New Inn - - is a village and community of 3,000 households directly south east of Pontypool, within the County Borough of Torfaen in Wales, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire. The village is bounded to the north by the Brecon Canal; the southern boundary is difficult to determine but extends no further than the Pimlico Garage on the old Newport Road. The modern-day village grew from a small number of houses built during the late nineteenth century and into the twentieth century along The Highway, the main route between Newport and Pontypool. An 1886 map details the village as "New-inn" with a small number of buildings clustered around the current centre of the village. At this time there were no houses along the Highway to the railway station. An independent Welsh chapel is recorded; the development of Panteg steelworks and a large marshalling yard and building of Pontypool Road Station further allowed the village to expand. By 1902 an Ordnance Survey county edition series map shows the village split into three distinct areas - Upper and Lower New Inn.
Upper New Inn corresponds to the centre of the village. A number of other areas are detailed including a small holding called Jerusalem which today gives its name to Jerusalem Lane. Of interest on this map is a wood opposite the School called "Black Plantation" that still exists today. A chapel is recorded in Lower New Inn. By 1910 the village's population was around 800. By 1922 a lot of additional residential housing has been built around the Ruth Road and Coed-y-Canddo areas containing predominantly housing accommodating more prosperous railway workers. A terrace of housing was built along the Highway between Berry's Corner and the Methodist Church; the polo ground is detailed on this map for the first time. Panteg cemetery appears for the first time. Curiously the centre of the village is named "Pontypool Road" on a 1922 map. By 1944 a number of key roads in the village appear including Golf Road, Woodfield Road and The Walk. Of interest are the still-standing bungalows built during the Second World War along The Walk for key workers at ROF Glascoed.
The map includes the expansion of the Clarewain Estate. Much of the north side of the Highway towards the railway station now has housing; the main roads forming the Coed-y-canddo estate are now in evidence. As in 1922, the centre of the village is still referred to as "Pontypool Road". A similar map of 1947 again calls the current village centre "Pontypool Road" with Upper New Inn listed as south of this and Lower New Inn mentioned where the current public house in. Council housing was built in the early 1950s on Caroline Road and adjacent roads as well as in the lower New Inn area. Further post-war developments included the'Heol Felin' housing estate built throughout the 1960s and into the early 1970s; the Golf Road development followed from the late 1960s into the 1970s and grew further with additional developments in the 1980s. The more recent development has seen the former Walker Steel industrial area Pilkingtons glass works, between the railway and the canal was developed into the Coed Camlas housing estate.
The village is now bypassed by the A4042. This dual carriageway provides rapid access to rest of Torfaen, Cardiff and to Bristol via the M4 corridor. In 2018 Torfaen Borough Council updated local road signage to incorporate a Welsh language name for the village - Y Dafarn Newydd. Prior to this the village had only been known as New Inn. St. Mary’s Church, Panteg is the local Church in Wales church, nestled a little way from the village centre to the south east. New Inn Congregational Church meet in the Chapel building at the south end of the village. At the south end of the village is Panteg Methodist Church; the village contains St Mary's Church Hall, the New Inn Chapel Hall, New Inn Community Hall shops and small convenience stores along The Highway. Within the village are two public houses - The Teazer and Lower New Inn - and the member's-only Greenlawn Social Club. New Inn's central post office closed in 2016. A football pitch and changing rooms, tennis courts as well as a children’s play area are clustered near the centre of New Inn.
