Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
Péter Erdő is a Hungarian Cardinal of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. Erdő serves as the Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest, thus Primate of Hungary, he is the Cardinal-priest assigned to the Basilica of Santa Balbina, the President of the Council of the Bishops' Conferences of Europe, is presently the Relator General for the Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops in Rome. Erdő is reputed as having a prominent Marian devotion to Our Lady of Consolation, he is fluent in Italian, French and Latin. Erdő was born in Budapest, 25 June 1952, the first of the six children of Sándor and Mária Erdő, he studied at the seminaries of Esztergom and Budapest, the Pontifical Lateran University in Rome. On 18 June 1975, Erdő was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop László Lékai, was incardinated in the Archdiocese of Esztergom, he worked as vicar in Dorog, continued his studies in Rome from 1977 to 1980. For the next eight years, he taught as a professor of theology and canon law at the Seminary of Esztergom, held guest lectures at several foreign universities.
Erdő served in the Hungarian Episcopal Conference as Secretary of the Commission of Canon Law in 1986, as its president in 1999. In 1988 he began teaching theology at the Pázmány Péter Catholic University, serving as rector from 1998 to 2003. From 2005 he is the Great Chancellor of the university. On 5 November 1999, he was appointed an auxiliary bishop of Székesfehérvár and titular bishop of Puppi, he received his episcopal consecration on 6 January 2000, from Pope John Paul II himself, with Archbishops Giovanni Battista Re and Marcello Zago, OMI, acting as co-consecrators. Erdő was named Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest on 7 December 2002, as such, he received the title of Primate of Hungary. Cardinal Erdő became a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 2007 and a full member in 2013. In 2011 he was appointed as "doctor honoris causa" by the University of Navarra, he was created Cardinal-Priest of Santa Balbina by John Paul II in the consistory of 21 October 2003. He was the youngest cardinal member of the Sacred College until the appointment of Reinhard Marx in 2010.
Erdő was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2013 papal conclave that selected Pope Francis, can continue to exercise his right to vote in any future conclave until his 80th birthday on 25 June 2032. The Cardinal was elected President of the Hungarian Episcopal Conference in September 2005 for a five-year term, President of the Council of Episcopal Conferences of Europe in October 2006 for the same period of time. On 17 January 2009 he was appointed a member of the Pontifical Council for Culture by Pope Benedict, on 29 January 2011 of the Secretariat of State. Cardinal Erdő sponsored the Thirteenth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law, in Esztergom, 3–9 August 2008. On 19 October 2011, the apostolic nunciature in Peru announced that he was going to be apostolic visitor to intervene in the dispute between the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru and the Archdiocese of Lima; this was a controversial choice since the Archbishop of Lima Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne is a member of the same Opus Dei personal prelature that, through the Opus Dei's University of Navarra, granted Cardinal Erdő a doctor honoris causa degree in that same year.
On Tuesday, 18 September 2012, Cardinal Erdő was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI to be one of the Synod Fathers for the upcoming October 2012 Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the New Evangelization. Erdő had been mentioned as a possible candidate to be elected the next pope during the Papal conclave 2013. On Monday 14 October 2013 the Cardinal was named by Pope Francis to serve as the Relator General of the Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, which took place from 5 to 19 October 2014; the chosen theme is "The challenges of the family in the context of evangelization". He resumed his appointment as Relator General when the Synod reconvened in October 2015. In the 2015 book The Rigging Of A Synod?, Vatican correspondent Edward Pentin claimed that Cardinal Lorenzo Baldisseri had pressured Erdő to soften the wording of his 2014 address to the Synod. In 2015, Erdő's second address to the synod was described by journalists, such as Damian Thompson of The Spectator and John L. Allen, Jr. of the Boston Globe, as more theologically conservative in its tone.
Cardinal Erdő requested that the Hungarian Chief Prosecutor's Office morally and politically rehabilitate Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty, his predecessor who fought Hungary's communist regime and was arrested by the country's Stalinist dictatorship, after which he sought refuge in the American embassy in Budapest. The Chief Prosecutor's Office rehabilitated Mindszenty in 2012 thanks to Erdő's intervention. In 2006, he sent a letter of gratitude to president George W. Bush on the 50th anniversary of Cardinal Mindszenty's forced arrest because of the political support that Americans had granted to Mindszenty at the time. During a Vatican press conference in October 2014, Cardinal Erdő expressed opposition to the idea of allowing divorced and remarried Catholics to receive Holy Communion. Erdő, the Relator General at the Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops told journalists at a press conference in Rome that the Catholic Church will not change its policy on the matter after the synod.
