Kingdom of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led a constitutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.
So in 1915, Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers, as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality. Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from 1925 to 1929"; the third phase, with less activism, was 1929 to 1934.
The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation. The war itself was the fifth phase with its disasters and defeats, while the rump Salò Government under German control was the final stage. Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, the Fascist Party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down; the new government signed an armistice on September 1943. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists; as conseguence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.
Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the constitutional referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870; the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which were annexed in 1919 and remain Italian territories today. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy – if the state joined the Allies in World War I – several territories including former Austrian Littoral, western parts of former Duchy of Carniola, Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of 1915. After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles, Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.
During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in 1940, territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1941 and Monaco in 1942. After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, Tunisia, Kosovo, Montenegro and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin; the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government of his ow
Kingdom of the Lombards
The Kingdom of the Lombards known as the Lombard Kingdom. The king was traditionally elected by the highest-ranking aristocrats, the dukes, as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed; the kingdom was subdivided into a varying number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes, which were in turn subdivided into gastaldates at the municipal level. The capital of the kingdom and the center of its political life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy; the Lombard invasion of Italy was opposed by the Byzantine Empire, which retained control of much of the peninsula until the mid-8th century. For most of the kingdom's history, the Byzantine-ruled Exarchate of Ravenna and Duchy of Rome separated the northern Lombard duchies, collectively known as Langobardia Maior, from the two large southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, which constituted Langobardia Minor; because of this division, the southern duchies were more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies.
Over time, the Lombards adopted Roman titles and traditions. By the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the late 8th century, the Lombardic language and hairstyles had all disappeared; the Lombards were Arian Christians or pagans, which put them at odds with the Roman population as well as the Byzantine Empire and the Pope. However, by the end of the 7th century, their conversion to Catholicism was all but complete, their conflict with the Pope continued and was responsible for their gradual loss of power to the Franks, who conquered the kingdom in 774. Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, adopted the title "King of the Lombards", although he never managed to gain control of Benevento, the southernmost Lombard duchy; the Kingdom of the Lombards at the time of its demise was the last minor Germanic kingdom in Europe, aside from the Frankish Empire. Any genetic legacy of the Lombards was diluted into the Italian population owing to their small number and their geographic dispersal in order to rule and administer their kingdom.
Some regions were never under Lombard domination, including Sardinia, Calabria, southern Apulia and the Latium. In all these regions the Byzantines brought more Greco-Anatolian lineages, which were the dominant lineages from the Magna Graecia period. A reduced Regnum Italiae, a heritage of the Lombards, continued to exist for centuries as one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire corresponding to the territory of the former Langobardia Maior; the so-called Iron Crown of Lombardy, one of the oldest surviving royal insignias of Christendom, may have originated in Lombard Italy as early as the 7th century and continued to be used to crown Kings of Italy until Napoleon Bonaparte in the early 19th century. The earliest Lombard law code, the Edictum Rothari, may allude to the use of seal rings, but it is not until the reign of Ratchis that they became an integral part of royal administration, when the king required their use on passports; the only evidence for their use at the ducal level comes from the Duchy of Benevento, where two private charters contain requests for the duke to confirm them with his seal.
The existence of seal rings "testifies to the tenacity of Roman traditions of government". In the 6th century Byzantine Emperor Justinian attempted to reassert imperial authority in the territories of the Western Roman Empire. In the resulting Gothic War waged against the Ostrogothic Kingdom, Byzantine hopes of an early and easy triumph evolved into a long war of attrition that resulted in mass dislocation of population and destruction of property. Problems were further exacerbated by a devastating plague pandemic. Although the Byzantine Empire prevailed, the triumph proved to be a pyrrhic victory, as all these factors caused the population of the Italian Peninsula to crash, leaving the conquered territories underpopulated and impoverished. Although an invasion attempt by the Franks allies of the Ostrogoths, late in the war was repelled, a large migration by the Lombards, a Germanic people, allied with the Byzantine Empire, ensued. In the spring of 568 the Lombards, led by King Alboin, moved from Pannonia and overwhelmed the small Byzantine army left by Narses to guard Italy.
