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Ponte Vecchio

The Ponte Vecchio is a medieval stone closed-spandrel segmental arch bridge over the Arno River, in Florence, Italy. It is noted for the shops built along it. Butchers and farmers occupied the shops; the Ponte Vecchio's two neighboring bridges are the Ponte alle Grazie. The bridge spans the Arno at its narrowest point where it is believed that a bridge was first built in Roman times, when the via Cassia crossed the river at this point; the Roman piers were of the superstructure of wood. The bridge first appears in a document of 996 and was destroyed by a flood in 1117 and reconstructed in stone. In 1218 the Ponte alla Carraia, a wooden structure, was established nearby which led to it being referred to as "Ponte Nuovo" relative to the older structure, it was swept away again in 1333 except for two of its central piers, as noted by Giovanni Villani in his Nuova Cronica. It was rebuilt in 1345. Giorgio Vasari recorded the traditional view of his day that attributed its design to Taddeo Gaddi — besides Giotto one of the few artistic names of the trecento still recalled two hundred years later.

Modern historians present Neri di Fioravanti as a possible candidate as builder. Sheltered in a little loggia at the central opening of the bridge is a weathered dedication stone, which once read Nel trentatrè dopo il mille-trecento, il ponte cadde, per diluvio dell' acque: poi dieci anni, come al Comun piacque, rifatto fu con questo adornamento; the Torre dei Mannelli was built at the southeast corner of the bridge to defend it. The bridge consists of three segmental arches: the main arch has a span of 30 meters the two side arches each span 27 meters; the rise of the arches is between 3.5 and 4.4 meters, the span-to-rise ratio 5:1. The shallow segmental arches, which require fewer piers than the semicircular arch traditionally used by Romans, enabled ease of access and navigation for animal-drawn carts. Another notable design element is the large piazza at the center of the bridge that Leon Battista Alberti described as a prominent ornament in the city, it has always hosted shops and merchants who displayed their goods on tables before their premises, after authorization by the Bargello.

The back shops that may be seen from upriver, were added in the seventeenth century. During World War II, the Ponte Vecchio was not destroyed by the German army during their retreat at the advance of the British 8th Army on 4 August 1944, unlike all the other bridges in Florence; this was, according to many locals and tour guides, because of an express order by Hitler. Access to the Ponte Vecchio was, obstructed by the destruction of the buildings at both ends of the bridge, which have since been rebuilt using a combination of original and modern designs. In order to connect the Palazzo Vecchio with the Palazzo Pitti, in 1565 Cosimo I de' Medici had Giorgio Vasari build the Vasari Corridor above it. To enhance the prestige and clean up the bridge, in 1593 the Medici Grand Dukes prohibited butchers from operating and selling there in favor of gold and silver merchants. A decree was made in 1595 that excluded butchers from this bridge, in effect to this day; the association of butchers had monopolized the shops on the bridge since 1442.

A stone with an inscription from Dante records the spot at the entrance to the bridge where Buondelmonte de' Buondelmonti was murdered by the Amidei clan in 1215, which began the urban fighting of the Guelfs and Ghibellines. In 1900, to honor and mark the fourth century of the birth of the great Florentine sculptor and master goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini, the leading goldsmiths of the bridge commissioned the Florentine sculptor, Raffaello Romanelli, to create a bronze bust of Cellini to stand atop a fountain in the middle of the Eastern side of the bridge, where it stands to this day. Between 2005 and 2006, 5,500 padlocks, known as love locks, which were attached to the railings around the bust of Cellini, were removed by the city council. According to the council, the padlocks were aesthetically displeasing and damaged the bust and its railings. There is now a fine for attaching love locks to the bridge; the bridge was damaged in the 1966 flood of the Arno. The bridge is mentioned in the aria "O mio babbino caro" by Giacomo Puccini.

Wall mural in Grossi Florentino, executed by students of Napier Waller under supervision Vasari Corridor Krämerbrücke Pulteney Bridge Chiarugi, Foraboschi, Paolo'Maintenance of the Ponte Vecchio historical bridge in Florence', in Extending the Lifespan of Structures, Vol. 2 pp. 1479–1484 Dupré, Judith. Bridges: A History of the World's Most Spectacular Spans. ISBN 978-0-316-47380-4 Flanigan, Theresa, "The Ponte Vecchio and the Art of Urban Planning in Late Medieval Florence," Gesta 47: 1-15. Fletcher, Banister: A History of Architecture pp. 756–757 Graf, Bridges that Changed the World pp. 38–39 Independent study of Ponte Vecchio with Pictures Ponte Vecchio at Structurae Ponte Vecchio, Florence Ponte Vecchio Overview Virtual Tour of Ponte Vecchio

