Pope Adrian I was Bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 1 February 772 to his death in 795. He was the son of a Roman nobleman. Adrian and his predecessors had to contend with periodic attempts by the Lombards to expand their holdings in Italy at the expense of the papacy. Not receiving any support from Constantinople, the popes looked for help to the Franks. Adrian's tenure saw the culmination of on-going territorial disputes between Charlemagne and his brother Carloman; the Lombard king Desiderius supported the claims of Carloman's sons to their late father's land, requested Pope Adrian crown Carloman's sons "Kings of the Frank". When the Pope failed to do so, Desiderius invaded Papal territory and seized the Duchy of the Pentapolis. Charlemagne took the Lombard crown for himself, he restored the Pentapolis to the Papacy as well as some of the captured Lombard territory. Shortly after Adrian's accession in 772, the territory ruled by the papacy was invaded by Desiderius, king of the Lombards, Adrian was compelled to seek the assistance of the Frankish king Charlemagne, who entered Italy with a large army.
Charlemagne besieged Desiderius in his capital of Pavia. After taking the town, he banished the Lombard king to the Abbey of Corbie in France, adopted the title "King of the Lombards" himself; the pope, whose expectations had been aroused, had to content himself with some additions to the Duchy of Rome, the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Pentapolis in the Marches, which consisted of the "five cities" on the Adriatic coast from Rimini to Ancona with the coastal plain as far as the mountains. He celebrated the occasion by striking the earliest papal coin, in a mark of the direction the mediaeval papacy was to take, no longer dated his documents by the Emperor in the east, but by the reign of Charles, king of the Franks. A mark of such newly settled conditions in the Duchy of Rome is the Domusculta Capracorum, the central Roman villa that Adrian assembled from a nucleus of his inherited estates and acquisitions from neighbors in the countryside north of Veii; the villa is documented in Liber Pontificalis, but its site was not rediscovered until the 1960s, when excavations revealed the structures on a gently-rounded hill, only marginally capable of self-defense, but self-sufficient for a mixed economy of grains and vineyards, vegetable gardens and piggery with its own grain mill and tile-kilns.
During the 10th century villages were carved out of Adrian's Capracorum estate: Campagnano, mentioned first in 1076. While the Lombards had always been respectful of the papacy, the popes distrusted them; the popes had sought aid from the Eastern Roman Empire to keep them in check. Adrian continued this policy; because the East could offer no direct aid, Adrian looked to the Franks to offset the power of the Lombards. Upon the death of Pepin the Short in 768, his kingdom was left to his sons Charlemagne and Carloman I. Relations between the brothers is said to have been strained. In 770 Tassilo III, Duke of Bavaria married a Lombard princess, daughter of King Desiderius, to confirm the traditional alliance between Lombardy and Bavaria; that same year, Charlemagne concluded a treaty with Duke Tassilo, married Liutperga's sister, Desiderata, to surround Carloman with his own allies. Less than a year Charlemagne repudiated Desiderata and married Hildegard, the daughter of Count Gerold of Kraichgau and his wife Emma, daughter, in turn, of Duke Nebe of Alemannia.
Hildegard's father had extensive possessions in the territory under Carloman's dominion. This marriage was advantageous to Charlemagne because it allowed him to strengthen his position east of the Rhine and bind the Alemannian nobility to his side. With Desiderata's return to her father's court at Pavia, Desiderius was grievously insulted, appears to have made an alliance with Carloman against Charlemagne and the Papacy, which looked to the Franks for protection against Lombard incursions into Papal territory.. Carloman died in December 771, when Charlemagne seized his brother's territory, Carloman's widow and their two sons fled for refuge to the Lombard court at Pavia. Desiderius made overtures to Pope Adrian, requesting that he acknowledge Carloman's sons' right to succeed their father, crown them as Kings of the Franks. With Charlemagne occupied with a campaign against the Saxons, Desiderius saw an opportunity to take all of Italy, he invaded the Duchy of the Pentapolis, given to the papacy in 756 by Charlemagne's father.
Desiderius's support of the claims of Carloman's sons posed a potential challenge to the legitimacy of Charlemagne's possession of his brother's lands. In 773, he cut short a military campaign near Paderborn, crossed the Alps, laid siege to Pavia. In exchange for their lives, the Lombards surrendered and Desiderius was sent to the abbey of Corbie. Charlemagne assumed the title "King of the Lombards". From 781 Adrian began dating papal documents by the years of Charlemagne's reign, instead of the reign of the Byzantine Emperor. Friendly relations between pope and king were not disturbed by the theological dispute about the veneration of icons. In 787, Second Council of Nicaea, approved by Pope Adrian, had confirmed the practice and excommunicated the iconoclasts. Charlemagne, who had received the Council's decisions only in a bad Latin translation, consulted with his theologians and sent the Pope the Capitulare contra synodum, a response critical of several passages found in the council's acts.