The Lombard arrival broke the political unity of the Italian Peninsula for the first time since the Roman conquest. The peninsula was now torn between territories ruled by the Lombards and the Byzantines, with boundaries that changed over time; the newly arrived Lombards were divided into two main areas in Italy: the Langobardia Maior, which comprised northern Italy gravitating around the capital of the Lombard kingdom, Ticinum. The territories which remained under Byzantine control were called "Romania" in northeastern Italy and had its stronghold in the Exarchate of Ravenna. Arriving in Italy, King Alboin gave control of the Eastern Alps to one of his most trusted lieutenants, who became the first Duke of Friuli in 568; the duchy, established in the Roman town of Forum Iulii fought with the Slavic population across the Gorizia border. Justified by its exceptional military needs, the Duchy of Friuli thus had greater autonomy compared to
Patria del Friuli
The Patria del Friuli was the territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1420, the Republic of Venice acquired it, but it continued to be ruled for some time under its own laws and customs; the former Duchy of Friuli in the Italian Kingdom of the Lombards had been conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and incorporated as a march of the Carolingian Empire. When in 952 King Otto I of Germany invaded Italy, he added the Friulian territory to the March of Verona, ruled by the Dukes of Bavaria, from 976 by the Dukes of Carinthia. During the Investiture Controversy of 1077, King Henry IV of Germany deposed the Veronese margrave Duke Berthold II of Carinthia, as he had sided with antiking Rudolf of Rheinfelden. On 3 April 1077 at Pavia Henry, on his way back from the Walk to Canossa, vested Patriarch Sieghard of Beilstein with immediate comital rights in the Friulian lands of Verona, raising him to the status of a Prince-Bishop.
The remaining margraviate passed with the Carinthian duchy to Henry's liensman Liutold of Eppenstein. Sieghard in turn safely conducted the king across the Alps. Back in Germany, King Henry in addition nominally assigned the suzerainty over the marches of Carniola and Istria to the patriarchs as ecclesiastical Princes of the Holy Roman Empire; the act, traditionally regarded as the birth of the ecclesiastical state of Aquileia, led to a long-running conflict with the rivaling margraves from the Carinthian House of Sponheim and the Andechs dukes of Merania. The Patriarchate subsequently extended its political control in the area: regions under Aquileian control in the following centuries included the Friulian lands up to Cadore, the city of Trieste and the central parts of the Istrian peninsula. At its maximum height, the Patriarchate of Aquileia was one of the largest states in Italy. Noblemen from the Patriarchate were participants in the Crusades. In 1186 Patriarch Gottfried crowned Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI, as King of Italy: in retaliation, Pope Urban III deposed him.
From 1127 the vogts at Gorizia from the Meinhardiner dynasty emerged from Aquileia, calling themselves Counts of Görz. Their autonomy was strengthened, when they inherited the Imperial County of Tyrol in 1253 and were elevated to Princes of the Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Charles IV in 1365. In the early 13th century under Volchero and Bertrand, the Patriarchate had a flourishing economy and cultural life, supported by a good road network. Damaged by earthquakes and other calamities, reduced to a few hundred inhabitants, Aquileia was nearly abandoned in the 14th century; the capital of the state was moved first to Cividale and from 1238, to Udine in central Friuli, a favourite residence of the patriarch since the 13th century and soon became a large city. The patriarchs had regained the rule of the Istrian march from the Dukes of Merania in 1209. However, they had to cope with the rising naval power of the Republic of Venice, which in the late 13th century had occupied the western Istrian coast from Capodistra down to Rovinj.
