Pontus (region)

Pontus is a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. The name was applied to the coastal region and its mountainous hinterland by the Greeks who colonized the area since the Archaic period and derived from the Greek name of the Black Sea: Πόντος Εὔξεινος, Póntos Eúxeinos, or Pontos as early as the Aeschylean Persians and Herodotus' Histories. Having no specific name, the region east of the river Halys was spoken of as the country Ἐν Πόντῳ En Pontōi, "on the Pontos", hence it acquired the name of Pontus, first found in Xenophon's Anabasis; the extent of the region varied through the ages but extended from the borders of Colchis until well into Paphlagonia in the west, with varying amounts of hinterland. Several states and provinces bearing the name of Pontus or variants thereof were established in the region in the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods, culminating in the late Byzantine Empire of Trebizond. Pontus is sometimes considered as the original home of the Amazons, in ancient Greek mythology and historiography.

From the Classical and Hellenistic periods into the Byzantine and Ottoman, Pontus became important as a bastion of ancient Greek and Greek Orthodox civilization and attracted Greeks from all backgrounds from all over Anatolia and the southern Balkans. These Greeks of Pontus are referred to as Pontic Greeks. Pontus remained outside the reach of the Bronze Age empires; the region went further uncontrolled by Hatti's eastern neighbours, Hurrian states like Azzi and Hayasa. In those days, the best any outsider could hope from this region was temporary alliance with a local strongman; the Hittites called the unorganised groups on their northeastern frontier the Kaška. As of 2004 little had been found of them archaeologically. In the wake of the Hittite empire's collapse, the Assyrian court noted that the "Kašku" had overrun its territory in conjunction with a hitherto unknown group whom they labeled the Muški. Iron Age visitors to the region Greek, noted that the hinterlands remained disunited, they recorded the names of tribes: Moskhians, Mares, Mossynoikoi, Tibarenoi and Chalybes or Chaldoi.

The Armenian language went unnoted by the Hittites, the Assyrians, all the post-Hittite nations. The Greeks, who spoke a related Indo-European tongue, followed them along the coast; the Greeks are the earliest long-term inhabitants of the region from. During the late 8th century BCE, Pontus further became a base for the Cimmerians, another Indo-European speaking people. Since there was so little literacy in northeastern Anatolia until the Persian and Hellenistic era, one can only speculate as to the other languages spoken here. Given that Kartvelian languages remain spoken to the east of Pontus, some are suspected to have been spoken in eastern Pontus during the Iron Age: the Tzans are associated with today's Laz; the first travels of Greek merchants and adventurers to the Pontus region occurred from around 1000 BC, whereas their settlements would become steady and solidified cities only by the 8th and 7th centuries BC as archaeological findings document. This fits in well with a foundation date of 731 BC as reported by Eusebius of Caesarea for Sinope the most ancient of the Greek colonies in what was to be called Pontus.

The epical narratives related to the travels of Jason and the Argonauts to Colchis, the tales of Heracles' navigating the Black Sea and Odysseus' wanderings into the land of the Cimmerians, as well as the myth of Zeus constraining Prometheus to the Caucasus mountains as a punishment for his outwitting the Gods, can all be seen as reflections of early contacts between early Greek colonists and the local Caucasian, peoples. The earliest known written description of Pontus, however, is that of Scylax of Korianda, who in the 7th century BC described Greek settlements in the area. By the 6th century BC, Pontus had become a part of the Achaemenid Empire, which meant that the local Greek colonies were paying tribute to the Persians; when the Athenian commander Xenophon passed through Pontus around a century in 401-400 BC, in fact, he found no Persians in Pontus. The peoples of this part of northern Asia Minor were incorporated into the third and nineteenth satrapies of the Persian empire. Iranian influence ran deep, illustrated most famously by the temple of the Persian deities Anaitis and Anadatos at Zela, founded by victorious Persian generals in the 6th century BCE.

The Kingdom of Pontus extended to the east of the Halys River. The Persian dynasty, to found this kingdom had during the 4th century BC ruled the Greek city of Cius in Mysia, with its first known member being Ariobarzanes I of Cius and the last ruler based in the city being Mithridates II of Cius. Mithridates II's son called Mithridates, would proclaim himself Mithridates I Ktistes of Pontus; as the Encyclopaedia Iranica states, the most famous member of the family, Mithradates VI Eupator, although undoubtedly presenting himself to the Greek world as a civilized philhellene and new Alexander parade

Jacob Ulfeldt (born 1567)

Jacob Ulfeldt was a Danish diplomat and explorer and chancellor of King Christian IV of Denmark. Jakob Ulfeldt was born at Bavelse, the son of privy councillor Jacob Ulfeldt and Anne Jakobsdatter Flemming. From 1581 he travelled reaching many places which were visited by Danish travellers at the time, did not return to Denmark until 1597. Among the destinations he visited were Greece, Rhodes, Cyprus and Syria. Back in Denmark, he managed his estates which included Ulfeldtsholm which he had inherited from his father in 1693. In 1616, he instead acquired Egeskov Castle. In 1607, Ulfeldt became a member of the Pricy Council. In 1609, he was appointed Chancellor of the Realm, he was a driving force behind the alliance with the Netherlands in 1621 and the extended union with the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein in 1623. Unlike the Privy Council, from 1621 he worked for the creation of a Protestant union under the leadership of Christian IV in the Thirty Years' War, an effort, successful in 1625. Ulfeldt married Birgitte Brockenhuus on 10 June 1599 in Nyborg.

She was the daughter of lensmand Laurids Brockenhuus, the owner of Egeskov and Bramstrup, Karen, née Skram. She bore him the following children: Corfitz Ulfeldt, Elsebet Jacobsdatter, Knud Ulfeldt, Eiler Ulfeldt, Frands Ulfeldt, Laurids Ulfeldt, Ebbe Ulfeldt and Flemming Ulfeldt. Ulfeldt has left a vivid account of his travels in the Holy Land and Egypt, still kept at the Danish Royal Library, describing Constantinople, the Colossus of Rhodes, Islands in the Adriatic Sea, Tripoli, Sidon, Jaffa and Cairo together with the Giza pyramids and Pyramid of Djoser


Energy4All facilitates the creation and development of community energy in the United Kingdom, based on the experience gained in the creation of the UK's first wind co-op, Baywind Energy Co-operative. It has gone on to raise over £40m on behalf of the co-operatives and community benefit societies through community share offerings. Energy4All is a private limited company established in 2002 that has helped create 24 community energy projects, including Westmill Wind Farm Co-operative and Boyndie Wind Farm Co-operative, along with Baywind, own Energy4All. One of the co-operatives it has created, Energy Prospects Co-operative, specialises in taking early stage co-operatives through the development and planning application stages to the point where a community share offer, managed by Energy4All, can be launched to fund the project. Energy4All won an Ashden Award in 2012. Energy4All was elected to Board of REScoop the European Federation of renewable energy cooperatives in 2017 and is a participant in the MECISE project to develop a European cooperative energy investment fund.

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