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Ponzi scheme

A Ponzi scheme is a form of fraud that lures investors and pays profits to earlier investors with funds from more recent investors. The scheme leads victims to believe that profits are coming from product sales or other means, they remain unaware that other investors are the source of funds. A Ponzi scheme can maintain the illusion of a sustainable business as long as new investors contribute new funds, as long as most of the investors do not demand full repayment and still believe in the non-existent assets they are purported to own; the scheme is named after Charles Ponzi. The idea had been carried out from 1869 to 1872 by Adele Spitzeder in Germany and by Sarah Howe in the United States in the 1880s through the "Ladies' Deposit". Howe offered a female clientele an eight-percent monthly interest rate, stole the money that the women had invested, she was discovered and served three years in prison. The Ponzi scheme was previously described in novels. Ponzi carried out this scheme and became well known throughout the United States because of the huge amount of money that he took in.

His original scheme was based on the legitimate arbitrage of international reply coupons for postage stamps, but he soon began diverting new investors' money to make payments to earlier investors and to himself. Ponzi schemes require an initial investment and promise above average returns, they use vague verbal guises such as "hedge futures trading", "high-yield investment programs", or "offshore investment" to describe their income strategy. It is common for the operator to take advantage of a lack of investor knowledge or competence, or sometimes claim to use a proprietary, secret investment strategy to avoid giving information about the scheme; the basic premise of a Ponzi scheme is "to rob Peter to pay Paul". The operator pays high returns to attract investors and entice current investors to invest more money; when other investors begin to participate, a cascade effect begins. The schemer pays a "return" to initial investors from the investments of new participants, rather than from genuine profits.

High returns encourage investors to leave their money in the scheme, so that the operator does not have to pay much to investors. The operator sends statements showing how much they have earned, which maintains the deception that the scheme is an investment with high returns. Investors within a Ponzi scheme may face difficulties when trying to get their money out of the investment. Operators try to minimize withdrawals by offering new plans to investors where money cannot be withdrawn for a certain period of time in exchange for higher returns; the operator sees new cash flows. If a few investors do wish to withdraw their money in accordance with the terms allowed, their requests are promptly processed, which gives the illusion to all other investors that the fund is solvent and financially sound. Ponzi schemes sometimes begin as legitimate investment vehicles, such as hedge funds that can degenerate into a Ponzi-type scheme if they unexpectedly lose money or fail to legitimately earn the returns expected.

The operators fabricate false returns or produce fraudulent audit reports instead of admitting their failure to meet expectations, the operation is considered a Ponzi scheme. A wide variety of investment vehicles and strategies legitimate, have become the basis of Ponzi schemes. For instance, Allen Stanford used bank certificates of deposit to defraud tens of thousands of people. Certificates of deposit are low-risk and insured instruments, but the Stanford certificates of deposit were fraudulent. According to the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, many Ponzi schemes share similar characteristics that should be "red flags" for investors; the warning signs include: High investment returns with little or no risk. Every investment carries some degree of risk, investments yielding higher returns involve more risk. Any "guaranteed" investment opportunity is considered suspicious. Overly consistent returns. Investment values tend to go up and down over time those offering high returns. An investment that continues to generate regular positive returns regardless of overall market conditions is considered suspicious.

Unregistered investments. Ponzi schemes involve investments that have not been registered with the SEC or with state regulators. Registration is important because it provides investors with access to key information about the company's management, products and finances. Unlicensed sellers. Federal and state securities laws require that investment professionals and their firms be licensed or registered. Most Ponzi schemes involve unregistered firms. Secretive or complex strategies. Investments that can not be do not give complete information. Issues with paperwork. Excuses are given regarding. Account statement errors and inconsistencies are signs that funds are not being invested as promised. Difficulty receiving payments. Clients have failures to have difficulty cashing out their investments. Ponzi scheme promoters encourage participants to "roll over" investments and sometimes promise higher returns on the amount rolled over. If a Ponzi scheme is not stopped by authorities, it falls apart for one of the following reasons: The operator vanishes, taking all the remaining inve

Gare de Noisy-le-Grand – Mont d'Est

Noisy-le-Grand–Mont d'Est is a train station in Noisy-le-Grand, Seine-Saint-Denis, located under Les Arcades department store. The station is located in the Mont d'Est district of Noisy-le-Grand, under Les Arcades department store. One can walk from the station to the mall without going outside, it opened in 1977 as RER line A was created. During the 1990s, a SK people mover was supposed to link the station and office blocks, but the project failed. However, the line was created and the ghost station still exists. Noisy-le-Grand–Mont d'Est is served by RER line A; the average waiting time for trains to Paris and Marne-la-Vallée – Chessy is 10 minutes. During peak hours, some trains from Paris terminate there; the station is served by RATP buses: Line 120 to Nogent-sur-Marne.