In 1291 a peace was made in Treviso, whereupon the western coast of the peninsula fell to Venice. In the late century the patriarchate had to face the increasing rivalry with Venice, as well as the inner strifes between its vassals, became entangled in the endless wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines. In 1331 Venice incorporated Pola in the south. A certain recovery occurred during the rule of Bertrand, a successful administrator and military leader, he was killed in 1350 at the age of ninety. The Counts of Görz had retained some interior Istrian lands around Pazin, which they bequeathed to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1374. In view of the Venetian threat, the city of Trieste submitted to the Habsburgs in 1382. Since the transfer of the patriarchal residence to Udine, the Venetians had never lived in peace with the Patriarchate, of whose Imperial favour and tendencies they were jealous. From about 1400, Venice under the Doge Michele Steno and his successor Tommaso Mocenigo began to enlarge its dogado by occupying the Aquileia hinterlands.
At the same time, the Patriarchate suffered internal conflict between the citizens of Cividale and Udine. In 1411 this turned into a war, to mark the end of the Patriarchate, Cividale having received support from most of the Friulian communes, the Carraresi of Padua, King Sigismund of Germany King of Hungary, while Udine was backed by the Venetians. In the December of that year an Imperial army captured Udine and, in the following January, Louis of Teck was implemented as patriarch in the city's cathedral. On July 23, 1419 the Venetians conquered prepared to do the same with Udine; the city fell on June 1420 after a long siege. Soon afterwards Gemona, San Daniele and Tolmezzo followed; the temporal authority of the patriarch was lost on 7 July 1420 when its territories were secularised by Venice. Doge Francesco Foscari in 1433 signed an agreement with Emperor Sigismund, whereby the Empire ceded the Domini di Terraferma, stretching from the Adriatic Sea to the Alps, to the Republic officially as an Imperial fief.
The territory around Gorizia and Aquileia proper was retained by the Counts of Görz. The former Görz territories were incorporated into the Inner Austrian possessions of the Habsburgs. In 1445, after Patriarch Ludovico Trevisan at the Council of Florence had acquiesced in the loss of his ancient temporal estate in return for an annual salary of 5,000 duc
History of Bavaria
The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and its formation as a stem duchy in the 6th century through its inclusion in the Holy Roman Empire to its status as an independent kingdom and as a large Bundesland of the Federal Republic of Germany. Settled by Celtic peoples such as the Boii, by the 1st century BC it was conquered and incorporated into the Roman Empire as the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. There have been numerous palaeolithic discoveries in Bavaria; the earliest known inhabitants that are mentioned in written sources were the Celts, participating in the widespread La Tène culture, whom the Romans subdued just before the commencement of the Christian era, founding colonies among them and including their land in the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Roman centre of administration for this area was Castra Regina. During the 5th century, the Romans in Noricum and Raetia, south of the Danube, came under increasing pressure from people north of the Danube; this area had become inhabited by Suebian groups from further north and was considered by Romans to be part of Germania.
The etymological origins of the name "Bavarian" are from the north of the Danube, outside the empire, coming from the Celtic Boii, who lived there earlier. Their name was used to refer to part of this region in the time of Maroboduus who formed the Germanic Marcomannic kingdom with its capital in this forested area. Boi became Bai according to typical Germanic linguistic changes happening at that time and a Germanic word similar to English "home" or modern German "Heim" was added. Strabo therefore reports Boihaemum. Tacitus reports that Boihaemi is the name given to the area where the Boii had lived; these forms lead to modern Bohemia which lies to the east of modern Bavaria and to the north of the Danube, in the modern Czech Republic. At some stage the ending "varii" was used in order to give a new name to specific people living in this geographical area who were living on both sides of the Danube. Claudius Ptolemy named both the "Baenochaemae", living on the Upper Elbe river and a "large people" known as the "'Baimoi", living near the Danube.