He had his theologians, including Theodulf of Orleans, compose the more comprehensive Libri
Olivia MFSK is an amateur radioteletype protocol, using multiple frequency-shift keying and designed to work in difficult conditions on shortwave bands. The signal can be received if the surrounding noise is 10 dB stronger, it is used by amateur radio operators to reliably transmit ASCII characters over noisy channels using the high frequency spectrum. The effective data rate of the Olivia MFSK protocol is 150 characters/minute. Olivia modes are referred to as Olivia X / Y, where X refers to the number of different audio tones transmitted and Y refers to the bandwidth in hertz over which these signals are spread. Examples of common Olivia modes are 16/500, 32/1000 and 8/250; the protocol was developed at the end of 2003 by Pawel Jalocha. The first on-the-air tests were performed by two radio amateurs, Fred OH/DK4ZC and Les VK2DSG on the Europe-Australia path in the 20-meter amateur band; the tests proved that the protocol works well and can allow regular intercontinental radio contacts with as little as one watt RF power.
Since 2005 Olivia has become a standard for digital data transfer under white noise and multipath, flutter and auroral conditions. Since Olivia signals can be decoded when received signals are weak, signals strong enough to be decoded are sometimes below the noise floor and therefore impossible to search for manually; as a result, amateur radio operators have voluntarily decided upon channelization for this mode. This channelization allows imperceptibly weak signals to be properly tuned for reception and decoding. By common convention amateur stations initiate contacts utilizing either the 16/500 or 32/1000 modes and switch to other modes to continue the conversation; the following table lists the common center frequencies used in the amateur radio bands. Following the introduction of new amateur radio digital modes and the resulting overlapping with the Olivia calling frequencies on some amateur radio bands, US radio amateur Tomas Hood NW7US consulted the members subscribed to an Olivia MFSK users newsgroup and created a new list of calling frequencies in November 2017.
Conversations using Olivia are by convention initiated using either Olivia 16/500 or Olivia 32/1000. Once communications have been established, the communicating parties mutually decide if another mode would better suit the current propagation conditions; the possible number of tones that can be chosen are 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 with higher numbers of tones giving more data redundancy but slower throughput and lower numbers of tones giving faster throughput at the cost of less redundancy. Available bandwidths for Olivia are 125 Hz, 256 Hz, 512 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz with wider bandwidths giving faster throughput and narrower bandwidths giving slower throughput; the most used combinations are 4/125, 8/250, 8/500, 16/500, 16/1000, 32/1000. Being a digital protocol, Olivia transmits a stream of ASCII characters; the characters are sent in blocks of 5. Each block takes 2 seconds to transmit, thus the effective data rate is 2.5 character/second or 150 characters/minute. The most common transmission bandwidth is 1000 Hz and the baud rate is 31.25 MFSK tones/second.
To accommodate for different conditions and for the purpose of experimentation the bandwidth and the baud rate can be changed. The Olivia transmission system is constructed of two layers: the lower and forward error correcting code layer is a classical multiple frequency-shift keying while the higher layer is a forward error correcting code based on Walsh functions. Both layers are of similar nature: they constitute a "1-out-of-N" FEC code. For the first layer the orthogonal functions are sine functions, with 32 different frequencies. At a given time only one of those 32 tones is being sent; the demodulator measures the amplitudes of all the 32 possible tones and picks up the tone with the highest amplitude. For the second FEC layer: every ASCII character is encoded as one of 64 possible Walsh functions; the receiver again chooses the greatest. For optimal performance the actual demodulators work with soft decisions and the final decision to decode a character is taken only at the second layer.
Thus the first layer demodulator produces soft decisions for each of the 5 bits associated to an MFSK tone instead of picking up the highest tone to produce hard decisions for those 5 bits. In order to avoid simple transmitted patterns and to minimize the chance for a false lock at the synchronizer the characters encoded into the Walsh function pass through a scrambler and interleaver; this stage shifts and XORs bits with predefined scrambling vectors and so it does not improve the performance where the white noise is concerned, but the resulting pattern gains certain distinct characteristics which are of great help to the synchronizer. The receiver synchronizes automatically by searching through possible time and frequency offsets for a matching pattern; the frequency search range is +/- 100 Hz but can be as high as +/- 500 Hz if the user wishes so. The default mode sends 32 tones within the 1000 Hz audio bandwidth and the tones are spaced by 1000 Hz/32 = 31.25 Hz. The tones are shaped to minimize the amount of energy sent outside the nominal bandwidth.
