Union County, Mississippi
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,134, its county seat is New Albany. According to most sources, the county received its name by being a union of pieces of several large counties, like other Union counties in other states. However, other sources say that the name was meant to mark the re-union of Mississippi and the other Confederate states after the Civil War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 417 square miles, of which 416 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. Interstate 22 U. S. Route 78 Mississippi Highway 9 Mississippi Highway 15 Mississippi Highway 30 Mississippi Highway 178 Mississippi Highway 348 Mississippi Highway 349 Mississippi Highway 355 Benton County Tippah County Prentiss County Lee County Pontotoc County Lafayette County Marshall County Holly Springs National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 25,362 people, 9,786 households, 7,241 families residing in the county.
The population density was 61 people per square mile. There were 10,693 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.42% White, 14.95% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. 1.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,786 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.00% were non-families. 23.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,682, the median income for a family was $39,666. Males had a median income of $29,087 versus $21,418 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,700. About 9.60% of families and 12.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.10% of those under age 18 and 20.80% of those age 65 or over. New Albany Myrtle Sherman Blue Springs Alpine Enterprise Etta Ingomar Jugfork Keownville New Harmony Wallerville National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, Mississippi
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their traditional territory was in the Southeastern United States of Mississippi and Tennessee, they are federally recognized as the Chickasaw Nation. Sometime prior to the first European contact, the Chickasaw migrated from western regions and moved east of the Mississippi River, where they settled in present-day northeast Mississippi and into Lawrence County, Tennessee; that is where they encountered European explorers and traders, having relationships with French and Spanish during the colonial years. The United States considered the Chickasaw one of the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted numerous practices of European Americans. Resisting European-American settlers encroaching on their territory, they were forced by the US to sell their country in the 1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and move to Indian Territory during the era of Indian Removal in the 1830s. Most Chickasaw now live in Oklahoma; the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma is the 13th largest federally recognized tribe in the United States.
Its members share a common history with them. The Chickasaw are divided in two groups: the Intcutwalipa, they traditionally followed a system of matrilineal descent, in which children were considered to be part of the mother's clan, whence they gained their status. Some property was controlled by women, hereditary leadership in the tribe passed through the maternal line; the name Chickasaw, as noted by anthropologist John Swanton, belonged to a Chickasaw leader. Chickasaw is the English spelling of Chikashsha, meaning "rebel" or "comes from Chicsa". A documented prior source was when the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto named them as "Chicaza" when De Soto's expedition came into contact with them in 1540 as the first Europeans that explored the North American south east; the origin of the Chickasaw is uncertain. Twentieth-century scholars, such as the archaeologist Patricia Galloway, theorize that the Chickasaw and Choctaw split into as distinct peoples in the 17th century from the remains of Plaquemine culture and other groups whose ancestors had lived in the Lower Mississippi Valley for thousands of years.
When Europeans first encountered them, the Chickasaw were living in villages in what is now Northeastern Mississippi. The Chickasaw migrated into Mississippi, their oral history says they migrated along with the Choctaw from west of the Mississippi River into present-day Mississippi in prehistoric times. The Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere spanned the Eastern Woodlands; the Mississippian cultures emerged from previous moundbuilding societies by 880 CE. They built complex, dense villages supporting a stratified society, with centers throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys and their tributaries. In the 15th century, proto-Chickasaw people left the Tombigbee Valley after the collapse of the Moundville chiefdom and settled into the upper Yazoo and Pearl River valleys in Mississippi. Historians Arrell Gibson and anthropology John R. Swanton believed the Chickasaw Old Fields were in Madison County, Alabama; these people are the only nation from whom I could learn any idea of a traditional account of a first origin.
Another version of the Chickasaw creation story is that they arose at Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound built about 300 CE by Woodland peoples. It is sacred to the Choctaw, who have a similar story about it; the mound was built about 1400 years before the coalescence of each of these peoples as ethnic groups. The first European contact with the Chickasaw ancestors was in 1540 when the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. After various disagreements, the American Indians attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying it; the Spanish moved on quickly. The Chickasaw began to trade with the British after the colony of Carolina was founded in 1670. With British-supplied guns, the Chickasaw raided their neighbors and enemies the Choctaw, capturing some members and selling them into Indian slavery to the British; when the Choctaw acquired guns from the French, power between the tribes became more equalized and the slave raids stopped.