In surviving records, the Bavarian name was first mentioned by the Franks in a list of peoples, prepared in c. 520 AD. The first document that describes their location is the History of the Goths by the historian Jordanes dating from 551 AD. A remark by Venantius Fortunatus follows in his description of his travels from Ravenna to Tours, in which he had crossed the lands of the Bavarians, referring to the dangers of travel in the region:'If the road is clear and if the Bavarian does not stop you travel across the Alps.' Archaeological evidence dating from the 5th and 6th centuries points to social and cultural influences from several regions and peoples, such as Alamanni, Thuringians, Bohemian Slavs and the local Romanised population. Recent research by Wolfram and Pohl has moved away from searching for specific geographical origins of the Bavarians, it is now thought that the tribal ethnicity was established by the process of ethnogenesis, whereby an ethnic identity is formed because political and social pressures make a coherent identity necessary.
The Bavarians soon came under the dominion of the Franks without a serious struggle. The Franks regarded this border area as a buffer zone against peoples to the east, such as the Avars and the Slavs, as a source of manpower for the army. Sometime around 550 AD they put it under the administration of a duke - Frankish or chosen from amongst the local leading families -, supposed to act as a regional governor for the Frankish king; the first duke known was Garibald a member of the powerful Agilolfing family. This was the beginning of a series of Agilolfing dukes, to last until 788 AD. For a century and a half, a succession of dukes resisted the inroads of the Slavs on their eastern frontier and by the time of Duke Theodo I, who died in 717, had achieved complete independence from the feeble Frankish kings; when Charles Martel became the virtual ruler of the Frankish realm he brought the Bavarians into strict dependence and deposed two dukes successively for contumacy. His son and successor Pepin the Short maintained Frankish authority.
Several marriages took place between the family to which he belonged and the Agilolfings, who were united in a similar manner with the kings of the Lombards. The ease with which the Franks suppressed various risings gives colour to the supposition that family quarrels rather than the revolt of an oppressed people motivated the rebellions. Bavarian law was committed to writing between the years 739 AD and 748 AD. Supplementary clauses, added afterwards, bear evidence of Frankish influence. Thus, while the duchy belongs to the Agilolfing family, the duke must be chosen by the people and his election confirmed by the Frankish king, to whom he owes fealty; the duke has a fivefold weregild, summons the nobles and clergy for purposes of deliberation, calls out the host, administers justice and regulates finance. Five noble families exist representing former divisions of the people. Subordinate to the nobles we find the freeborn and the freedmen; the law divided the country into gaits or counties, under their counts, assisted by judges responsible for declaring the law.
Christianity had lingered in Bavaria from Roman times, but a new era set in when Bishop Rupert of Worms, came to the county at the invitation of Duke Theodo
Moggio Udinese is a comune in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. It is situated in the Friuli region, in the valley of the Fella River, a right tributary of the Tagliamento. Moggio is located about 40 kilometres north of Udine. In the north, the mountains of the Carnic Alps stretch up to the border with Austria; as of 31 December 2004, the municipality had a population of 1,991 and an area of 143.5 square kilometres. It can be reached via the Autostrada A23. Moggio Udinese borders the following municipalities: Amaro, Arta Terme, Dogna, Hermagor-Pressegger See, Pontebba, Tolmezzo, Venzone; the area had been settled in Roman times, when a castrum or at least a watchtower was erected to control the traffic on the road from Italy to the province of Noricum in the north. According to legend, one Carinthian noble Cacellino, a member of the Aribonids dynasty, about 1084/85 ceded his Friulian estates around Moggio to his brother-in-law Patriarch Frederick of Aquileia. Though the deed of donation has been identified as a fake, it is documented that in 1119 Frederick's successor Ulrich of Eppenstein established a Benedictine monastery at the site, dedicated to Saint Gall.