The exact shape formula is: + 1.0000000000
Sergio Tomás Massa is an Argentine politician who serves as president of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, whilst being a national deputy for Buenos Aires Province. Massa is the current leader of the peronist Renewal Front. Massa served as Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers from 2008 to 2009 under Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, twice-Intendente of Tigre, Executive Director of ANSES, Argentina's decentralized state social insurance agency; as leader of the Renewal Front, Massa ran for President in 2015, finishing third in the first round of voting with 21%. Massa was born in western Buenos Aires suburb of San Martín, in 1972, to Italian parents from Niscemi and raised in neighboring San Andrés. Attending the School of St. Augustine through grade and secondary school, he enrolled at the University of Belgrano, a private university in the upscale Buenos Aires borough of the same name. Leaving school before completing his law degree studies, he married Malena Galmarini, whose father, Fernando Galmarini, was at the time Secretary of Sports for President Carlos Menem.
He did not finish his law degree studies until 2013, during the campaign of 2013 legislative election. He became affiliated to the conservative UCeDé in 1989 as an aide to Alejandro Keck, councilman for the San Martín partido. Massa joined the ruling Justicialist Party in 1995, when the UCeDé endorsed the re-election of President Menem after the latter had sidestepped much of his populist Justicialist Party's platform in favor of a more conservative one. Shortly after a crisis led to President Fernando de la Rúa's December 2001 resignation, the Congress appointed Senator Eduardo Duhalde, a more traditional Peronist than Menem had been. Acquainted with Massa through Restaurant Workers' Union leader Luis Barrionuevo. Duhalde appointed Massa as Director of the ANSeS; the pragmatic Massa ran on President Néstor Kirchner's center-left Front for Victory ticket during the 2005 legislative elections. Securing a seat in the Chamber of Deputies, he forfeited it at the behest of the President, who requested that he stay on as Director of ANSeS.
Remaining at the post two more years, he oversaw the voluntary conversion of several million private pension accounts to the ANSeS' aegis when this choice was made available in December 2006. Massa was elected Mayor of the Paraná Delta partido of Tigre in October 2007; those elections brought President Néstor Kirchner's wife, Senator Cristina Kirchner, to the Presidency. Enjoying large majorities in Congress, her administration suffered its first major setback when her proposals for higher agricultural export taxes were defeated on July 16, 2008, with Vice President Julio Cobos's surprise, tie-breaking vote against them; the controversy helped lead to the July 23 resignation of Alberto Fernández, the president's Cabinet Chief, to his replacement with Sergio Massa who, at 36, became the youngest person to hold the influential post since its creation in 1994. He was persuaded to run as a stand-in candidate for the ruling Front for Victory ahead of the June 2009 mid-term elections. Massa, enlisted his own candidates - including his wife - for Tigre City Council under his own ticket, its success in these city council races distanced him from others in the FpV.
Massa had, harbored differences with the president over a number of policies, including the nationalization of loss-producing private pension funds, the use of the INDEC bureau to understate inflation data, the vast regulatory powers granted to Commerce Secretary Guillermo Moreno. Following the FpV's narrow defeat in the Lower House mid-term races, Massa tendered his resignation to the President, effective July 7. Massa, who appointed the city council president as provisional mayor while he served as the president's cabinet chief, returned to his office of Mayor of Tigre on July 24, he was investigated along with other officials for the illegal retension of "repayments" of nonexistent loans from the pensions of about 17 thousand retired while he was director of the ANSESIn 2010 Massa joined a group of eight Buenos Aires Province mayors in calling for the establishment of local police departments independent of the Provincial Police. He stumbled into controversy, when the WikiLeaks disclosures of 2010 mentioned a number of indiscretions on Massa's part during a dinner hosted the previous year at the U.
S. Ambassador's Residence, he was said by one of Ambassador Vilma Socorro Martínez's cables to have revealed details about working with former President Néstor Kirchner, stating that he was "a psychopath. He added that the former president "runs the Argentine government" while his wife "followed orders," and that she "would be better off without him." He remained allied as a member of the FpV faction and the Cristina Kirchner administration, was re-elected mayor on the FpV slate with 73% of the vote in 2011. Polling ahead of the October 2013 mid-term elections gave Massa better prospects running for Congress under the FpV party list than on a separate slate. Upon the filing deadline on June 22, Massa opted to form his own Frente Renovador faction with the support of the'Group of 8' Buenos Aires Province Mayors and others, notably former Argentine Industrial Union president José Ignacio de Mendiguren