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Pontotoc County, Oklahoma

Pontotoc County is in the south central part of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,492, its county seat is Ada. The county was created at statehood from part of the Chickasaw Nation in Indian Territory, it was named for a historic Chickasaw tribal area in Mississippi. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Pontotoc is translated "cattail prairie" or "land of hanging grapes." Pontotoc County comprises the Ada, OK Micropolitan Statistical Area. The Chickasaw Nation's headquarters are in Ada; the present Pontotoc County was part of the land that the U. S. government granted in 1830 to the Choctaw tribe via the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. In 1837, the Chickasaw tribe was granted land within the Choctaw domain. In 1857, the Chickasaw Nation formed its own government on this land. However, few Chickasaw settled there until after the Civil War because of attacks by various Plains Indian tribes; the first settlers were located in the vicinity of Boggy Depot during the 1840s.

Camp Arbuckle was established to protect migrants traveling on the California Road. After the Civil War, settlements began spreading through the area; some of the new settlers were illegal white outlaws. The first post office was established at Stonewall in 1878; the town of Ada was founded in 1890. After three railroads built lines through Ada, it became the dominant community of the area. Ada was named county seat. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 725 square miles, of which 720 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. The Canadian River forms the northern boundary; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 37,492 people living in the county. 71.2% were White, 17.4% Native American, 2.4% Black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 1.1% of some other race and 7.2% of two or more races. 4.1 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 35,143 people, 13,978 households, 9,421 families living in the county; the population density was 19/km². There were 15,575 housing units at an average density of 8/km².

The racial makeup of the county was 75.80% White, 2.06% Black or African American, 15.51% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 5.36% from two or more races. 2.30 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 13,978 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.90% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.60% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 12.50% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,955, the median income for a family was $35,400.

Males had a median income of $26,785 versus $18,939 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,664. About 11.80% of families and 16.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.10% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. Cattle ranching was one of the most important economic activities in this area up through the territorial period. Agriculture rose to prominence with cotton being the most important crop. Cattle raising reemerged as the major industry, the county is sometimes called "Hereford Heaven." Other important economic activities include limestone quarrying, cement production, light manufacturing and government. The city of Ada is the headquarters of the Chickasaw Nation, the base of the Carl Albert Indian Health System. Ada Allen Byng Fitzhugh Francis Roff Stonewall Latta Fittstown Gaar Corner Happyland Harden City Vanoss The following sites in Pontotoc County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Ada Public Library, Ada Bebee Field Round House, Ada East Central State Normal School, Ada Mijo Camp Industrial District, Ada Pontotoc County Courthouse, Ada Roff Armory, Roff Sugg Clinic, Ada Wintersmith Park Historic District, Ada Chimney Hill

Gouldsboro State Park

Gouldsboro State Park is a 2,880-acre Pennsylvania state park in Coolbaugh Township, Monroe County and Lehigh Township, Wayne County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The park includes the 250-acre Gouldsboro Lake. Gouldsboro State Park is located close to Tobyhanna State Park and Pennsylvania State Game Lands 127 and 312, it is on Pennsylvania Route 507 near the small village of Gouldsboro. Gouldsboro State Park is named for Gouldsboro, in turn named for Jay Gould. Gould, a native of New York, acquired an immense fortune during the Industrial Revolution, part of which included ownership of ten percent of all the rail tracks in the United States at the time of his death. One of his railroads passed by. Gould was the co-owner of a tannery in nearby Thornhurst. Raw hides were shipped from the western United States and Australia on the railroads owned by Gould to Gouldsboro; the hides were sent to Thornhurst by way of wagons traversing a plank road. As of 2006, this rail line forms the dividing line between Gouldsboro State Park and Tobyhanna State Park in Monroe County, is owned by the Lackawanna County Railroad Authority and operated by the Delaware-Lackawanna Railroad Co. Inc.

