The Poor Clares the Order of Saint Clare – referred to as the Order of Poor Ladies, the Clarisses, the Minoresses, the Franciscan Clarist Order, the Second Order of Saint Francis – are members of a contemplative Order of nuns in the Catholic Church. The Poor Clares were the second Franciscan branch of the order to be established. Founded by Saints Clare of Assisi and Francis of Assisi on Palm Sunday in the year 1212, they were organized after the Order of Friars Minor, before the Third Order of Saint Francis for the laity; as of 2011 there were over 20,000 Poor Clare nuns in over 75 countries throughout the world. They are organized into federations; the Poor Clares follow the Rule of St. Clare, approved by Pope Innocent IV the day before Clare's death in 1253; the main branch of the Order follows the observance of Pope Urban. Other branches established since that time, who operate under their own unique Constitutions, are the Colettine Poor Clares, the Capuchin Poor Clares and the Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration.
The Poor Clares were founded by Clare of Assisi in the year 1212. Little is known of Clare's early life, although popular tradition hints that she came from a well-to-do family in Assisi. At the age of eighteen, inspired by the preaching of Francis in the cathedral, Clare ran away from home to join his community of friars at the Portiuncula, some way outside the town. Although, according to tradition, her family wanted to take her back by force, Clare's dedication to holiness and poverty inspired the friars to accept her resolution, she was given the habit of a nun and transferred to Benedictine monasteries, first at Bastia and at Sant' Angelo di Panzo, for her monastic formation. By 1216 Francis was able to offer Clare and her companions a monastery adjoining the chapel of San Damiano where she became abbess. Clare's mother, two of her sisters and some other wealthy women from Florence soon joined her new Order. Clare dedicated her order to the strict principles of Francis, setting a rule of extreme poverty far more severe than that of any female order of the time.
Clare's determination that her order not be wealthy or own property, that the nuns live from alms given by local people, was protected by the papal bull Privilegium paupertatis, issued by Pope Innocent III. By this time the order had grown to number three monasteries; the movement spread, though in a somewhat disorganized fashion, with several monasteries of women devoted to the Franciscan ideal springing up elsewhere in Northern Italy. At this point Ugolino, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, was given the task of overseeing all such monasteries and preparing a formal rule. Although monasteries at Monticello, Siena and elsewhere adopted the new Rule - which allowed for property to be held in trust by the papacy for the various communities - it was not adopted by Clare herself or her monastery at San Damiano. Ugolino's Rule based on the Benedictine one, was amended in 1263 by Pope Urban IV to allow for the communal ownership of property, was adopted by a growing number of monasteries across Europe. Communities adopting this less rigorous rule came to be known as the Order of Saint Clare or the Urbanist Poor Clares.
Clare herself resisted the Ugolino Rule, since it did not enough follow the ideal of complete poverty advocated by Francis. On 9 August 1253, she managed to obtain a papal bull, Solet annuere, establishing a rule of her own, more following that of the friars, which forbade the possession of property either individually or as a community. Applying only to Clare's community at San Damiano, this rule was adopted by many monasteries. Communities that followed this stricter rule were fewer in number than the followers of the rule formulated by Cardinal Ugolino, became known as "Poor Clares" or Primitives; the situation was further complicated a century when Saint Colette of Corbie restored the primitive rule of strict poverty to 17 French monasteries. Her followers came to be called the Colettine Poor Clares. Two further branches, the Capuchin Poor Clares and the Alcantarines followed the strict observance; the group disappeared as a distinct group when their observance among the friars was ended, with the friars being merged by the Holy See into the wider observant branch of the First Order.
The spread of the order began in 1218. Saint Agnes of Assisi, a sister of Clare, introduced the order to Spain, where Barcelona and Burgos hosted major communities; the order further expanded to Belgium and France where a monastery was founded at Reims in 1229, followed by Montpellier, Bordeaux and Besançon. A monastery at Marseilles was founded directly from Assisi in 1254; the Poor Clares monastery founded by Queen Margaret in Paris, St. Marcel, was where she died in 1295. King Philip IV and Queen Joan founded a monastery at Moncel in the Beauvais diocese. By A. D. 1300 there were 47 Poor Clare monasteries in Spain alone. The first Poor Clare monastery in England was founded in 1286 in Newcastle upon Tyne. In Medieval England, where the nuns were known as "Minoresses", their principal monastery was located near Aldgate, known as the Abbey of the Order of St Clare; the order gave its name to the still-extant street known as Minories on the eastern boundary of the City of London. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, several religious communities formed
The Belli designated Beli or Belaiscos were an ancient pre-Roman Celtic Celtiberian people who lived in the modern Spanish province of Zaragoza from the 3rd Century BC. Roman authors for unknown reasons wrote that the Belli were of mixed Illyrian and Celtic origin and related with the Bellovaci, who were said to have migrated to the Iberian Peninsula around the 4th Century BC and part of the Celtiberians. There is an overwhelming amount of evidence that the ancestors of the Celtiberian groups were installed in the Meseta area of the peninsula from at least 1000 BC and much earlier; the Belli inhabited the middle Jiloca and Huerva river valleys in Zaragoza province with their territories stretching up to the Guadalope and upper Turia valleys, close to their neighbours and clients, the Titii. Their early capital was Segeda, subsequently transferred to nearby Durón de Belmonte and offset by Bilbilis. Other Belli urban centers included Nertobriga, Contrebia Belaisca, Beligiom and Belgeda, it is plausible that by the 2nd Century BC they exerted some form of control over the strategic frontier towns of Belia, Osicerda and Orosis, facing the Iberian Lobetani and Edetani peoples of the modern Valencia coastal region.
