The Rover Company Limited was a British car manufacturing company that operated from its base in Solihull in Warwickshire. Its lasting reputation for quality and performance was such that its first postwar model reviewed by Road & Track in 1952 was pronounced finer than any but a Rolls-Royce. Rover manufactured the Land-Rover from 1948 onwards, which went on to become its most successful and profitable product — with Land Rover becoming a separate brand in its own right. Rover was sold to Leyland Motors in 1967, who had acquired Standard-Triumph seven years earlier. Rover maintained a level of autonomy within the Leyland conglomerate, but by 1978, Leyland - by British Leyland - had run into severe financial difficulties and had been nationalized by the British Government. Most of the assets of the former Rover Company were moved into a new subsidiary named Land Rover Ltd whilst the Rover marque itself continued to be used on other BL products which relied on Honda engineering. Rover became the most prolific brand within BL and gave its name to the entire conglomerate in the form of the Rover Group in 1986, of which Land Rover remained a part until the Rover Group was broken up by BMW in 2000.
Today, the Rover marque is dormant, is owned by the Rover Company's de facto successor - Jaguar Land Rover, which still operates out of Rover's Solihull plant. After developing a template for the modern bicycle with its Rover Safety Bicycle of 1885, the company moved into the automotive industry, it started building motorcycles cars using their Viking Longship badge from 1904. All production moved to the Solihull plant after World War II. Land Rover vehicles were added to the Rover range; the first Rover was a tricycle manufactured by Starley & Sutton Co. of Coventry, England, in 1883. The company was founded by John Kemp Starley and William Sutton in 1878. Starley had worked with his uncle, James Starley, who began by manufacturing sewing machines and switched to bicycles in 1869. In the early 1880s, the cycles available were the dangerous penny-farthings and high-wheel tricycles. J. K. Starley made history in 1885 by producing the Rover Safety bicycle—a rear-wheel-drive, chain-driven cycle with two similar-sized wheels, making it more stable than the previous high-wheel designs.
Cycling Magazine said the Rover had "set the pattern to the world". Starley's Rover is described by historians as the first recognisably modern bicycle; the words for "bicycle" in Polish and Belarusian are derived from the name of the company. The word ровер is used in many parts of Western Ukraine. In 1889, the company became J. K. Starley & Co. Ltd. and in the late 1890s, the Rover Cycle Company Ltd. In 1899 John Starley imported some of the early Peugeot motorcycles from France in for experimental development, his first project was to fit an engine to one of his Rover bicycles. Starley died early in October 1901 aged 46 and the business was taken over by entrepreneur H. J. Lawson; the company developed and produced the Rover Imperial motorcycle in November 1902. This was a 3.5 hp diamond-framed motorcycle with the engine in the centre and'springer' front forks, ahead of its time. This first Rover motorcycle had innovative features such as a spray carburettor, bottom-bracket engine and mechanically operated valves.
With a strong frame with double front down tubes and a good quality finish, over a thousand Rover motorcycles were sold in 1904. The following year, Rover stopped motorcycle production to concentrate on their'safety bicycle' but in 1910 designer John Greenwood was commissioned to develop a new 3.5 hp 500 cc engine with spring-loaded tappets, a Bosch magneto and an innovative inverted tooth drive chain. It had a Barlow carburettor and Druid spring forks; this new model was launched at the 1910 Olympia show and over 500 were sold. In 1913 a ` TT' model was launched with sports handlebars; the ` works team' of Dudley Noble and Chris Newsome won the works team award. Rover supplied 499 cc single-cylinder motorcycles to the Russian Army during the First World War; the company began to focus on car production at the end of the war, but Rover still produced motorcycles with 248 cc and 348 cc Rover overhead valve engines and with JAP engines, including a 676 cc V-twin. In 1924 Rover introduced a new lightweight 250cc motorcycle with unit construction of engine and gearbox.
This had lights rear as well as a new design of internal expanding brakes. Poor sales of their motorcycles caused Rover to end motorcycle production and concentrate on the production of motor cars. Between 1903 and 1924 Rover had produced more than 10,000 motorcycles. In 1888, Starley made an electric car. Three years after Starley's death in 1901, H. J. Lawson's subsequent takeover, the Rover company began producing automobiles with the two-seater Rover Eight to the designs of Edmund Lewis, who came from Lawson's Daimler. Lewis left the company to join Deasy in late 1905, he was replaced by Owen Clegg, who joined from Wolseley in 1910 and set about reforming the product range. Short-lived experiments with sleeve valve engines were abandoned, the 12hp model was introduced in 1912; this car was so successful that all other cars were dropped, for a while, Rover pursued a "one model" policy. Clegg left in 1912 to join the French subsidiary of Company London. During the First World War, they made motorcycles, lorries to Maudslay designs, not having a suitable one of their own, ambulances to a Sunbeam design.
