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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni; the watersheds of many countries drain into the Black Sea beyond the six that border it. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3, it is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Balkan Mountains to the west, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest. The longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Odessa, Sevastopol and Istanbul; the Black Sea is bordered by Ukraine, Bulgaria, Turkey and Russia. It has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.

This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. The Black Sea is connected, to the north, to the Sea of Azov by the Kerch Strait; the water level has varied over geological time. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been dry land. At certain critical water levels, connections with surrounding water bodies can become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. During geological periods when this hydrological link was not present, the Black Sea was an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system; the Black Sea water level is high.

The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea and comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. The Black Sea undersea river is a current of saline water flowing through the Bosphorus Strait and along the seabed of the Black Sea; the discovery of the river announced on August 1, 2010, was made by scientists at the University of Leeds and is the first of its kind in the world. The undersea river stems from salty water spilling through the Bosphorus Strait from the Mediterranean Sea into the Black Sea, where the water has a lower salt content; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century.

In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world. Black or dark represented the north; the symbolism based on cardinal points was used on multiple occasions and is therefore attested.

For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanat

Osprey-class minehunter

The Osprey class are a series of coastal minehunters designed to find and destroy moored and bottom naval mines from vital waterways. They use sonar and video systems, cable cutters and a mine detonating device that can be released and detonated by remote control; the Osprey class are the world's second largest minehunters to be constructed of fiberglass and designed to survive the shock of underwater explosions. Their primary mission is reconnaissance and neutralization of all types of moored and bottom mines in littoral areas and coastal waterways. Twelve minehunter ships were built for the U. S. Navy by Northrop Grumman Ship Systems of New Orleans and Intermarine of Savannah; the ships were commissioned between 1993 and 1999. The ships of this class were named after various types of birds; the 12 ships are 187 feet 10 inches long, 34 feet 7 inches wide, 70 feet 0 inches tall. When carrying a full load they displace 904 tonnes, they have four decks, have a complement of five officers, four chief petty officers, 42 enlisted men.

They are armed two.50 caliber machine guns. All of the major equipment is suspended from the main deck in glass-reinforced plastic holders, so that in the event of an undersea explosion, it will not be damaged, they use an AN/SLQ-53 deep sweep mine countermeasures system. It uses an AN/SQQ-32 Variable Depth Sonar, tethered to the front of the bridge, to detects and identifies mines using multiple ping processing. Two AN/UYK-44 computers are used to classify and detect mines. For surface radar purposes, an AN/SPS-649 is used, they use the AN/SLQ-48 mine neutralization system, tethered to the ship by a 1.07-kilometre long cable. They have two AN/UYQ -31 operator data terminals, they are propelled by two Isotta Franschini ID 36 SS 8V AM diesel engines which drive two Voith Schneider cycloidal propellers generating 1,600 horsepower, have three Isotta Fraschini ID 36 diesel generators. They use a single bow thruster, which generates 180 shaft horsepower, they have a max speed of 12 knots, a maximum operational range of 1,500 nautical miles.

All of these ships were decommissioned in 2006–07. The Hellenic Navy received two of the Osprey class from the US Navy: Heron, renamed Calypso and Pelican, renamed Euniki. Two more were transferred to the Egyptian Navy: Cardinal, renamed al Sedeeq and Raven, renamed al Farouk; the sale of Oriole and Falcon to the Republic of China was authorized. The U. S. General Services Administration announced in April 2014 that hull numbers MHC-51, 54, 56, 57, 58, 62 were up for auction to be sold as an entire lot for "dismantlement purposes only." This contradicted earlier information announcing the sale of some of these vessels to foreign operators. The minehunting role of this class is to be taken over by Littoral Combat Ships equipped with the Mine Counter-Measures Module. Lerici-class minehunter – The Italian ship design on which the Osprey class was based Avenger-class mine countermeasures ship – US ocean-going class Tripartite-class minehunter – Franco-Benelux contemporary Citations Online resources This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.

S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. PEO Ships: Mine Warfare Federation of American Scientists: MHC 51 Osprey Coastal Mine Hunters 26 Mar 2014 MHC 51, 54, 56, 57 58, 62 are on GSA auction web site for "DISMANTLEMENT" out of Beaumont, TX. http://gsaauctions.gov/gsaauctions/aucindx/Further reading "MHC 51 Osprey Coastal Mine Hunters". GlobalSecurity.org. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2016. NavSource.org: Coastal Minesweeper/Coastal Minehunter Index

FA Youth Cup Finals of the 1980s

FA Youth Cup Finals from 1980 to 1989. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. First legScore: Charlton 1–1 Coventry Date: 28 April 1987 Venue: The Valley Coventry scorer: Craig Middleton Second legScore: Coventry 1–0 Charlton Date: 13 May 1987 Venue: Highfield Road Coventry scorer: Steve Livingstone Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. First legOld 24 April 1986 Manchester United - Manchester City 1 -- 1 1-0 49 min. Aidan Murphy 1-1 82 min. Paul Lake Attendance: 7.602 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Second legMaine Road, 29 April 1986 Manchester City - Manchester United 2–0 1-0 02 min. David Boyd 2-0 86 min.

Paul Moulden Attendance: 18.158 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Newcastle won the cup with a 4-1 second leg victory over Watford after the first leg ended in a goalless draw. Midfielder Paul Gascoigne scored a spectacular goal from 30 yards for the winners. Within five years, Gascoigne was a world class player for Tottenham Hotspur and England, having been transferred from Newcastle in 1988 for £2million. Newcastle's assistant manager Maurice Setters said "You'll have to wait a thousand years to see that again" in reference to Gascoigne's goal in this game. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

First legOld 26 April 1982 Manchester United - Watford 2 -- 3 0-1 34 min. Neil Williams 1-1 44 min. Mark Dempsey 1-2 58 min. Jimmy Gilligan 1-3 77 min. Worrall Sterling 2-3 86 min. Clayton Blackmore Attendance: 7.280 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Second legVicarage Road, 6 May 1982 Watford - Manchester United 4–4 aet 2–3 1-0 10 min. Billy Garton 1-1 30 min. Mark Hughes 2-1 35 min. David Johnson 2-2 48 min. Mark Dempsey 2-3 77 min. Mark Hughes 3-3 92 min. Andy Hill 3-4 100 min. Norman Whiteside 4-4 103 min. Jimmy Gilligan Attendance: 8.160 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality