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Pope Adrian IV

Pope Adrian IV known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159. Adrian IV is the only Englishman and the only inhabitant of the British Isles to have occupied the papal throne, it is believed that he was born in Bedmond in the parish of Abbots Langley in Hertfordshire and received his early education at Merton Priory and the Abbey School, St Albans. Breakspeare rose to be prior, he served as papal legate in Scandinavia. As Pope, he crowned Frederick I Barbarossa, removed Arnold of Brescia, who had challenged Papal rule of Rome, to become "to all intents and purposes, master of the city". Nicholas' father was Robert, who became a monk at St Albans. Nicholas was refused admission to his local monastery, so he went to Paris and became a canon regular of St Rufus monastery near Arles, he rose to be prior and was soon unanimously elected abbot. Nicholas gained a reputation as a formidably strict disciplinarian, his reforming zeal as abbot led to the lodging of complaints against him at Rome, but these attracted the favourable attention of Pope Eugene III, who named him Cardinal Bishop of Albano in December 1149.

It is reported that Nicholas' eloquence, ability and "his outstanding good looks" assisted with his selection. From 1152 to 1154, Nicholas was in Scandinavia as papal legate, establishing an independent archepiscopal see for Norway at Trondheim, a place he chose chiefly in honour of St Olaf; this led him to create the Diocese at Hamar, according to tradition, to form cathedral schools in Norway's bishopric cities. These schools were to have Catholic spirituality in Norway. Nicholas made arrangements which resulted in the recognition of Gamla Uppsala as seat of the Swedish metropolitan in 1164; as compensation for territory thus withdrawn, the Danish archbishop of Lund was made legate and perpetual vicar and given the title of primate of Denmark and Sweden. Nicholas was accompanied to Scandinavia by another English-born priest, Bishop of Finland, venerated by Catholics and Anglicans as Saint Henry of Uppsala. On his return to Rome, Nicholas was received with great honour by Pope Anastasius IV.

On the death of Anastasius, Nicholas was unanimously elected as Pope on 3 December 1154, taking the name Adrian IV. He at once endeavoured to bring down Arnold of Brescia, the leader of the anti-papal faction in Rome. Disorder within the city led to the murder of a cardinal, prompting Adrian, shortly before Palm Sunday 1155, to take the unheard-of step of putting Rome under interdict closing all the churches in Rome; this act had a huge impact on daily life in Rome:Exceptions were made for the baptism of infants and the absolution of the dying: otherwise all sacraments and services were forbidden. No masses could be said, no masses solemnised: dead bodies might not be buried in consecrated grounds. In the days where religion still constituted an integral part of every man's life, the effect of such a moral blockade was immeasurable; this act had a huge potential economic impact: the interdict diminished the seasonal influx of pilgrims, thus damaging the local economy. Without Easter services the pilgrims would not visit.

In 1155, Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus reconquered southern Italy, landing his forces in the region of Apulia. Making contact with local rebels who were hostile to the Sicilian crown, Greek forces overran the coastlands and began striking inland. Pope Adrian IV watched these developments with some satisfaction; the Papacy was never on good terms with the Normans of Sicily, except when under duress by the threat of direct military action. For Adrian, having the Eastern Roman Empire on its southern border was preferable to having to deal with the troublesome Normans. Therefore, negotiations were hurriedly carried out, an alliance was formed between Adrian and Manuel. Adrian undertook to raise a body of mercenary troops from Campania. Meanwhile, Manuel dreamed of restoration of the Roman Empire. Negotiations for union of the eastern and western churches, in a state of schism since 1054, soon got under way; the combined Papal-Byzantine forces joined with the rebels against the Normans in Southern Italy, achieving a string of rapid successes as a number of cities yielded either to the threat of force or to the lure of gold.

But just as the war seemed decided in the allies' favour, things started to go wrong. The Greek commander Michael Palaeologus alienated some of his allies by his arrogance, this stalled the campaign as rebel Count Robert of Loritello refused to speak to him. Although the two were reconciled, the campaign lost some of its momentum. Worse was to come: Michael was soon recalled to Constantinople. Although his arrogance had slowed the campaign, he was a brilliant general in the field, his loss was a major blow to the allied campaign; the turning point was the battle for Brindisi, where the Sicilians launched a major counterattack by both land and sea. At the approach of the enemy, the mercenaries who were serving in the all