Allied with the British, the Chickasaw were at war with the French and the Choctaw in the 18th century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, 1736. Skirmishes continued until France ceded its claims to the region east of the Mississippi River after being defeated by the British in the Seven Years' War. Following the American Revolutionary War, in 1793-94, Chickasaw fought as allies of the new United States under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the old Northwest Territory; the Shawnee and other, allied Northwest Indians were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. The 19th-century historian Horatio Cushman wrote, "Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies." Cushman believed the Chickasaw, along with the Choctaw, may have had origins in present-day Mexico and migrated north. That theory does not have consensus. In 1797, a general appraisal of the tribe and its territorial bounds was made by Abraham B
Mississippi's 1st congressional district
Mississippi's 1st congressional district is in the northeast corner of the state. It includes much of the northern portion of the state including Columbus, Oxford and Tupelo. One of the state's major universities, the University of Mississippi, is located within the district at Oxford; the district includes Alcorn, Calhoun, Choctaw, Clay, DeSoto, Lafayette, Lowndes, Monroe, Prentiss, Tippah, Union and Winston counties and a portion of Oktibbeha County. From statehood to the election of 1846, Mississippi elected representatives at-large statewide on a general ticket; the congressional seat has been held by Republican Trent Kelly who won a June, 2015 special election to fill the vacant seat held by Republican Alan Nunnelee who died February 6, 2015. In the November 2010 election, Nunnelee had defeated Democratic incumbent Travis Childers, Constitutionalist Gail Giaramita, Independent Conservative Party candidate Wally Pang of Batesville, Libertarian Harold Taylor, Reformist Barbara Dale Washer.
Mississippi's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Pontotoc is a city in, the county seat of, Pontotoc County, located to the west of the much larger city of Tupelo. The population was 5,625 at the 2010 census. Pontotoc is a Chickasaw word meaning "Land of Hanging Grapes", they occupied this area. In the early 1830s they were forced onto Indian Territory through Indian removal. In the late 19th century, the outlaws Jesse and Frank James and their gang once hid at an old house, used as a Union Army hospital during the Battle of Harrisburg or Battle of Tupelo in the Civil War; the house was located at a crossroad near the Lee County line. The Town Square Museum is located in the historic US post office near the county courthouse; this space is used to display Pontotoc memorabilia. There is a full-service post office operating in the building. A mural in the museum's lobby, titled The Wedding of Ortez and SaOwana - Christmas 1540, depicts a legendary feast given by Hernando de Soto to celebrate what was said to be the first recorded Christian marriage on the North American continent.
The account appears to be local myth. The groom was said to be an interpreter for the expedition, he was a Spanish national, captured in Florida years before and held by Chief Uceta. He was released as a slave and lived for years with the Mocoso people, his bride was said to be daughter of Chief Uceta. But Uceta's daughter was documented as Uleleh and she married a cacique; the wedding is said to have taken place in Pontotoc County during a visit by de Soto's party, but there is little documentation of such an event. The mural was painted in 1939 by Joseph Pollet, who had immigrated as a child with his family from Germany, he was commissioned under the arts program of the federal Works Progress Administration during the Great Depression. The city holds a festival in the Town Square annually during the last week of the month of September called the Bodock Festival, it celebrates the Maclura pomifera tree next to the historical mansion, that survived a massive tornado hit in 2001. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.6 sq mi, of which 9.4 sq mi is land and 0.2 sq mi is covered by water.
As of the census of 2010, 5,625 people, 2,325 households, 2,129 families resided in the city. The population density was 555.9 people per square mile. The 2,250 housing units averaged 238.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 70.08% White, 20.42% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 7.39% from other races, 1.45% from two or more races. Hispanics of any race were 2.76% of the population. Of the 2,325 households, 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.9% were not families. About 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41, the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was distributed as 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females, there were 84.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,491, for a family was $39,306. Males had a median income of $31,403 versus $23,491 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,324. About 12.0% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.5% of those under age 18 and 23.0% of those age 65 or over. The city of Pontotoc is served by the Pontotoc City School District and the county is served by the Pontotoc County School District. North Pontotoc High School and South Pontotoc High School are two of the top academic schools in the state of Mississippi. North received the Blue Ribbon Award and South received Level 5, the highest rating for a school in Mississippi; the city's band was the Grand Champion in the state in 2017. Terry "Harmonica" Bean, bluesman. S. Senator from Mississippi Alfred Oscar Coffin, first African-American man to earn a Ph.