By an 1185 bull of Pope Lucius III, the abbey was directly subordinate to the Holy See. With the Patriarchate of Aquileia, the monastic community decayed in the 15th century; when most of Friuli was conquered by the Republic of Venice in 1420, the monks had to accept Venetian overlordship with their domains incorporated into the Domini di Terraferma. The monastery was dissolved in 1773, a few years the Moggio area fell to the Habsburg Monarchy according to the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio and became part of the Austrian Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia by resolution of the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Upon the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866, it fell to the newly established Kingdom of Italy. Moggio Udinese is twinned with: Moggio, Italy
Malborghetto Valbruna is a comune in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Malborghetto-Valbruna is located about 100 kilometres northwest of Trieste and about 50 kilometres northeast of the regional capital Udine, on the border with Austria, it is one of the three municipalities in the Canal Valley of the Fella River, between Tarvisio in the east and Pontebba in the west. In the north, the crest of the Carnic Alps forms the border with the Austrian state of Carinthia and the municipalities of Hermagor-Pressegger See, Sankt Stefan im Gailtal, Feistritz an der Gail, Hohenthurn. In the south, the Jôf di Montasio massif of the Julian Alps separates it from the Italian municipalities of Chiusaforte and Dogna. Beside the villages of Malborghetto and Valbruna, the municipal area includes the frazioni of Bagni di Lusnizza, Santa Caterina, Ugovizza as well as the localitiy of Cucco. Ugovizza-Valbruna station is a stop on the Pontebbana railway line from Udine to Tarvisio, rebuilt until 2000.
Valbruna has access to the A23 Alpe-Adria Autostrada, running from the Austrian border and the A2 Süd Autobahn to Udine as part of the European route E55. For centuries, German-, Romance- as well as Slavic- -speaking people settled in the Canal Valley, which from 1077 was ruled by the Carinthian duke Liutold of Eppenstein, while King Henry IV of Germany ceded the adjacent territory of the Imperial March of Verona in the south to the Patriarchate of Aquileia. While the Aquileia territory was conquered by Venice and incorporated into the Domini di Terraferma by 1433, the settlement named Buonborgeth was part of the Carinthian possession held by the Prince-Bishops of Bamberg; the village, economical relevant for its iron ore and silver deposits at Valbruna as well as for its forestry, received its current name male due to the constant border quarrels with the Serenissima. The Austrian Habsburgs, Carinthian dukes since 1335, had a border fortress built at Malborgeth, occupied by Venice in 1616, by French Revolutionary troops led by General André Masséna during the War of the First Coalition in 1797, again by French Imperial forces under Napoleon's stepson Eugène de Beauharnais in 1805.
Again attacked by Beauharnais' troops during the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809, it was defended by an Austrian contingent under the command of Captain Friedrich Hensel from 14 to 17 May. They succumbed to the French, but prevented their arrival at the Battle of Aspern-Essling on 21 May, where Austrian Archduke Charles was able to repel Napoleon's forces; the Malborgeth fortress was named Fort Hensel in the honour of the captain, who like most of his men was killed in battle. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Canal Valley was adjudicated to the Kingdom of Italy according to the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the 1915 London Pact. In the course of the 1939 South Tyrol Option Agreement between Italy and Nazi Germany, most of the German-speaking population was resettled to Carinthia; as of 31 December 2004, Malborghetto-Valbruna had a population of 1,025 and an area of 120.5 km². According to the 1971 census, 46,2% of the population are Slovenes
Duchy of Carinthia
The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, was the first newly created Imperial State after the original German stem duchies. Carinthia remained a State of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, though from 1335 it was ruled within the Austrian dominions of the Habsburg dynasty. A constituent part of the Habsburg Monarchy and of the Austrian Empire, it remained a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary until 1918. By the Carinthian Plebiscite in October 1920, the main area of the duchy formed the Austrian state of Carinthia. In the seventh century the area was part of the Slavic principality of Carantania, which fell under the suzerainty of Duke Odilo of Bavaria in about 743; the Bavarian stem duchy was incorporated into the Carolingian Empire when Charlemagne deposed Odilo's son Duke Tassilo III in 788. In the 843 partition by the Treaty of Verdun, Carinthia became part of East Francia under King Louis the German.