SAGE Computer Technology

SAGE Computer Technology was a computer company based in Reno, United States. It was founded in 1981 by Bill Bonham and Bob Needham; the change from Sage computer came about when "Sage Software" in Maryland demanded cessation of use of the name Sage in the computer segment. SAGE Computer Technology- created the Sage II and Sage IV computers based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor. SAGE Computer Stride Micro MicroSage Computer Systems - created the Stride 420, Stride 440, Stride 460, Stride 660 and Stride 740 computers; the SAGE IV was released in 1983. Hardware: Board0: CPU: MC68000 @ 8 MHz, 2× serial RS-232 ports 19.2 kbit/s, Parallel input/output for printers, GPIB, Floppy disc controller, 512 KByte DRAM. Same as in SAGE II. Board1: 4× serial RS-232 ports 19.2 kbit/s, Hard disk controller, 512 KByte DRAM. Memory consisting of 64 Kbit 150 ns memory modules. Parity error protected setup. Minimum system memory is 256 KByte. Storage: 1× 5¼" 800 KByte F. D. drive. 1× 5 - 40 MByte Winchester harddisk.

Built-in multi-user BIOS. Introduced in November 1982 Price: 3600 USD The SAGE managed multitasking with six serial ports in real time with 1 MByte of RAM in 1983, it was used by scientists and engineers for more than ten years when it was popular, "running over 10 years with zero admin, maybe zero reboot." "13 times faster than the Apple II". Sage IV computers were used for the development of the Amiga prototype computer system "Lorraine"; the Sage system got the nickname "Agony". Access was through an 80 × 25 serial video terminal. Graphics capability was possible with the addition of a third-party colour graphics system from Robinson Systems which plugged directly into the Sage 68000 bus and provided output compatible with a range of colour monitors; the included operating system was the UCSD p-System. Many other operating systems were available including CP/M-68K, Idris, PDOS, HyperFORTH Plus, BOS, TRIPOS, MOSYS. Programming languages available included Pascal, Modula-2, C, FORTRAN77, BASIC, 68000 macro assembler, APL, LISP and Forth.

The MC68000 CPU were introduced in 1979 by Motorola. An "m68k" bus was used up to the Stride series of computers. A VME bus was used. NOD is a head-motion operated mouse device that Wilbur and Rod came up with one afternoon in about 1983, it works by putting a special reflective pencil behind your ear and a quadrature detector that tracks its movement. The point was to be able to use the keyboard, it had a RS-232C interface and cost US$400. Apple Inc. were presented with a prototype but the project it was intended for got canceled. History of the Amiga SAGE collector site at the Wayback Machine Booting Sage Computer - A Subjective Retrospective by Rod Coleman Sage IV circuit boards at the Wayback Machine Sage II Computer Source code of the Sage PROMs, BIOS etc

Abdul Kerim al-Qubrusi

Aydoğan Fuat, formally referred to as Sahibul Saif Shaykh Abdul Kerim al-Qubrusi, was an American Sufi Sheikh of Turkish Cypriot origin and former representative of the Naqshbandi-Haqqani Order in the United States, under the leader Nazim Al-Haqqani. Abdülkerim was born to a Sufi saint known in tariqat circles as Hajji Fuad ar-Rabbani, he attended the khutbah by Shaykh Nazim at Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque in Famagusta and became a disciple. In November 1973, he joined the Turkish Resistance Organisation and fought around Varosha, Famagusta during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. Through his life he served under Shaykh Nazim, becoming his representative in America and through the world. In 1974, Shaykh Nazim commissioned Abdülkerim to found a Naqshbandi-Haqqani branch in the United States, he undertook charity work in New York City rehabilitation of drug addicts. In 2002, he founded a zawiya located in Catskill Mountains, New York. Shaykh Abdul Kerim converted a barn to a traditional Sufi Dergah in the Ottoman tradition.

Prayers are held five times a day with special services on Fridays. The Sufi center concentrates on Sufi Zikr with ceremonies every Thursday night and provides outreach to the surrounding community of Sidney, New York. In the words of Mawlana Shaykh Nazim Adil al-Haqqani, "He stood out against only one man, and in the US another center of unbelief. He taught them their lesson & limits!" Abdülkerim died of heart attack during a visit to his dargah in Lefke. He is interred at the Osmanlı Cemetery in Famagusta


The Bejtexhinj, were popular bards of the Muslim tradition meaning "couplet makers". It means the same in firstly muslim poets, that engaged in beit poetry; this genre of literature created in Albania in the 18th century that prevailed in different cities of what is now Albania, Chameria as well as in religious centers. The spread of Bejtexhinj was a product of two different significant factors. There was a demand in religious practices to write in Albanian and to free it from foreign influence; the other factor was the accretion of ideological pressure from Turkish rulers. The ruling Ottomans sought the submission of Albanians through culture. Albania rulers opened their own schools with many Bejtexhinj poets in attendance; the Bejtexhinj poets wrote Albanian in the Arabic alphabet but with many Persian and Arabic words. Bejtexhinj literature had two development phases; the first was characterized by secular themes. The second phase, from the end of the 18th century and through the 19th century, had a predominantly religious character.