D. in biological sciences. Kent Hull, former NFL Buffalo Bills center.
Natchez Trace Parkway
The Natchez Trace Parkway is a National Parkway in the southeastern United States that commemorates the historic Old Natchez Trace and preserves sections of the original trail. Its central feature is a two-lane parkway road that extends 444 miles from Natchez, Mississippi, to Nashville, Tennessee. Access to the parkway is limited, with more than fifty access points in the states of Mississippi and Tennessee; the southern end of the route is in Natchez at an intersection with Liberty Road, the northern end is northeast of Fairview, Tennessee, in the suburban community of Pasquo, Tennessee, at an intersection with Tennessee State Route 100. In addition to Natchez and Nashville, the larger cities along the route include Jackson and Tupelo and Florence, Alabama; the All-American Road is maintained by the National Park Service, to commemorate the original route of the Natchez Trace. The road has been designated an All-American Road. Commercial traffic is prohibited along the entire route, the speed limit is 50 miles per hour, except north of Leiper's Fork and Ridgeland, where the speed limit is reduced to 40 miles per hour.
The total area of the Parkway is 51,746.50 acres, of which 51,680.64 acres are federal, 65.86 acres are non-federal. The Parkway is headquartered in Tupelo and has nine district offices: Leipers Fork, Meriwether Lewis, Tupelo, Kosciusko, Port Gibson, Natchez; the Parkway manages two battlefields: Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site and Tupelo National Battlefield. The gentle sloping and curving alignment of the current route follows the original foot passage, its design harkens back to the way the original interweaving trails aligned as an ancient salt-lick-to-grazing-pasture migratory route of the American bison and other game that moved between grazing the pastures of central and western Mississippi and the salt and other mineral surface deposits of the Cumberland Plateau. The route traverses the tops of the low hills and ridges of the watershed divides from northeast to southwest. Native Americans, following the "traces" of bison and other game, further improved this "walking trail" for foot-borne commerce between major villages located in central Mississippi and middle Tennessee.
The route is locally circuitous. Avoided was the danger to a herd of being caught en-masse at the bottom of a hollow or valley if attacked by predators; the nature of the route, to this day, affords good all-around visibility for those. At all times the road is on the high ground of the ridge dividing the watersheds and provides a view to either see or catch the scent of danger, from a distance great enough to afford the time to flee to safety, if necessary. By the time of European exploration and settlement, the route had become well known and established as the fastest means of communication between the Cumberland Plateau, the Mississippi River, the Gulf of Mexico settlements of Pensacola and New Orleans. In the early post-American Revolutionary War period of America's westward expansion, the Trace was the return route for American flat-boat commerce between the territories of the upper and lower Ohio and Cumberland River valleys; the Americans constructed flat-boats, loaded their commerce therein, drifted upon those rivers, one-way south-southwestward to New Orleans, Louisiana.
They would sell their goods, return home via the Trace, to as far away as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Improved communications and the development of ports along the rivers named above made the route obsolete as a means of passenger and freight commerce; as a result, no major population centers were born or developed along the Trace, because of its alignment, between its termini Nashville and Natchez. The two cities of note, near or on the Trace's alignment, developed only as a result of their alignment along axes of communication different from the Trace, thus the Trace and its alignment are today entirely undeveloped and unspoiled along its whole route. Many sections of the original footpath are visible today for observing and hiking the Parkway's right-of-way. Construction of the Parkway was begun by the federal government in the 1930s; the development of the modern roadway was one of the many projects of the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression. The road was the proposal of U.