Jarrold's Field, off New Road is a large recreational space with several rugby and football pitches and is home to New Panteg RFC and the New Inn Junior and Youth Football Clubs. The main local school is New Inn Primary School for 4 – 11-year-olds, it was formed by the amalgamation of Greenlawn Junior School and New Inn Infants' School in 2006. The former New Inn infants’ school has been renovated into a family learning centre. A fire station situated on New Road serves Pontypool, Griffithstown and New Inn, the surrounding villages of Little Mill and Penperlleni; the village is close to the southernmost reach of the Brecon Beacons National Park
Pontypool is a town, home to 36,000 people in the county borough of Torfaen, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire in South Wales. It is situated on the Afon Lwyd river in the county borough of Torfaen. Situated on the eastern edge of the South Wales coalfields, Pontypool grew around industries including iron and steel production, coal mining and the growth of the railways. A rather artistic manufacturing industry which flourished here alongside heavy industry was Japanning, a type of lacquer ware. Pontypool itself consists of several smaller districts, these include Abersychan, Pontnewynydd, Penygarn, Tranch, Pontymoile, Cwmynyscoy, New Inn and Sebastopol. Pontypool has a notable history as one of the earliest industrial towns in Wales; the town and its immediate surroundings were home to significant industrial and technological innovations, with links to the iron industry dating back to the early fifteenth century when a bloomery furnace was established at Pontymoile. During the sixteenth century due to the influence of the Hanbury family, the area developed its association with the iron industry and continued to consolidate its position in the seventeenth century, when the development of the town began in earnest.
Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the metallurgical and extractive industries of the area, along with the development of the canals and railways, provided the impetus to the expansion of Pontypool and its surrounding villages and communities. The Afon Lwyd valley, in which Pontypool is situated, provided an abundance of resources for the manufacturing of iron, including coal, iron ore and waterpower; the wider technological developments of the Tudor period, such as the utilisation of blast furnaces to produce iron, allowed for the greater exploitation of the mineral resources of south Wales. A blast furnace was in use at Monkswood, near Pontypool, from as early as 1536 and was followed by the erection of other blast furnaces in the area surrounding Pontypool. An ironworks was established in what became Pontypool Park in c. 1575. Forges, where cast iron could be converted into wrought iron, were developed and included Town Forge within Pontypool, in operation during the last quarter of the sixteenth century, the Osborne Forge, near Pontnewynydd, which produced the renowned Osmond iron.
Richard Hanbury of Worcestershire, a notable entrepreneur, developed interests within the Pontypool area during the 1570s, acquiring and developing forges and furnaces in Monkswood, Trosnant and Abercarn. Hanbury acquired leases and rights to utilise the raw materials of the wider area, including a large expanse of woodland to produce charcoal and some 800 acres of land to extract coal and iron-ore at Panteg and Mynyddislwyn. Furthermore, he secured the rights to extract coal and iron-ore on Lord Abergavenny’s Hills in and around Blaenavon; the Hanburys were active at Cwmlickey, Lower Race and Blaendare during the seventeenth century as the demand for coal was met. Major John Hanbury acquired a reputation as an industrial pioneer and through the endeavours of Hanbury and his leading agents, Thomas Cooke, William Payne and Thomas Allgood, significant developments within the British tinplate industry were made in Pontypool, including the introduction of the world’s first rolling for the production of iron sheets and blackplate at the Pontypool Park works in 1697.
Tinplate was being produced at Pontypool from c. 1706, with an important tin mill in operation at Pontymoile during the early eighteenth century. During the 1660s, Thomas Allgood of Northamptonshire, was appointed manager of the Pontypool Ironworks. Allgood developed the Pontypool ‘japanning’ process, whereby metal plate could be treated in a way that generated a lacquered and decorative finish. Thomas Allgood died in 1716, having been unable to commence production of his Pontypool Japanware but the increased creation of tinplate at Pontypool from the early eighteenth century allowed for japanning to enter wide scale manufacture. There was a growing demand for these artistic, luxury products and Allgood’s sons and Thomas, established a japanworks in Pontypool, producing large quantities of Japanware by 1732; the brothers produced a range of products, including decorative bread baskets, tea trays and other items, were renowned for their high quality work. Following the death of Edward Allgood in 1761 there was a family quarrel between his two sons and a rival japanning factory was established in Usk.