The most culturally advanced of the peoples of southern Celtiberia, the Belli were the first Celtiberian tribe to adopt coinage in the aftermath of the 2nd Punic War and to post laws in written form on bronze tablets, using a modified Northeastern Iberian script for their own language. In this script and language they inscribed the characteristic Celtiberian'hospitality tokens' which are small bronze objects, in two halves, each half being retained by people who stood in hospitality relationship to one another; these would act as a sort of identity card, were used as safe-conducts or other warranties. The two halves have been found in places several hundreds of kilometres apart, which implies that the various Celtic groups maintained a system of communications throughout at least central Spain; the most complete Celtiberian text we have on the bronze'hospitality tokens' that acted as a sort of identity card is from the Belli and reads lubos alisokum aualoske kontebias belaiskas meaning'Lubos of the Aliso family, son of Aualos, from Contrebia Belaisca' showing the self-description of this man, by paternity, extended family and territory, characteristically Celtic.
During the 3rd-2nd centuries BC, the Belli joined the Celtiberian confederacy alongside the Arevaci and Titii, with whom they developed close political and military ties – in 153 BC the Numantines elected the Belli General Caros as leader of the Celtiberian coalition army that ambushed the Consul Quintus Fulvius Nobilior at the battle of Ribarroya, at the Baldano river valley in the beginning of the first Numantine War. Prior to that, they had been forced in 181 BC to accept Roman suzerainty by Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus the Elder, but this did not prevent them from resisting further Roman encroachment of their lands as well as fighting off Turboletae raids and the Iberian Lobetani people. With the fall of Numantia in 133 BC and the subsequent collapse of the Celtiberian confederacy, the Belli territory was incorporated into Hispania Citerior province though little is known of their history afterwards; the Belli appear to have remained independent until the Sertorian Wars of the early 1st Century BC, when they were pushed back from the upper Jiloca by the Edetani who seized Beligiom, Belgeda and Orosis, therefore losing all the lands east of the Huerva River.
Around 72 BC they and their Titii allies merged with the pro-Roman Uraci and Olcades tribes to form the Late Celtiberian people of romanized southern Celtiberia. Belgae Bellovaci Celtiberian confederacy Celtiberian script Celtiberian Wars Illyrians Numantine War Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Ángel Montenegro et alii, Historia de España 2 - colonizaciones y formación de los pueblos prerromanos, Editorial Gredos, Madrid ISBN 84-249-1386-8 Alberto J. Lorrio, Los Celtíberos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Murcia ISBN 84-7908-335-2 Francisco Burillo Mozota, Los Celtíberos, etnias y estados, Crítica, Barcelona ISBN 84-7423-891-9 Rafael Trevino and Angus McBride, Rome's Enemies: Spanish Armies 218BC-19BC, Men-at-Arms series 180, Osprey Publishing Ltd, London ISBN 0-85045-701-7 Aedeen Cremin, The Celts in Europe, Australia: Sydney Series in Celtic Studies 2, Centre for Celtic Studies, University of Sydney ISBN 0-86758-624-9. Dáithí Ó hÓgáin, The Celts: A History, The Collins Press, Cork ISBN 0-85115-923-0 Daniel Varga, The Roman Wars in Spain: The Military Confrontation with Guerrilla Warfare, Pen & Sword Military, Barnsley ISBN 978-1-47382-781-3 Ludwig Heinrich Dyck, The Roman Barbarian Wars: The Era of Roman Conquest, Author Solutions ISBNs 1426981821, 9781426981821 Leonard A Curchin.
Internet talk radio is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting radio shows on the internet is preferred to webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means, it works by Internet radio transmissions. In 1993, Carl Malamud launched Internet talk radio, the "first computer-radio talk show, each week interviewing a computer expert." This was Internet radio only insofar as it was conceptually a radio show on the Internet. As late as 1995, Internet talk radio was not available via multicast streaming; however Malamud was among the foremost proponents of multicasting technology. In late 1994, his Internet Multicasting Service was set to launch RTFM, a multicast Internet radio news station. In January 1995, RTFM's news programming was expanded to include "live audio feeds from the House and Senate floors." A 1995 UK experiment in Internet talk radio was set up by the Open University's Knowledge Media Institute in collaboration with the BBC's Open University Production Unit.
Called "KMi Maven Of The Month", the events featured interviews with experts in Human Computer Interaction, New Media and Artificial Intelligence, deployed a combination of streaming audio, web-chat, phone-ins and live video. The first event, an interview with Henry Lieberman of the MIT Media Lab, took place on 18 October 1995; that event used a mixture of least-common-denominator technology available at that time: 14.4kbit/s dialup modems, RealAudio, CU-SeeMe, web forms and chat windows for questioners, landline telephony to'pull in' questioners after they had provided their phone numbers. Comparison of streaming media systems Community radio Electronic commerce Internet radio Internet radio audience measurement Internet radio device Internet television Radio music ripping Simulcast TuneIn Internet radio licensing TheZen.fm Studios.fm Channel One Radio USA Talk Network World Talk Network Contact Talk Radio TalkZone Talk Radio Network Web Talk Radio Big Media USA BBS Radio VoiceAmerica Talk Radio Revealing Talk Radio Transformation Radio Network WRVO Radio Network 1 LA Talk Radio OC Talk Radio