The business was not
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone
The Standard Vanguard is a car, produced by the Standard Motor Company in Coventry, from 1947 to 1963. The car was announced in July 1947, was new, with no resemblance to the previous models, designed in 1945, it was Standard's first post-Second World War car and intended for export around the world, it was the first model to carry the new Standard badge, a stylised representation of the wings of a griffin. In the wake of the Second World War, many potential customers in the UK and in English-speaking export markets had experienced several years of military or naval service, therefore a car name related to the British Navy carried a greater resonance than it would for generations; the name of the Standard Vanguard recalled HMS Vanguard, the last of the British Navy's battleships, launched in 1944 amid much media attention. The styling of the car was intentionally modelled on American lines by Walter Belgrave. Early cars had deep doors; the Vanguard was first exhibited to the public at the Brussels Motor Show in February 1948.
It began to come off the assembly lines in the middle of 1948 but all production was allotted to the export trade. An estate car and a utility pick up version were announced in September, a 12 cwt delivery van. Aprons were fitted over the Vanguard's rear wheels from September 1949. In 1950, the Vanguard and the Triumph Renown were the first cars to be fitted with a Laycock de Normanville overdrive; the Laycock overdrive operated on the second and third gears of the three-speed transmission, creating, in effect, a five-speed gearbox. In Scandinavia, Standard marketed the Standard Ten saloon as the "Vanguard Junior"; the car used a conventional chassis on, mounted the slab sided body. The chassis was used by the Triumph 2000 roadster. Suspension was independent at the front with coil springs, a live axle and leaf springs at the rear. Front and rear anti-roll bars were fitted; the brakes were cable driven with 9-inch drums all round, to make the most of the interior space a column gear change was used on the right of the steering wheel later on the left.
The same wet liner engine was used throughout the range until the advent of the Six model in 1960, was an overhead-valve unit of 85 mm bore and 92 mm stroke with single Solex downdraught carburettor. The compression ratio was 6.7:1. Wet cylinder liners were fitted; the engine was the same as that made by Standard for the Ferguson tractor, with some changes for automobile use. At first, the transmission included a three-speed gearbox with synchromesh on all forward ratios, controlled using a column-mounted lever; the option of Laycock-de-Normanville overdrive was announced at the end of 1949 and became available in June 1950, priced for UK buyers at under £45 including purchase tax. Laycock overdrives were cable operated on top gear until 1954. An estate car joined the range in 1950 and, for Belgium only, some convertibles were made by the Impéria coach-building company. A car tested by The Motor magazine in 1949 had a top speed of 78.7 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 21.5 seconds. A fuel consumption of 22.9 miles per imperial gallon was recorded.
The test car cost £671 including taxes. In line with the post-war British export drive the total output was exported for the first two years of production and only in 1950 did significant home market deliveries start; the Vanguard was intended to achieve export sales, with a particular focus on Australia. During the immediate post-war period, cars were in short supply, creating a "seller's market". Restricted availability of the Vanguard helped attract willing buyers. Closer to home, in the recovering West German market the Standard Vanguard recorded 405 sales in 1950, making it the country's third most popular imported automobile, in a list otherwise featuring much smaller cars from French and Italian manufacturers. In fact, the Vanguard sales in 1950 accounted for more than 70% of the British cars sold in West Germany that year, customers of other UK manufacturers having been caught out in the late 1940s by the lack of a dealer network and difficulties in obtaining replacement parts; the body was updated in 1952 with a lowered bonnet line, a wider rear window and a new grille featuring a wide horizontal chrome bar in place of the narrow, more packed slats of the original grille.
This became known as the Phase 1A. The Swiss importer for the Vanguard was an energetic firm called AMAG, which took on the Swiss Volkswagen franchise. AMAG themselves assembled the Swiss market Phase I Vanguards, it was at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1953 that an extensive re-design was unveiled: the Phase II Vanguard was of a contemporary Ponton three-box "notch-back" design. Boot/trunk capacity increased by 50% in comparison to that of the Phase I, visibility was improved with a further enlarged rear window. A new, grille now encompassed the parking lights. Mechanically there were few changes, but the clutch changed from cable to hydraulic operation and the engine compression ratio increased to 7.2:1. The fitted anti-roll bar was no longer used. Wider 6.00x16 tyres were fitted to improve road holding. A car, tested by The Motor magazine, without the optional overdrive, had a top speed of 80 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 19.9 seconds. A fuel consumption of 23.5 miles per imperial gallon was recorded.