Pitch control

A variable speed pitch control is a control on an audio device such as a turntable, tape recorder, or CD player that allows the operator to deviate from a standard speed. The latter term "vari-speed" is more used for tape decks in the UK. Analog pitch controls vary the voltage being used by the playback device. A typical DJ deck allows the pitch to be increased or reduced by up to 8%, achieved by increasing or reducing the speed at which the platter rotates. Turntable or CD playing speed may be changed for beatmatching and other DJ techniques, while pitch shift using a pitch control has myriad uses in sound recording. Superscope, Inc. of Sun Valley added vari-speed as a feature of portable cassette decks in 1975. The C-104 and C-105 models incorporated this feature. Superscope trademarked the name Vari-Speed in 1974; the trademark category was Electrical & Scientific Products. The trademark goods and Services use was Magnetic tape reproducers; the trademark expired in 1995. For DJs to possibility to alter the pitch on their turntables or CD players is standard.

On the Technics_SL-1200 turntables there both has been the possibility of changing the pitch +/- 8% and models where you could change the pitch +/- 16%. This has become the standard amongst DJs and most software that emulates a DJ setup have their pitch control standard at +/- 8%. With the possibility to change it to +/- 16% and some other values. By changing the pitch the DJ can alter the BPM of a record within a certain range; this is a key component for beatmatching, because the DJ is trying to get both of his playing records at the same BPM which will make it possible to keep them in sync once the beats are matched. Audio time stretching and pitch scaling Beatmatching Pitch Control

1895 United States House of Representatives election in Utah

The United States House of Representatives election in Utah for the 54th Congress was held on November 5, 1895, in anticipation of statehood, achieved on January 4, 1896. Utah Territory had been represented by a delegate since 1851. Utah Territory was significantly larger than the current State, including most of Nevada, portions of Colorado and Wyoming, which borders it held when the first delegate was elected, was reduced in size in several stages; the territory had been colonized by Mormons who had sought to join the Union as the State of Deseret. Due in large part to controversies over the beliefs of the Mormon majority in regards to polygamy, the territory's admission as a State was delayed for a long time, by the time of its admission, it was one of only four remaining territories in the contiguous United States. United States House of Representatives elections, 1895

John Robert Hoffman

John Robert Hoffman, most known as John Hoffman, is an American actor, screenwriter and producer. He wrote and co-starred in the Disney Channel original film Northern Lights and has written many unproduced screenplays, including Queen Bess, Indianapolis, In Harm's Way and Queen of the Jews. Hoffman made his theatrical film debut with the MGM/Jim Henson Pictures comedy Good Boy!, which opened at #3 at the U. S. grossed $45.3 million worldwide on an $18 million budget. He was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award as part of the writing team for the 81st Academy Awards. Hoffman has contributed, as both a writer and producer, to the HBO series Looking and the Netflix series Grace and Frankie; as an actor, Hoffman is best recognized as the Mad Hatter in Disney's Adventures in Wonderland. John Robert Hoffman on IMDb John Robert Hoffman on Twitter

Visigothic Code

The Visigothic Code called Lex Visigothorum, is a set of laws first promulgated by king Chindasuinth of the Visigothic Kingdom in his second year of rule that survives only in fragments. In 654 his son, king Recceswinth, published the enlarged law code, the first law code that applied to the conquering Goths and the general population, of which the majority had Roman roots, had lived under Roman laws; the code abolished the old tradition of having different laws for Romans and Visigoths, under which all the subjects of the Visigothic kingdom would stop being romani and gothi instead becoming hispani. In this way, all subjects of the kingdom were gathered under the same jurisdiction, eliminating social and legal differences, allowing greater assimilation of the populations; as such, the Code marks the transition from the Roman law to Germanic law and is one of the best surviving examples of leges barbarorum. It combines elements of Catholic law and Germanic tribal customary law. During the first centuries of Visigothic rule, Romans were ruled by different laws.

The earliest known Visigothic laws are the Code of Euric, which were compiled by 480 A. D; the first written laws of the Visigothic kingdom were compiled during the rule of king Alaric II and were meant to regulate the lives of Romans, who made up the majority of the kingdom and were based on the existing Roman imperial laws and their interpretations. The Breviarium was promulgated during the meeting of Visigothic nobles in Toulouse on February 2, 506. During the reign of king Leovigild an attempt was made to unite the laws regulating the lives of Goths and Romans into a revised law code, Codex Revisus. In 589, at the Third Council of Toledo, the ruling Visigoths and Suebi, Arian Christians, accepted Roman Christianity. Now that the Roman population and the Goths shared the same faith King Reccared issued laws that applied to both populations; the code of 654 was enlarged by the novel legislation of Recceswinth and kings Wamba, Erwig and Wittiza. Recceswinth's code was edited by Braulio of Zaragoza, since Chindasuinth's original code had been hastily written and promulgated.