From 889 to 976 it was the Carinthian March of the renewed Bavarian duchy, though in 927 the local Count Berthold of the Luitpolding dynasty was vested with ducal rights by the German king Henry the Fowler. After Berthold became Duke of Bavaria in 938, both territories were ruled by him. Upon his death in 948 the Luitpoldings, though heirs of the royal Ottonian dynasty, were not able to retain their possessions, as King Otto I bought the loyalty of his younger brother Henry I with the Bavarian lands. Duke Henry's son Henry II "the Quarreller" from 974 onwards, revolted against his cousin Emperor Otto II, whereupon he was deposed as Duke of Bavaria in favour of Otto's nephew Duke Otto I of Swabia. At the same time Emperor Otto II created a sixth duchy in addition to the original stem duchies, the new Duchy of Carinthia, he reverted the possession of the territories to the Luitpoldings, when he split Carinthia from the Bavarian lands and installed the former Duke Berthold's son Henry the Younger as duke in 976.
Over the centuries, the name'Carinthia' replaced former'Carantania'. The realm of the Carinthian dukes comprised a vast territory including the marches of Styria and Istria, they ruled over the Italian March of Verona in the south. Henry the Younger was the first and the last Luitpolding duke. Though Henry once again managed to regain the ducal title in 985, Carinthia upon his death in 989 fell back to the Imperial Ottonian dynasty in Bavaria. Carinthia however remained a separate entity, in 1012 Count Adalbero I of Eppenstein, Margrave of Styria since about 1000, was vested with the duchy by the last Ottonian emperor Henry II, while the Istrian march was separated and given to Count Poppo of Weimar. Adalbero was removed from office in 1035 after he had fallen out of favour with the Salian Emperor Conrad II. In 1039 Carinthia was inherited by Emperor Henry III himself, who split off the Carniolan march the following year and granted it to Margrave Poppo of Istria. In 1077, the duchy was given to Luitpold, again a member of the Eppensteiner family, however, became extinct with the death of Luitpold's younger brother Henry III of Carinthia in 1122.
Upon his death the duchy was further reduced in area: a large part of the Eppenstein lands in what is today Upper Styria passed to Margrave Ottokar II of Styria. The remainder of Carinthia passed from Duke Henry III to his godchild Henry from the House of Sponheim, who ruled as Henry IV, from 1122 to his early death the following year; the most outstanding of the Spanheim dukes was Bernhard, the first Carinthian duke, described and honoured in documents as "prince of the land". The last Spanheim duke was Ulrich III. In spite of being supported by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany, who defeated Ottokar II at the Battle on the Marchfeld in 1278, Philip never gained actual power; the duchy was seized by Rudolph and Philip died a year in 1279. Rudolf, after being elected King of the Romans and defeating King Ottokar II, at first gave Carinthia to Count Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol. In 1335, after the death of Henry, the last male of this line, Emperor Louis the Bavarian gave Carinthia and the southern part of the Tyrol as an imperial fief to the Habsburg family on 2 May in Linz.
The Habsburgs would continue to rule Carinthia until 1918. As with the other component parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, Carinthia remained a semi-autonomous state with its own constitutional structure for a long time; the Habsburgs divided up their territories within the family twice, according to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg and again in 1564. Each time, the Duchy of Carinthia became part of Inner Austria and was ruled jointly with the adjacent duchies of Styria and Carniola. Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her son Joseph II attempted to create a more unitary Habsburg state, in 1804 Carinthia was integrated into the newly established Austrian Empire under Francis II/I. According to the 1809 Treaty of Schönbrunn, the Upper Carinthian territories around Villach formed part of the short-lived Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces. In 1867, the duchy became a crown land of the western part of Austria-Hungary. Over the centuries, the German language, which carried more prest