Cardinal Erdő has written about the special socio-economic conditions of the Romani people and has wondered on the correct way to evangelize them. Cardinal Erdő has focused on Hungary's need to restore its
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lima
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lima is part of the Roman Catholic Church in Peru which enjoys full communion with the Holy See. The Archdiocese was founded as the Diocese of Lima on 14 May 1541; the diocese was raised to the level of a metropolitan archdiocese by Pope Paul III on 12 February 1546. One of its archbishops was the saint Torribio Mogrovejo; the suffragan dioceses are: Callao, Chosica, Huacho and Lurin. Since 1999 the Archbishop of Lima is Cardinal Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne; the Archbishop's Palace of Lima is the headquarters of the archdiocese. Erected: May 14, 1541 Jerónimo de Loayza, O. P. Elevated: February 12, 1546 Diego Gómez de Lamadrid, O. SS. T. Appointed, Archbishop of Badajoz St. Toribio Alfonso de Mogrovejo Died Bartolomé Lobo Guerrero Died Gonzalo del Campo Died Hernando de Arias y Ugarte Died Pedro de Villagómez Vivanco Died Juan de Almoguera, O. SS. T. Died Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros Died Antonio de Zuloaga Died Diego Morcillo Rubio de Suñón de Robledo, O. SS. T. Died Juan Francisco Antonio de Escandón, C.
R. Died José Antonio Gutiérrez y Ceballos Died Agustín Rodríguez Delgado Died Pedro Antonio de Barroeta Angel Appointed, Archbishop of Granada Diego del Corro Died Diego Antonio de Parada Died Juan Domingo González de la Reguera Died Bartolomé María de las Heras Navarro Died Jorge Benavente Macoaga Died Francisco de Sales Arrieta Ortiz Died Francisco Javier Luna-Pizarro y Pacheco de Chávez Died José Manuel Pasquel Losada Died José Sebastian Goyeneche y Barreda Died Manuel Teodoro del Valle Seoane Resigned Francisco de Asis Orueta y Castrillón Died Manuel Antonio Bandini Mazuelos Died Manuel Tovar y Chamorro Died Pedro Manuel García Naranjó Died Emilio Juan Francisco Lissón y Chávez, C. M. Resigned Pedro Pascuál Francesco Farfán de los Godos Died Cardinal Juan Guevara Died Cardinal Juan Landázuri Ricketts, O. F. M. Retired Cardinal Augusto Vargas Alzamora, S. J. Retired Cardinal Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne Retired Carlos Castillo Mattasoglio Francisco Cisneros y Mendoza
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, was head of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death. Before his election to the papacy, he served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany, Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany. While the Vatican was neutral during World War II, Pius XII maintained links to the German Resistance, used diplomacy to aid the victims of the war and lobby for peace, spoke out against race-based murders and other atrocities; the Reichskonkordat and his leadership of the Catholic Church during the war remain the subject of controversy—including allegations of public silence and inaction about the fate of the Jews. After the war, he advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies towards former Axis and Axis-satellite nations, he was a staunch opponent of Communism and of the Italian Communist Party.
During his papacy, the Church issued the Decree against Communism, declaring that Catholics who profess Communist doctrine are to be excommunicated as apostates from the Christian faith. In turn, the Church experienced severe persecution and mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the Eastern Bloc, he explicitly invoked ex cathedra papal infallibility with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in his Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus. His magisterium includes 1,000 addresses and radio broadcasts, his forty-one encyclicals include the Church as the Body of Christ. He eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals in 1946. After his 1958 death, he was succeeded by Pope John XXIII. In the process toward sainthood, his cause for canonization was opened on 18 November 1965 by Pope Paul VI during the final session of the Second Vatican Council, he was made a Servant of God by Pope John Paul II in 1990 and Pope Benedict XVI declared Pius XII Venerable on 19 December 2009. Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli was born on 2 March 1876 in Rome into a family of intense Catholic piety with a history of ties to the papacy.