In February 1954 Standard became the first
General Motors Company referred to as General Motors, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company; the company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, one of the world's largest. As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. General Motors manufactures vehicles in 37 countries, it owns or holds controlling interest in foreign brands such as Holden, Wuling and Jiefang. Annual worldwide sales volume reached a milestone of 10 million vehicles in 2016. In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors holds a 20% stake in IMM, a 77% stake in GM Korea, it has a number of joint-ventures, including Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling and FAW-GM in China, GM-AvtoVAZ in Russia, GM Uzbekistan, General Motors India, General Motors Egypt, Isuzu Truck South Africa.
General Motors does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors is divided into four business segments: GM North America, GM International Operations, GM Cruze, GM Financial; the company operates a mobility division called Maven, which operates car-sharing services in the United States, is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership. GM Defense is General Motors' military defense division, catering to the needs of the military for advanced technology and propulsion systems for military vehicles. General Motors led global vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, in 2012 was among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales. General Motors acts in most countries outside the U. S. via wholly owned subsidiaries, but operates in China through 10 joint ventures. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety and information services. In 2009, General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn and Hummer, emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization.
In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering, one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, returned to profitability that year. General Motors Company was formed with an escrow account set up by R S McLaughlin for 15 years of Buick Motors in 1907 on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant, owner of Buick. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were fewer than 8,000 automobiles in the U. S. and Durant had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint helped by his purchase of the Carriage Gear patent from the McLaughlin family in Canada, in the 1880s and 1890s, before making his foray into the automotive industry in 1904 by purchasing the fledgling Buick Motor Company. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM's creation in 1918. Over the years, Mott became the largest single stockholder in The USA, spent his life with his Mott Foundation, which has benefited the city of Flint, his adopted home.
GM acquired Oldsmobile that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore and several others. In 1909, GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant, along with R. S. McLaughlin, lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers who held the Escrow account' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions, coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales; the next year, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor Car Company in the U. S. and in Canada in 1915, through this, he and McLaughlin in Canada secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant regained control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in U. S. business history. Durant reorganized General Motors Holding Company into General Motors Company in 1916, merging Chevrolet with GM and allying General Motors of Canada Limited in 1918 after McLaughlin Traded his Outstanding Stocks for GM stocks to allow the Corporation in the USA.
Shortly thereafter, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation, led it to its post-war global dominance when the seven manufacturing facilities operated by Chevrolet before Chevrolet acquired the company began to contribute to GM operations; these facilities were added to the individual factories that were exclusive to Cadillac, Oldsmobile and other companies acquired by the corporation. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s, when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants in the USA. On July 10, 2009, General Motors emerged from government backed Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009. Through the Troubled Asset Relief Program the US Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion. The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former financing company, GMAC.
The shares in Ally were sold on December 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue. In 2009 General Motors of Canada Limited was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the company shed several brands
The BMW 328 is a sports car made by BMW between 1936 and 1940, with the body design credited to Peter Szymanowski, who became BMW chief of design after World War II. In 1999 the BMW 328 was named one of 25 finalists for Car of the Century by a worldwide panel of automotive journalists; the 328 was introduced at the Eifelrennen race at the Nürburgring in 1936, where Ernst Henne drove it to win the 2.0-litre class. The 328 had more than 100 class wins in 1937, including the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Österreichische Alpenfahrt, the La Turbie hillclimb. In 1938, the 328 won its class at the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Alpine Rally, the Mille Miglia; the 328 won the RAC Rally in 1939 and came in fifth overall and first in class in the 1939 24 Hours of Le Mans. Frank Pratt won the 1948 Australian Grand Prix driving a 328. In 1938, BMW 328 became a class winner in Mille Miglia. In 1940, the Mille Miglia Touring Coupe won the Mille Miglia with an average speed of 166.7 km/h. In 2004, the BMW 328 Mille Miglia Touring Coupe became the first car to win both the Mille Miglia and the modern-day classical version of the race.
After the Second World War, the manufacturing plant in Eisenach where the 328 had been built found itself in the Soviet occupation zone, automobile manufacturing in Eisenach would follow a state-directed path until German Reunification in 1989. One of the Mille Miglia 328s and BMW's technical plans for the car were taken from the bombed BMW factory by English representatives from the Bristol Aeroplane Company and Frazer Nash companies. Fiedler, the BMW engineer, was persuaded to come, too. Bristol Cars was set up to build complete cars, called Bristols, would supply engines to Frazer Nash for all their post-war cars; the first Bristol car, the 400, was based on the BMW plans. This Bristol engine was an option in AC cars, before the Cobra. Simons, Rainer. BMW 328: From roadster to legend. Bentley Publications. ISBN 0-8376-1231-4. Norbye, Jan P.. BMW - Bavaria's Driving Machines. Skokie, IL: Publications International. ISBN 0-517-42464-9. Noakes, Andrew; the Ultimate History of BMW. Bath, UK: Parragon Publishing.