During the Twelfth Council of Toledo in 681, King Erwig asked that the law code be clarified and revised. Some new laws were added, out of; the laws were far-reaching and long in effect: in 10th-century Galicia, monastic charters make reference to the Code. The laws govern and sanction family life and by extension political life: marriage, the transmission of property to heirs, safeguarding the rights of widows and orphans. With the Visigoth's Law Codes, women could inherit land and title, were allowed to manage land independently from their husbands or male relations, dispose of their property in legal wills if they had no heirs, could represent themselves and bear witness in court by age 14 and arrange for their own marriages by age 20; the laws combined the Catholic Church's Canon law, as such have a theocratic tone. The code is known to have been preserved by the Moors, as Christians were permitted the use of their own laws, where they did not conflict with those of the conquerors, upon the regular payment of jizya tribute.

Thus it may be presumed that it was the recognized legal authority of Christian magistrates while the Iberian Peninsula remained under Muslim control. When Ferdinand III of Castile took Córdoba in the thirteenth century, he ordered that the code be adopted and observed by his subjects, had it translated, albeit inaccurately, into the Castilian language, as the Fuero Juzgo; the Catalan translation of this document, "Llibre Jutge", is among the oldest literary texts in that language. In 1910 an English translation of the code by Samuel Parsons Scott was published, but it received some severe criticism; the following is a list of the titles which form the Visigothic Code. Book I: Concerning Legal Agencies Title I: The Lawmaker Title II: The Law Book II: Concerning the Conduct of Causes Title I: Concerning Judges, Matters to be Decided in Court Title II: Concerning Causes Title III: Concerning Constituents and Commissions Title IV: Concerning Witnesses and Evidence Title V: Concerning Valid and Invalid Documents and How Wills Should be Drawn Up Book III: Concerning Marriage Title I: Concerning Nuptial Contracts Title II: Concerning Unlawful Marriages Title III: Concerning the Rape of Virgins, or Widows Title IV: Concerning Adultery Title V: Concerning Incest and Pederasty Title VI: Concerning Divorce, the Separation of Persons who have been Betrothed Book IV: Concerning Natural Lineage Title I: Concerning the Degrees of Relationship Title II: Concerning the Laws of Inheritance Title III: Concerning Wards and Their Guardians Title IV: Concerning Foundlings Title V: Concerning Such Property as is Vested by the Laws of Nature Book V: Concerning Business Transactions Title I: Ecclesiastical Affairs Title II: Concerning Donations in General Title III: Concerning the Gifts of Patrons Title IV: Concerning Exchanges and Sales Title V: Concerning Property Committed to the Charge of, or Loaned to, Another Title VI: Concerning Pledges and Debts Title VII: Concerning the Liberation of Slaves, Freedmen Book VI: Concerning Crimes and Tortures Title I: Concerning the Accusers of Criminals Title II: Concerning Malefactors and their Advisors, Poisoners Title III: Concerning Abortion Title IV: Concerning Injuries and Mutilati

Presidente Transportes AĆ©reos

Presidente Transportes Aéreos was a Brazilian airline founded in 1996. In 2001 it ceased operations. Presidente Transportes Aéreos was founded as a general aviation company in 1987. In 1996 it was authorized to become a regional scheduled carrier, with services operated from Presidente Prudente. In 1998 the company reduced operations and in May 1999 it was grounded. In 2000 the owner of the aircraft re-possessed the aircraft for lack of payment; as a last attempt for survival its operational base was transferred to Cuiabá but in 2001 Presidente ceased operations. Presidente served the following cities: AripuanãAripuanã Airport Assis – Marcelo Pires Halzhausen Airport BrasíliaPres. Juscelino Kubitschek International Airport Campo GrandeCampo Grande International Airport CascavelAdalberto Mendes da Silva Airport Cuiabá – Marechal Rondon International Airport Curitiba Foz do IguaçuCataratas International Airport GoiâniaSanta Genoveva Airport Ituiutaba JuruenaJuruena Airport Nova Andradina Ourinhos – Jornalista Benedito Pimentel Airport Presidente Prudente – Presidente Prudente Airport RondonópolisMaestro Marinho Franco Airport São José do Rio PretoProf. Eribelto Manoel Reino Airport São Paulo – Congonhas Airport Sinop – Sinop Airport Presidente Photo Archive at airliners.net