Tourist excursions on this line are operated by Steamtown National Historic Site, run from Steamtown's yard in Scranton to Tobyhanna. A dam and spillway were built on an existing lake in 1895 by the North Jersey & Pocono Mountain Ice Company; the new dam allowed more ice to be harvested from the lake in winter. In 1956 the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission took over ownership of the dam; the park opened in 1958 and the dam was transferred to the DCNR in 2003. Inspections on the dam in 1979 revealed "the dam’s drain gate was inoperable and its spillway was deteriorating"; the lake was drained in 1985 and 1995 for repairs to the dam and spillway, drained in January 2005. Repairs included removing debris, installing a culvert and erosion control measures, replacing the spillway. Repairs were completed and the lake was refilled in January 2008. Gouldsboro Lake is a 250-acre man made lake, it is open to boating, swimming and ice fishing. Gas powered boats are prohibited on Gouldsboro Lake. Electric powered and non powered boats must have current registration from any state, or a launch permit from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission.

A beach at the lake is open from Memorial Day weekend through Labor Day weekend. The beach does not have lifeguards. Gouldsboro Lake is a warm water fishery; the common game fish are pickerel, yellow perch, walleye, sunfish and catfish. Gouldsboro Lake is a popular ice fishing destination, however the thickness of the ice is not monitored by the park staff so visitors are asked to use caution when venturing out onto the ice. Hunting is permitted at Gouldsboro State Park. Hunters are expected to follow the regulations of the Pennsylvania Game Commission; the common game species are squirrels, wild turkey, white-tailed deer, black bear, snowshoe hare. The hunting of groundhogs is prohibited; the trapping of muskrats, beaver, mink and coyote is permitted with the proper license. Gouldsboro State Park has five picnic areas with about 300 picnic tables. All five picnic areas are open year-round. There is one pavilion with an electric hook-up. Old Route 611 is a 1.25-mile "easy" trail, flat and wide and runs parallel to Interstate 380 on the western edge of the park.

The trail is open to hiking and cross-country skiing. Prospect Rock Trail is a 5.8-mile "difficult" trail, a loop that begins and ends in the day use area, passing over some rugged terrain. Frank Gantz Trail is a 3.2-mile "difficult" trail that connects Gouldsboro State Park with Tobyhanna State Park. The trail is rocky and therefore demanding, with an estimated round trip completion time of three hours; the following state parks are within 30 miles of Gouldsboro State Park: Archbald Pothole State Park Beltzville State Park Big Pocono State Park Frances Slocum State Park Jacobsburg Environmental Education Center Hickory Run State Park Lackawanna State Park Lehigh Gorge State Park Nescopeck State Park Promised Land State Park Prompton State Park Tobyhanna State Park Varden Conservation Area According to the Trewartha climate classification system, Gouldsboro State Park has a Temperate Continental climate with warm summers, cold winters and year-around precipitation. Dcbo climates are characterized by at least one month having an average mean temperature ≤ 32.0 °F, four to seven months with an average mean temperature ≥ 50.0 °F, all months with an average mean temperature < 72.0 °F and no significant precipitation difference between seasons.

Although most summer days are comfortably humid in Gouldsboro State Park, episodes of heat and high humidity can occur with heat index values > 92 °F. Since 1981, the highest air temperature was 93.5 °F on 07/15/1995, the highest daily average mean dew point was 69.8 °F on 08/01/2006. July is the peak month for thunderstorm activity which correlates with the average warmest month of the year; the average wettest month is September which correlates with tropical storm remnants during the peak of the Atlantic hurricane season. Since 1981, the wettest calendar day was 7.57 inches on 09/30/2010. During the winter months, the plant hardiness zone is 5a with an averag


Gairaigo is Japanese for "loan word" or "borrowed word", indicates a transliteration into Japanese. In particular, the word refers to a Japanese word of foreign origin, not borrowed in ancient times from Old or Middle Chinese, but in modern times from English or from other European languages; these are written in the katakana phonetic script, with a few older terms written in Chinese characters. Japanese has many loan words accounting for a sizeable fraction of the language; these words are written in kanji. Modern Chinese loanwords are considered gairaigo and written in katakana, or sometimes written in kanji. For a list of terms, see the List of gairaigo and wasei-eigo terms. Japanese has a long history of borrowing from foreign languages, it has been doing so since the late fourth century A. D; some ancient gairaigo words are still being used nowadays, but there are many kinds of gairaigo words that were borrowed more recently. Most, but not all, modern gairaigo are derived from English in the post-World War II era.