ISBN 1-4054-5316-8. "BMW 328 - the legendary roadster". Bmwccn.no. Archived from the original on 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2008-08-30. BMW 328 specifications Jalopnik BMW 328 Carsguide - 75th Anniversary of BMW Roadsters - Gallery
The former Borgward car manufacturing company, based in Bremen, was founded by Carl F. W. Borgward, it produced cars of four brands, which were sold to a diversified international customer base: Borgward, Hansa and Lloyd. Borgward’s Isabella was one of the most popular German premium models in the 1950s, while Lloyd’s Alexander / Lloyd 600 model offered affordable mobility to many working-class motorists; the group ceased operations following controversial insolvency proceedings. The brand was revived in the 21st century, with the Stuttgart-based Borgward Group AG designing and marketing cars manufactured in China; the origins of the company go back to 1905 with the establishment in Varel of Hansa Automobilgesellschaft and the foundation in Bremen itself of NAMAG, maker of the Lloyd car. These two businesses merged in 1914 to form the "Hansa-Lloyd-Werke A. G.". After the war, in the troubled economic situation confronting Germany, the business failed to prosper and by the late 1920s faced bankruptcy.
For Carl Borgward the successful creator of the Goliath-Blitzkarren business, the misfortunes of Hansa-Lloyd presented an opportunity to expand the scope of his auto business, he took control of it. The first "automobile" Carl Borgward designed was the 1924 Blitzkarren, a tiny three-wheeled van with 2 hp, an enormous success in the market gap it filled. Traders with a small budget bought it for delivery; the Reichspost ordered many of them for postal service. In 1929, Borgward became the director of Hansa Lloyd AG having been able to merge his Goliath-Werke Borgward & Co. with Hansa-Lloyd. The small Goliath-Blitzkarren had by now evolved into the three-wheeled timber-framed synthetic-leather-bodied 5 or 7 hp Goliath Pioneer. Borgward led the development of the Hansa Konsul. In February 1937, there came the new Hansa Borgward 2000 and in 1939 its name was shortened to Borgward 2000; the 2000 model was followed by the Borgward 2300 that remained in production until 1942. After World War II, in 1946 Carl Borgward used some of the brand names from businesses he had acquired over the years to found three separate companies: Borgward and Lloyd.
This was intended to increase the quantity of steel allocated to his business at a time of austerity and rationing. For many purposes the companies would be run as a single entity. In 1949 company presented the Borgward Hansa 1500. One of the top engineers at Borgward from 1938-1952 was Dipl. Ing. Hubert M. Meingast. Production of the Borgward Isabella began in 1954; the Isabella would become Borgward's most popular model and remained in production for the life of the company. In 1960 the Borgward P100 equipped with pneumatic suspension. Borgward introduced a line of 1500 cc sports racers in the late 1950s, with the 16-valve engine from these becoming a successful Formula Two power unit. Although Borgward pioneered technical novelties in the German market such as air suspension and automatic transmission, the company had trouble competing in the marketplace. While larger companies like Opel and VW took advantage of economies of scale and kept their prices low to gain market share, Borgward's cost structure was higher than necessary for its size, as it operated as four tiny independent companies and never implemented such basic cost reduction strategies as joint development and parts sharing between the company's makes.
Borgward suffered quality problems as well. The Lloyd Arabella was technically advanced as a water-cooled boxer with front wheel drive, but plagued with problems such as water leakage and gearbox glitches. Lloyd lost money on the car though it was more expensive than its direct competitors. In 1961, the company was forced into liquidation by creditors. Carl Borgward died in July 1963; this proved to be true in the sense that after the creditors were paid in full, there was still 4.5 million Marks left over from the business. Reports of difficulties at Borgward surfaced in an article that appeared in Germany's news magazine Der Spiegel on 14 December 1960; the long, in places repetitive Spiegel article was highlighted by means of a picture of Borgward, cigar in mouth, on the magazine’s front cover. It was critical of his business approach, included many of the arguments advanced to explain or justify the company's demise; the widest range of cars from any manufacturer in Germany, produced by three till operationally autonomous companies was supporting a turnover of only 650 million Marks, placing the overall sales value from the combined Borgward auto businesses only in fifth position among Germany's auto-makers.
The 70-year-old Carl Borgward's "hands-on" insistence on an manic proliferation of new and modified models featuring adventurous, but under-developed technological innovations gave rise to components which too did not work, broke down or fell apart, resulting in massive bills for pre-delivery remediation and/or post delivery warranty work that found their way back to the company. The December 1960 Der Spiegel article was not the only serious public criticism targeting Borgward at this time: stridently negative comments turned up in the mass-market Bild newspa