His parents were Virginia Pacelli. His grandfather, Marcantonio Pacelli, had been Under-Secretary in the Papal Ministry of Finances and Secretary of the Interior under Pope Pius IX from 1851 to 1870 and helped found the Vatican's newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano in 1861, his cousin, Ernesto Pacelli, was a key financial advisor to Pope Leo XIII. Together with his brother Francesco and his two sisters and Elisabetta, he grew up in the Parione district in the centre of Rome. Soon after the family had moved to Via Vetrina in 1880 he began school at the convent of the French Sisters of Divine Providence in the Piazza Fiammetta; the family worshipped at Chiesa Nuova. Eugenio and the other children made their First Communion at this church and Eugenio served there as an altar boy from 1886. In 1886 too he was sent to the private school of Professor Giuseppe Marchi, close to the Piazza Venezia. In 1891 Pacelli's father sent Eugenio to the Liceo Ennio Quirino Visconti Institute, a state school situated in what had been the Collegio Romano, the premier Jesuit university in Rome.
In 1894, aged 18, Pacelli began his theology studies at Rome's oldest seminary, the Almo Collegio Capranica, in November of the same year, registered to take a philosophy course at the Jesuit Pontifical Gregorian University and theology at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, he was enrolled at the State University, La Sapienza where he studied modern languages and history. At the end of the first academic year however, in the summer of 1895, he dropped out of both the Capranica and the Gregorian University. According to his sister Elisabetta, the food at the Capranica was to blame. Having received a special dispensation he continued his studies from home and so spent most of his seminary years as an external student. In 1899 he completed his education in Sacred Theology with a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of a short dissertation and an oral examination in Latin. While all other candidates from the Rome diocese were ordained in the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Pacelli was ordained a priest on Easter Sunday, 2 April 1899 alone in the private chapel of a family friend the Vicegerent of Rome, Mgr Paolo Cassetta.
Shortly after ordination he began postgraduate studies in canon law at Sant'Apollinaire. He received his first assignment as a curate at Chiesa Nuova. In 1901 he entered the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, a sub-office of the Vatican Secretariat of State. Monsignor Pietro Gasparri, the appointed undersecretary at the Department of Extraordinary Affairs, had underscored his proposal to Pacelli to work in the "Vatican's equivalent of the Foreign office" by highlighting the "necessity of defending the Church from the onslaughts of secularism and liberalism throughout Europe". Pacelli became an apprentice, in Gasparri's department. In January 1901 he was chosen, by Pope Leo XIII himself, according to an official account, to deliver condolences on behalf of the Vatican to King Edward VII of the UK
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest is the primatial seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary and the Metropolitan of one of its four Latin rite ecclesiastical provinces. The Metropolitan archbishopric retains the title of Primate, which gives this see precedence over all other Latin Hungarian dioceses, including the fellow Metropolitan Archbishops of Eger, Kalocsa–Kecskemét and Veszprém, but the incumbent may be individually outranked if one of them holds a cardinalate, its current Archbishop is Péter Erdő. Its double name reflects that it has cathedral sees in two major Hungarian cities, the old primatial archiepiscopal seat Esztergom and the present national capital Budapest; these two prominent cities fall under the tutelage of one archdiocese due to Hungary's early history wherein Esztergom was one of the former capitals of the Kingdom of Hungary. The archiepiscopal Cathedral and primatial see is: Nagyboldogasszony és Szent Adalbert főszékesegyház, in Esztergom-Vár.
The Co-Cathedral, a Minor Basilica and World Heritage Site, is St. Stephen's Basilica in Budapest-Szentistvánváros The archdiocese has a second Minor Basilica: Kisboldogasszony-templom, Máriaremete, at Székesfehérvár, in Fejér county; as per 2014, it pastorally served 1,253,000 Catholics on 1,543 km² in 153 parishes and 28 missions with 435 priests, 23 deacons, 725 lay religious and 38 seminarians. The Metropolitan's suffragan sees are the Latin Bishops of: Roman Catholic Diocese of Győr Roman Catholic Diocese of SzékesfehérvárThe former Roman Catholic Diocese of Hajdúdorog, until also its suffragan, was elevated in 2015 to Hungarian Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Hajdúdorog, now the Metropolitan in chief of the Hungarian Greek Catholic Church, of Byzantine Rite, it was founded in 1001 as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Esztergom / Strigonio / Strigonien, on Hungarian territories split off from the Diocese of Nitra, Diocese of Passau and Diocese of Regensburg. It had a uniquely prominent status.