Words are taken from English for concepts that do not exist in Japanese, but for other reasons, such as a preference for English terms or fashionability – many gairaigo have Japanese near-synonyms. In the past, more gairaigo came from other languages besides English; the first period of borrowing occurred during the late fourth century A. D. when a massive number of Chinese characters were adopted. This period could be considered as one of the most significant in the history of gairaigo, because it was the first moment when the written communication systems using kanji were formed; the first non-Asian countries to have extensive contact with Japan were Portugal and the Netherlands in the 16th and 17th centuries, Japanese has several loanwords from Portuguese and Dutch, many of which are still used. The interaction between Japan and Portugal lasted from the late middle age until the early Edo era.. An example of the loanwords from Portuguese is rasha, meaning a thick wool cloth, indispensable during the period, but not used nowadays.

In the Edo era, words from the Dutch language, such as glas and alcohol, started to have an impact in the Japanese language. During the Edo era, many medical words like Gaze and neuroses came from German, many artistic words such as rouge and dessin came from French. Most of the gairaigo since the nineteenth century came from English. In the Meiji era, Japan had extensive contact with Germany, gained many loanwords from German for Western medicine, which the Japanese learned from the Germans. Notable examples include arubaito from German Arbeit, enerugī from German Energie, they gained several loanwords from French at this time. In modern times, there are some borrowings from Modern Chinese and Modern Korean for food names, these continue as new foods become popular in Japan. Chinese words are represented with Chinese characters, but with katakana gloss to indicate the unusual pronunciation, while Korean words, which no longer use Chinese characters, are represented in katakana. There is sometimes ambiguity in pronunciation of these borrowings voicing, such as to vs. do – compare English's Daoism–Taoism romanization issue.

Some Modern Chinese borrowings occurred during the 17th and 18th centuries, due both to trade and resident Chinese in Nagasaki, a more recent wave of Buddhist monks, the Ōbaku school, whose words are derived from languages spoken in Fujian. More recent Korean borrowings are influenced both by proximity, to the substantial population of Koreans in Japan since the early 20th century. In 1889, there were 85 gairaigo of Dutch origin and 72 gairaigo of English origin listed in a Japanese dictionary. From 1911 to 1924, 51% of gairaigo listed in dictionaries were of English origin, today, 80% to 90% of gairaigo are of English origin. There have been some borrowings from Sanskrit as well, most notably for religious terms; these words are transliterations which were unknowingly borrowed from Chinese. CognatesIn some cases, cognates or etymologically related words from different languages may be borrowed and sometimes used synonymously or sometimes used distinctly; the most common basic example is kappu from English cup versus earlier koppu from Dutch kop or Portuguese copo, where they are used distinctly.

A more technical example is sorubitōru versus sorubitto, used synonymously. Wasei-kangoIn addition to borrowings, which adopted both meaning and pronunciation, Japanese has an extensive set of new words that are crafted using existing Chinese morphemes to express a foreign term; these are known as wasei-kango "Japanese-made Chinese words". This process is similar to the creation of classical compounds in European languages. Many were coined in the Meiji period, these are common in me


Cambronne-lès-Clermont is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. The town lies between Thérain. Like most towns in the Rift Valley, Cambronne has stone quarries; the first were used there long ago. In particular, they have provided houses. Cambronne is known to have existed from the 9th century, its name comes from the words Onna. Cambronne took advange of much of its unused land after the French revolution at the end of the 18th century, producing cereals, potatoes and corn. Cambronne had two windmills. One, that of Ars, produced oil at the beginning of 19th century; the other was near the path of Carrières, where the water reservoir is located. The church of Cambonne is one of its most famous monuments. In December 1239, Robert Cressonesart, bishop of Beauvais, dedicated the church of Cambronne in Saint Etienne. Mathilde of Burgundy, the widow of Philippe de France, a son of Philip Augustus, had completed it, it had been under construction from the 10th century. It has been a historical monument since 1875.

