisation Act received the Royal Assent on 12 July 1946 and the NCB was formally constituted on 15 July, with Lord Hyndley as its chairman. On 1 January 1947 a notice posted at every colliery in the country read, "This colliery is now managed by the National Coal Board on behalf of the people". Open cast operations were taken over on 1 April 1952; the NCB acquired the property of about 800 companies. Compensation of £164,660,000 was paid to the owners for the collieries and £78,457,000 to former owners and for other assets such as 55 coke ovens, 85 brickworks and 20 smokeless fuel plants; the collieries it had acquired varied in size and output. Coal was mined from seams that varied from 20 to 200 inches thick and the average pit produced 245,000 tons annually. More than a third of collieries produced less than 100,000 tons and 50 collieries produced more than 700,000 tons; the coal board divided the country into divisions, corresponding to the major coalfields, each division was divided into areas with an output of 4 million tons.
The board took over power stations at some collieries and railway sidings. It managed more than 200,000 acres of farmland. At its inception the NCB employed nearly 800,000 workers, four percent of Britain's total workforce, its national headquarters were established in London. In 1947, about half the collieries were in need of immediate attention and a development programme was begun. Between 1947 and 1956, the NCB spent more than £550 million on major improvements and new sinkings, much of it to mechanise the coal getting process underground and by 1957 Britain's collieries were producing cheaper coal than anywhere in Europe; the Plan for Coal produced in 1950 aimed at increasing output from 184 million to 250 million tons by 1970. Competition from cheap oil imports arrived in the end of the 1950s, in 1957 the coal industry began to contract. Between 1958 and 1959, 85 collieries closed. In 1960, Alf Robens became the chairman of the NCB, he introduced a policy concentrating on the most productive pits.
During his ten-year tenure, productivity increased by 70%, but with far fewer pits and a much reduced workforce. In 1967, the NCB reorganised its structure into 17 new areas each employing about 20,000 men. In 1956, 700,000 men produced 207 million tons of coal; the 1974 Plan of Coal produced in the aftermath of the 1972 miners' strike envisaged that the coal industry would replace 40 million tons of obsolete capacity and ageing pits while maintaining its output. By 1983, the NCB would invest £3,000 million on developing new collieries. In 1984, it was alleged that the NCB had a list of collieries earmarked for closure and its chairman, Ian MacGregor indicated that the board was looking to reduce output by 4 million tons, a contributory factor in the 1984–85 miners' strike; the strike was one of the longest and most bitter in history and cost more than £7 billion of tax-payer's money. During the strike, the NCB lost markets and 23 collieries had closed before the end of 1985. On 5 March 1987, the Coal Industry Act 1987 received Royal Assent, signalling the end of the NCB and the formation of its successor, the British Coal Corporation.
The industry was run down further after the privatisation of the electricity suppliers in the end of the 1980s, an increase in imports of cheap foreign coal. Just 51 collieries remained in 1992. With the passing of the Coal Industry Act 1994, the industry wide administrative functions of British Coal were transferred to a new Coal Authority, its economic assets were privatised, the English mining operations were merged with RJB Mining to form UK Coal plc. By the time of privatisation, only 15 pits remained in production; the NCB operated extensive industrial railway systems at its collieries, employing steam traction until autumn 1982 when Bold Colliery ended regular use of steam locomotives. The NCB's research establishment at Stoke Orchard in Gloucestershire was founded in 1950 with Jacob Bronowski as Director of Research, it closed following privatisation of the coal mining industry. The Stoke Orchard library was safeguarded after closure and is now held by the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers.
NCB subsidiaries managed coal based chemical products and the production of helmets and other mining equipment. In the mid 1970s, the activities of Coal Products Division were transferred to two new companies. In 1952, the NCB established a film unit; the board was keen to
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were