Lost territory in 1227 to establish Diocese of Milcovia, but in 1542 gained territory from the suppressed Diocese of Milcovia Lost territories repeatedly: on 1776.03.13 to establish Diocese of Banská Bystrica, Diocese of Rožňava and Diocese of Spiš, on 1912.06.08 to establish Diocese of Hajdúdorog and on 1922.05.29 to establish Apostolic Administration of Trnava. Enjoyed a Papal visit from Pope John Paul II in August 1991. Renamed on 31 May 1993 as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Esztergom–Budapest / Strigonio–Budapest / Strigonien–Budapestinen, having gained territory from Diocese of Székesfehérvár and Diocese of Vác. Metropolitan Archbishops of Esztergom Domonkos Sebestyén Radla Anastaz-Astrik Sebestyén Benedek-Beneta Nehemiah Acha Seraphin Lőrinc Marcel Felician Macarius Kökényes Martyrius Lucas Nicholas Job Ugrin de genere Csák Kalán de genere Bár-Kalán John Thomas Robert Matthias de genere Rátót Stephen de genere Báncsa Benedek Fülöp Szentgróti Miklós de genere Kán Benedict Miklós de genere Kán Peter Kőszegi de genere Héder Lodomer Gregory Bicskei Mihály de genere Bő Thomas Boleslav Piast Miklós Dörögdi Csanád Telegdi Nicholas Vásári Miklós Apáti Tamás Telegdi János De Surdis Demeter János Kanizsai Péter László Csetneki György Hohenlohe János Borsnitz György Pálóczy Dénes Szécsi János Vitéz Johann Beckenschlager John of Aragon Hippolytus Cardinal Este Tamás Bakócz György Szatmári László Szalkai Pál Várdai Giorgio Martinuzzi Miklós Oláh Antal Verancsics Miklós Telegdy István Fehérkövi János Kutasi Ferenc Forgách Péter Pázmány
San Isidro District, Lima
San Isidro is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. Established on April 24, 1930, San Isidro has become a major financial quarter in recent years, as many banks and businesses left downtown Lima to set up their headquarters in modern office blocks, it is inhabited by upper middle and upper-class families. The district has a total land area of 9.78 km². Its administrative center is located at 109 meters above sea level. North: La Victoria and Jesús María East: San Borja South: Miraflores and Surquillo West: Magdalena del Mar and the Pacific OceanFor more than fifty years, the border at the western area of the district has been disputed with neighboring Magdalena del Mar. A judge ordered the councils of both districts to deposit the money of the affected areas' taxpayers in the National Bank of Peru until this long-standing conflict is resolved. According to a 2002 estimate by the INEI, the district has 68,438 inhabitants and a population density of 6,165.6 persons/km².
In 1999, there were 20,598 households in the district. San Isidro prides itself on being home to many Peruvian artists. A few museums, as well as the Wak'a Wallamarka, a pre-Inca burying temple which dates back to the 4th century where concerts and exhibitions are held show the cultural heritage of the district. Notable residents of San Isidro have include painter Fernando de Szyszlo, president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, Javier Perez de Cuellar, José Antonio García Belaúnde, Francisco Tudela, among others. There are 38 embassies and consulates in San Isidro, which are Algeria, Austria, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco, New Zealand, North Korea, Panama, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand and Uruguay; the Hotel Westin Libertador, the tallest building in Peru, is located in the district. Lima's most important avenues, criss-cross the district. With 21 bank headquarters and 50 agencies, San Isidro is the financial center of Peru.
Monuments to Peruvian heroes and other world personalities There are 15 Catholic Churches and temples of other religions. Municipalidad de San Isidro - San Isidro District Council official website PUCP - Centro Cultural - Cultural Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, located on Avenida Camino Real in San Isidro Miramar Peru Real State Agency