Rectangular in shape, it is 14 meters wide. The tip of the cross is 32 meters above the ground; the octagonal stone tower is quite remarkable. The interior features paintings including a large mural from the thirteenth century; the church is situated on the crest of a hill and the tower can be seen from as far away as the plateau Brêche. The front, north side, bell tower are from the twelfth century; the nave is from around the time of transition. The heart is a Gothic style lancet arch, its ribbed vaults are carried higher than the nave. Elegant support pillars, above the main arches, are decorated with three lobed berries topped with large glass clubs. A straight wall finishes the choir, square, the floor is higher than the nave. There are five chapels divided by the aisles. Remnants of paint can be seen in various places of the walls and the vault of the choir, the large mural from the thirteenth century still visible on the wall that marks the end of the nave; the former part of the original mortar remains the location of the bells.

The four bells are from the nineteenth century. The church contains the family tombs of the Hédouvilles and others; some gravestones are in the choir. Others are sealed in the south wall; the remains of a cross of the eleventh century, situated near the church in the old cemetery, were classified as a historic monument April 2, 1927. A vandal damaged the upper part of this ordeal at the beginning of the 2000s. Communes of the Oise department INSEE

Turtle Lake Township, Cass County, Minnesota

Turtle Lake Township is a township in Cass County, United States. The population was 699 as of the 2000 census; this township took its name from Turtle Lake. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 72.0 square miles, of which 48.7 square miles is land and 23.3 square miles is water. Baker Minnesota State Highway 200 Minnesota State Highway 371 Bag Lake Big Hanson Lake Blue Bill Lake Conklin Lake Cub Lake Deep Lake Diamond Lake Gould Lake Hanson Lakes Hovde Lake Ivins Lake Jack Lake Leech Lake Little Turtle Lake Little Webb Lake Lake 418 Long Lake Nomad Lake Rice Lake Shell Lake Spring Lake Spruce Lake Tanglewood Lake Ten Mile Lake Tepee Lake Turtle Lake Wabegon Lake Pine Lake Township Birch Lake Township Hiram Township Shingobee Township Leech Lake Township The township contains these three cemeteries: Hope, Medicine Rite and Saint Agnes; as of the census of 2000, there were 699 people, 271 households, 211 families residing in the township. The population density was 14.4 people per square mile.

There were 610 housing units at an average density of 12.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 65.09% White, 0.29% African American, 30.47% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.29% from other races, 3.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.29% of the population. There were 271 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.1% were non-families. 15.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 2.83. In the township the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.8 males.

The median income for a household in the township was $38,750, the median income for a family was $39,219. Males had a median income of $27,404 versus $26,250 for females; the per capita income for the township was $17,049. About 4.5% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.7% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. United States National Atlas United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names

Ephrin receptor

Eph receptors are a group of receptors that are activated in response to binding with Eph receptor-interacting proteins. Ephs form the largest known subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases. Both Eph receptors and their corresponding ephrin ligands are membrane-bound proteins that require direct cell-cell interactions for Eph receptor activation. Eph/ephrin signaling has been implicated in the regulation of a host of processes critical to embryonic development including axon guidance, formation of tissue boundaries, cell migration, segmentation. Additionally, Eph/ephrin signaling has been identified to play a critical role in the maintenance of several processes during adulthood including long-term potentiation and stem cell differentiation and cancer. Ephs can be divided into two subclasses, EphAs and EphBs, based on sequence similarity and on their binding affinity for either the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked ephrin-A ligands or the transmembrane-bound ephrin-B ligands. Of the 16 Eph receptors that have been identified in animals, humans are known to express nine EphAs and five EphBs.