Both the Pontypool and Usk concerns had ceased production by the early 1820s. From the mid to late eighteenth century, as the industrial revolution took hold, there was a massive expansion in the economic development of south Wales. Iron-making flourished in emerging towns and settlements, notably at Merthyr Tydfil and Blaenavon. By the early nineteenth century, south Wales was the most important centre of iron production in the world. Whilst Pontypool was not as competitive as some of the larger ironworks towns, it retained a niche in the metallurgical market, producing specialist tinplate; the japanning industry of Pontypool continued to decline and had ceased by the mid-nineteenth century, by which time the economy of the Pontypool area relied on the iron and coal industries, the tinplate industry and the production of iron rails. The twentieth century witnessed a decline in the heavy industries of south Wales and this had a direct impact on the economy of Pontypool and its district; the growth of Pontypool accompanied the development of industry.
A dispersed, rural settlement, the first centres of growth took place in the hamlets of Tros
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, standardised as 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile, the Italian mile, the Chinese mile; the Romans divided their mile into 5,000 roman feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile spread to the British-colonized nations some of which continue to employ the mile; the US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as Liberia, the United Kingdom, the United States, a number of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or US.
The mile was abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre. However, derived units, such as miles per hour or miles per gallon, continue to be universally abbreviated as mph and mpg, respectively; the modern English word mile derives from Middle English myl and Old English mīl, cognate with all other Germanic terms for "miles". These derived from apocopated forms of the Latin mīlia or mīllia, the plural of mīle or mīlle "thousand" but used as a clipped form of mīlle passus or passuum, the Roman mile of one thousand paces; the present international mile is what is understood by the unqualified term "mile". When this distance needs to be distinguished from the nautical mile, the international mile may be described as a "land mile" or "statute mile". In British English, the "statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any other form of English mile since the 1593 Act of Parliament, which set it as a distance of 1,760 yards.
Under American law, the "statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical units translated into English as miles employ a qualifier to describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather than "Roman miles"; the mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing period—as m, M, ml, mi. The American National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi in order to avoid confusion with the SI metre and millilitre. However, derived units such as miles per hour or miles per gallon continue to be abbreviated as mph and mpg rather than mi/h and mi/gal. In the United Kingdom road signs use m as the abbreviation for mile though height and width restrictions use m as the abbreviation for the metre, which may be displayed alongside feet and inches; the BBC style holds that "There is no acceptable abbreviation for'miles'" and so it should be spelt out when used in describing areas.
The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. The ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles; the distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's establishment of a standard Roman foot in 29 BC, the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra spread its use. In modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated to have been about 1,617 yards in length. In Hellenic areas of the Empire, the Roman mile was used beside the native Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet; the mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was used as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia.
The Roman mile spread throughout Europe, with its local variations giving rise to the different units below. Arising from the Roman mile is the "milestone". All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on, carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum. Hence, one always knew; the Italian mile was traditionally considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000 paces, although its actual value over time or between regions could vary greatly. It was used in international contexts from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus known as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now a separate standard unit; the Arabic mile was not the common Arabic unit of length. The Arabic mile was, used by medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of precursor to the nautical or geographical mile, it extended the Roman mile to fit an astronomical approximatio
Dingestow railway station
Dingestow Station was a station on the Coleford, Monmouth and Pontypool Railway. It was built in 1857 during the construction of the line and was located 3 miles and 32 chains from Monmouth Troy, it was intended to serve the nearby village of Dingestow. It was closed in May 1955 due to a drivers' strike; the station consisted of little more than a station building with a small canopy and single platform. The station master's house was situated at the rear of the station; the station had a signal box from 1896 until June 1931 when it was taken out of use and replaced with two ground frames. There was a cattle loading dock
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were
The River Wye is the fifth-longest river in the UK, stretching some 215 kilometres from its source on Plynlimon in mid Wales to the Severn estuary. For much of its length the river forms part of the border between Wales; the Wye Valley is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Wye is important for nature recreation; the meaning of the name is not clear. The earliest reference to the name is Guoy in Nennius' early 9th Century Historia Brittonum and the modern Welsh name is Gwy; the Wye was much given a Latin name Vaga, an adjective meaning'wandering'. The Tithe map references a Vagas Field in both Chepstow. Philologists such as Edward Lye and Joseph Bosworth in the 18th and early 19th centuries suggested an Old English derivation from wæg, "wave"; the source of the Wye is in the Welsh mountains at Plynlimon. It flows through or past several towns and villages including Rhayader, Builth Wells, Hay-on-Wye, Ross-on-Wye, Symonds Yat and Tintern, meeting the Severn estuary just below Chepstow, its total length is 134 miles.