S. Congressman T. Jeff Busby of Mississippi, who proposed it as a way to give tribute to the original Natchez Trace. Inspired by the proposal, the Daughters of the American Revolution began planting markers and monuments along the Trace. In 1934, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration ordered a survey. President Roosevelt signed the legislation to create the parkway on May 18, 1938. Construction on the Parkway began in 1939, the route was to be overseen by the National Park Service, its length includes more than 45,000 acres and the towering Natchez Trace Parkway Bridge in Williamson County, completed in 1994 and one of only two post-tensioned, segmental concrete arch bridges in the world. The Emergency Appropriations Act of June 19, 1934, allocated initia
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The Natchez Trace known as the "Old Natchez Trace", is a historic forest trail within the United States which extends 440 miles from Nashville, Tennessee, to Natchez, linking the Cumberland and Mississippi rivers. The trail was created and used by Native Americans for centuries, was used by early European and American explorers and emigrants in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. European Americans founded inns known as "stands", along the Trace to serve food and lodging to travelers; as travel shifted to steamboats on the Mississippi and other rivers, most of these stands closed. Today, the path is commemorated by the 444-mile Natchez Trace Parkway and Bridge, which follow the approximate path of the Trace, as well as the related Natchez Trace Trail. Parts of the original trail are still accessible, some segments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Following a geologic ridge line, prehistoric animals followed the dry ground of the Trace to distant grazing lands, the salt licks of today's Middle Tennessee, to the Mississippi River.
Native Americans used many early footpaths created by the foraging of bison and other large game that could break paths through the dense undergrowth. In the case of the Trace, bison traveled north to find salt licks in the Nashville area. After Native Americans began to settle the land, they blazed the trail and improved it further, until it became a well-established path. Numerous prehistoric indigenous settlements in Mississippi were established along the Natchez Trace. Among them were the 2,000-year-old Pharr Mounds of the Middle Woodland period, located near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi; the first recorded European explorer to travel the Trace in its entirety was an unnamed Frenchman in 1742, who wrote of the trail and its "miserable conditions". Early European explorers depended on the assistance of Native American guides to go through this territory — the Choctaw and Chickasaw who occupied the region; these tribes and earlier prehistoric peoples, collectively known as the Mississippian culture, had long used the Trace for trade.
Before the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, President Thomas Jefferson wanted to connect the distant Mississippi frontier to other settled areas of the United States. To foster communication with what was called the Southwest, he directed construction of a postal road to be built between Daniel Boone's Wilderness Road and the Mississippi River; the U. S. signed treaties with the Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes to maintain peace, as European Americans entered the area in greater numbers. In 1801 the United States Army began trail blazing along the Trace, performing major work to prepare it as a thoroughfare; the work was first done by soldiers reassigned from Tennessee and by civilian contractors. To emphasize American sovereignty in the area, Jefferson called it the "Columbian Highway." The people who used it, dubbed the road as "The Devil's Backbone" due to its remoteness, rough conditions, the encountered highwaymen found along the new road. By 1809, the trail was navigable by wagon, with the northward journey taking two to three weeks.
Critical to the success of the Trace as a trade route was the development of inns and trading posts, referred to at the time as "stands."Many early United States settlements in Tennessee and Mississippi along the Natchez Trace. Some of the most prominent were Mississippi; the Natchez Trace was used during the War of 1812 and the ensuing Creek War, as soldiers under Major General Andrew Jackson's command traveled southward to subdue the Red Sticks and to defend the country against invasion by the British. By 1817, the continued development of Memphis, Jackson's Military Road formed more direct and faster routes to New Orleans. Trade shifted to either these routes along the west of the area, away from the Trace; as author William C. Davis wrote in his book A Way Through the Wilderness, the Trace was "a victim of its own success" by encouraging development in the frontier area. With the rise of steamboat culture on the Mississippi River after invention of the steam engine, the Trace lost its importance as a national road, as goods could be moved more more cheaply, in greater quantity on the river.
Before the invention of steam power, the Mississippi River's south-flowing current was so strong that northbound return journeys had to be made over land. Although many authors have written that the Trace disappeared back into the woods, much of it continued to be used by people living in its vicinity. With large sections of the Trace in Tennessee converted to county roads for operation, sections of it continue to be used today. Though the Natchez Trace was used as a major United States route only for a brief span, it served an essential function for years; the Trace was the only reliable land link between the eastern states and the trading ports of Mississippi and Louisiana. All sorts of people traveled down the Trace: itinerant preachers, highwaymen and peddlers among them; as part of the "Great Awakening" movement that swept the country in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the "spiritual development" along the Trace started from the Natchez end and moved northward. Several Methodist preachers began working a circuit along the Trace as early as 1800.
By 1812 they claimed a membership of 267 African Americans. The Methodists were soo