In general, Ephs of a particular subclass bind preferentially to all ephrins of the corresponding subclass, but have little to no cross-binding to ephrins of the opposing subclass. It has been proposed that the intrasubclass specificity of Eph/ephrin binding could be attributed to the different binding mechanisms used by EphAs and EphBs. There are exceptions to the intrasubclass binding specificity observed in Ephs, however, as it has been shown that ephrin-B3 can bind to and activate EphA4 and that ephrin-A5 can bind to and activate EphB2. EphA/ephrinA interaction occur with higher affinity than EphB/ephrin-B interactions which can be attributed to the fact that ephrin-As bind via a "lock-and-key" mechanism that requires little conformational change of the EphAs in contrast to EphBs which utilize an "induced fit" mechanism that requires a greater amount of energy to alter the conformation of EphBs to bind to ephrin-Bs.16 Ephs have been identified in animals and are listed below: EPHA1, EPHA2, EPHA3, EPHA4, EPHA5, EPHA6, EPHA7, EPHA8, EPHA9, EPHA10 EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, EPHB5, EPHB6 The extracellular domain of Eph receptors is composed of a conserved globular ephrin ligand-binding domain, a cysteine-rich region and two fibronectin type III domains.

The cytoplasmic domain of Eph receptors is composed of a juxtamembrane region with two conserved tyrosine residues, a tyrosine kinase domain, a sterile alpha motif, a PDZ-binding motif. Following binding of an ephrin ligand to the extracellular globular domain of an Eph receptor and serine residues in the juxtamembrane region of the Eph become phosphorylated allowing the intracellular tyrosine kinase to convert into its active form and subsequently activate or repress downstream signaling cascades; the structure of the trans-autophosphorylation of the juxtamembrane region of EPHA2 has been observed within a crystal of EPHA2. The ability of Ephs and ephrins to mediate a variety of cell-cell interactions places the Eph/ephrin system in an ideal position to regulate a variety of different biological processes during embryonic development. Unlike most other RTKs, Ephs have a unique capacity to initiate an intercellular signal in both the receptor-bearing cell and the opposing ephrin-bearing cell following cell-cell contact, known as bi-directional signaling.

Although the functional consequences of Eph/ephrin bi-directional signaling have not been elucidated, it is clear that such a unique signaling process allows for ephrin Ephs to have opposing effects on growth cone survival and allows for the segregation of Eph-expressing cells from ephrin-expressing cells. Segmentation is a basic process of embryogenesis occurring in most invertebrates and all vertebrates by which the body is divided into functional units. In the segmented regions of the embryo, cells begin to present biochemical and morphological boundaries at which cell behavior is drastically different – vital for future differentiation and function. In the hindbrain, segmentation is a defined process. In the paraxial mesoderm, development is a dynamic and adaptive process that adjusts according to posterior body growth. Various Eph receptors and ephrins are expressed in these regions, through functional analysis, it has been determined that Eph signaling is crucial for the proper development and maintenance of these segment boundaries.

Similar studies conducted in zebrafish have shown similar segmenting processes within the somites containing a striped expression pattern of Eph receptors and their ligands, vital to proper segmentation - the disruption of expression resulting in misplaced or absent boundaries. As the nervous system develops, the patterning of neuronal connections is established by molecular guides that direct axons along pathways by target and pathway derived signals. Eph/ephrin signaling regulates the migration of axons to their target destinations by decreasing the survival of axonal growth cones and repelling the migrating axon away from the site of Eph/ephrin activation; this mechanism of repelling migrating axons through decreased growth cone survival depends on relative levels of Eph and ephrin expression and allows gradients of Eph and ephrin expression in target cells to direct the migration of axon growth cones based on their own relative levels of Eph and ephrin expression. Forward signaling by both EphA and EphB receptor