The lower 16 miles of the river from Redbrook to Chepstow forms the border between England and Wales. The River Wye forms two Sites of Special Scientific Interest, one covering the Upper Wye above Hay-on-Wye, one covering the Lower Wye downstream to Chepstow; the criteria for inclusion of the river as an SSSI include geology, flora, invertebrates and birdlife, as the river and its tributaries constitute a large linear ecosystem. The Lower Wye SSSI is itself divided into seven units of assessment set by Natural England, administrative responsibilities are shared between the county authorities of Powys, Herefordshire and Monmouthshire; the Wye abuts a range of other SSSIs in England and Wales, including the Upper Wye Gorge and Lower Wye Gorge. It is a Special Area of Conservation and one of the most important rivers in the UK for nature conservation, it is an important migration route and wildlife corridor, as well as a key breeding area for many nationally and internationally important species.
The river supports a range of species and habitats covered by European Directives and those listed under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. In Powys the river lies within the Radnorshire Environmentally Sensitive Area. Much of the lower valley is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the Lower Wye has been designated as a salmonid fishery under the EC Freshwater Fish Directive. The Wye is unpolluted and used to be considered one of the best rivers for salmon fishing in the United Kingdom, outside Scotland. In the 1980s and 1990s salmon in the Wye declined dramatically. In 1967 the Wye rod catch was 7,864, as as 1988 it was 6,401, it is now recovering from this low in response to the extensive habitat improvement work carried out by the Wye and Usk Foundation, set up to restore the spring salmon runs. In 2015 the five-year average once again climbed above 1,000 and it is now the third best salmon river in England and Wales, surpassed only by the Tyne and Wear; the Wye was famous for its large "spring" salmon that had spent three or more years at sea before returning to spawn.
They used to enter the river between January and June and sometimes reached weights of over 50 pounds, the largest recorded being 59 lb 8 oz landed after a long fight by Miss Doreen Davey from the Cowpond Pool at Winforton on 13 March 1923. The last recorded 50 lb rod-caught salmon from the Wye was taken in 1963 by Donald Parrish and weighed 51 lb 8 oz. Since the early 2000s the spring catch has been recovering and salmon of over 35 lb have been reported every year since 2011; the Romans constructed a bridge of stone just upstream of present-day Chepstow. The River Wye was and still is navigable up to Monmouth at least since the early 14th century, it was improved from there to a short distance below Hereford by Sir William Sandys in the early 1660s with locks to enable vessels to pass weirs. According to Herefordshire Council Archaeology, these were flash locks; the work proved to be insufficiently substantial and in 1696 a further Act of Parliament authorised the County of Hereford to buy up and demolish the mills on the Wye and Lugg.
All locks and weirs were removed, except that at New Weir forge below Goodrich, which survived until about 1815. This was paid for by a tax on the county. Weirs were removed all along the Wye in Herefordshire, making the river passable to the western boundary, beyond it at least to Hay on Wye. A horse towing path was added in 1808, but only up to Hereford. Money was spent several times improving the River Lugg from Leominster to its confluence with the Wye at Mordiford, but its navigation is to have been difficult; the Wye remained commercially navigable until the 1850s. It is still used by pleasure craft. In 2017 MORE than 600 people took to the River Wye in inflatables ranging from dinghies to paddling pools during the event WYE FLOAT, opened by former Olympic ski jumper Eddie the Eagle; the Environment Agency is the navigation authority for the river. The Normal Tidal Limit of the river is Bigsweir and navigation below this point is under the control of the Gloucester Harbour Trustees as Competent Harbour Authority.
There is a public right of navigation downstream from Hay-on-Wye. Canoes are permitted at and downstream of Glasbury, so long as they do not disturb anglers; the River Wye provides for canoeing and kayaking as it has sections