Ossie Blanco

Oswaldo Carlos Blanco Díaz is a former Major League Baseball first baseman. He threw right-handed. Blanco posted a.196 batting average in 52 games for the Chicago White Sox in 1970 and the Cleveland Indians in 1974. He was traded along with José Ortiz by the White Sox to the Chicago Cubs for Dave Lemonds, Roe Skidmore and Pat Jacquez on November 30, 1970. In 2015, he was enshrined into the Venezuelan Baseball Hall of Museum. List of players from Venezuela in Major League Baseball Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Mexican Baseball League statistics Venezuelan Professional Baseball League statistics

Güven Sak

Güven Sak is a Turkish economist and academic. Born in Bursa, Sak graduated from the University of East Anglia with a master's degree in economics in 1984, with a PhD in economics from the Middle East Technical University in 1994, he was a founding member of the Monetary Policy Committee of the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, to which he was appointed as an external member in 2001 for a five-year term. He was rector of TOBB University of Economics and Technology from 2011 to 2013, is managing director of the Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey

Company scrip

Company scrip is scrip issued by a company to pay its employees. It can only be exchanged in company stores owned by the employers. In the UK, such truck systems have long been formally outlawed under the Truck Acts. In the United States and logging camps were created and operated by a single company; these locations, some quite remote, were cash poor. With this economic monopoly, the employer could place large markups on goods, making workers dependent on the company, thus enforcing employee "loyalty". In 19th century United States forested areas, cash was hard to come by; this was true in lumber camps, where workers were paid in company-issued scrip rather than government issued currency. In Wisconsin, for example, forest-products and lumber companies were exempted from the state law requiring employers to pay workers' wages in cash. Lumber and timber companies paid their workers in scrip, redeemable at the company store. Company-run stores served as a convenience for workers and their families, but allowed the companies to recapture some of their labor expenses.

In certain cases, employers included contract provisions requiring employees to patronize the company stores. Employees who wanted to change their scrip to cash had to do so at a discount. Lumber company scrip was redeemable in lumber as well as other merchandise. According to the Wisconsin Historical Society, such an option may have appealed to new settlers in the region, who worked in the lumber camps in winter to earn enough money to establish a farm. Taking some of their wages in lumber may have helped them build a much-needed house or barn. Coal scrip is "tokens or paper with a monetary value issued to workers as an advance on wages by the coal company or its designated representative"; as such, coal scrip could only be used at the specific coal town of the company named. Because coal scrip was used in the context of a coal town, where there are no other retail establishments in that specific remote location, employees who used this could only redeem their value at that specific location.

As there were no other retail establishments, this constituted a monopoly. The country musician Merle Travis makes a reference to coal scrip in the song, "Sixteen Tons" on the Folk Songs of the Hills album and made famous by Tennessee Ernie Ford; the practice has been documented as as 2019. On September 4, 2008, the Mexican Supreme Court of Justice ruled that Wal-Mart de Mexico, the Mexican subsidiary of Wal-Mart, must cease paying its employees in part with vouchers redeemable only at Wal-Mart stores. On May 21, 2019, The Washington Post published an article highlighting Amazon's new system of "gamification", which rewards employees who complete high numbers of orders with Swag Bucks or voluntary play video games, which can be used to buy Amazon-themed merchandise. However, the Amazon employees are paid wages in ordinary national currencies. Company town Truck system Private currency Harte, C. J. "Coal mine scrip collectors to meet". Middlesboro Daily News. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013.

Retrieved July 21, 2012. Cawood, past president National Scrip Collectors AssociationScrip Definition

Sam Spade (software)

Sam Spade was the name of a Windows software tool designed to assist in tracking down sources of e-mail spam. It was the name of a free web service that provides access to similar online tools; the Sam Spade utility was authored by Steve Atkins in 1997. It is named after the fictional character Sam Spade; the main features were: Zone Transfer – ask a DNS server for all it knows about a domain SMTP Relay Check – check whether a mail server allows third party relaying Scan Addresses – scan a range of IP addresses looking for open ports Crawl website – search a website, looking for email addresses, offsite links, etc. Browse web – browse the web in a raw http format Check cancels – search your news server for cancel messages Fast and Slow Traceroute – find the route packets take between you and a remote system S-Lang command – issue a scripting command. Since it experienced various outage problems due to "blackholing of by several RIRs and general heavy usage." and is no longer online.

The URL redirects to which contains a similar set of web tools under the brand name "wiseTools" and hosted by Atkins's email software business Word to The Wise Sam Spade home page Sam Spade download sites Windows client download page archived Windows client software Download Sam Spade from Using Sam Spade Sam Spade tutorial by Terry Pasley, 2003, maintained at SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room