Of the secular works, many Bejtexhinjs wrote about the positive values of love and feminine beauty, works and alluded to the negative traits of ambition and hypocrisy. Bejtexhinj poets who worked in this vein were Sulejman Naibi and Muhamet Kyçyku. A further step in the literature was initiated when other Bejexhinj poets such as Hasan Zyko Kamberi and Zenel Bastari reflected on the events of the time, describing the hard lives of the poor, the insecurities of the future, their discontent at the conditions of the feudal system; the literature of the Bejtexhinj did not achieve national prestige on its own, but the poets provided a valuable addition to Albanian literature. They wrote for example, at a time when it was banned by the ruling Ottomans. Aside from its religious themes, Bejtexhinj literature was the first to utilize secular themes; some authors of this type were closer to the people and included in their poems elements of daily life, using realistic social themes with a strong critical sensibility.

With Bejtexhinj works, Albanian poetry made another step artistically, being composed of expressions and imagery that are artistic in value. Bejtexhinj authors blended Albania's traditional poetry the eight-line poems that all poets used, their works were spread through written verbally. The number of poets that this era produced is large coming from cities such as Berat, Shkodër, Gjakova and smaller towns as Kolonja, Frashër, Konispol; the flow of Bejtexhinj literature lost its influence at the beginning of the 19th century, but in some places like Kosovo, this tradition lasted longer from authors such as Maliq Rakoveci and Rexhep Voka


17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family that in humans is encoded by the HSD17B2 gene. 17β-HSD2 is involved in inactivation of androgens and estrogens, being describable as "antiandrogenic" and "antiestrogenic", is the key 17β-HSD isozyme in androgen and estrogen inactivation. Specific reactions catalyzed by 17β-HSD2 include estradiol to estrone, testosterone to androstenedione, androstenediol to DHEA. In addition to 17β-HSD activity, this enzyme shows high 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and can activate the weak progestogen 20α-hydroxyprogesterone into the potent progestogen progesterone. 17β-HSD2 is expressed throughout the body including in the placenta, intestines, kidney, breast, prostate and many other tissues. Polymorphisms in HSD17B2 have been associated with prostate cancer. 17β-HSD2 activity has been associated with endometriosis and osteoporosis, inhibitors of the enzyme are of potential interest in the treatment of the latter condition.

Inactivating mutations resulting in a syndrome of congenital deficiency of 17β-HSD2 have not been reported to date

Havelock Ellis

Henry Havelock Ellis, known as Havelock Ellis, was an English physician, writer, progressive intellectual and social reformer who studied human sexuality. He co-wrote the first medical textbook in English on homosexuality in 1897, published works on a variety of sexual practices and inclinations, as well as on transgender psychology, he is credited with introducing the notions of narcissism and autoeroticism adopted by psychoanalysis. Ellis was among the pioneering investigators of psychedelic drugs and the author of one of the first written reports to the public about an experience with mescaline, which he conducted on himself in 1896, he served as president of the Eugenics Society. Ellis, son of Edward Peppen Ellis and Susannah Mary Wheatley, was born in Surrey, he had none of whom married. His father was a sea captain, his mother the daughter of a sea captain, many other relatives lived on or near the sea; when he was seven his father took him on one of his voyages, during which they called at Sydney, Callao in Peru and Antwerp in Belgium.

After his return, Ellis attended the French and German College near Wimbledon, afterward attended a school in Mitcham. In April 1875, Ellis sailed on his father's ship for Australia. After the discovery of his lack of training, he was fired and became a tutor for a family living a few miles from Carcoar, he spent a year there and obtained a position as a master at a grammar school in Grafton. The headmaster had died and Ellis carried on the school for that year, but was unsuccessful. At the end of the year, he returned to Sydney and, after three months' training, was given charge of two government part-time elementary schools, one at Sparkes Creek, near Scone, New South Wales and the other at Junction Creek, he lived at the school house on Sparkes Creek for a year. He wrote in his autobiography, "In Australia, I gained health of body, I attained peace of soul, my life task was revealed to me, I was able to decide on a professional vocation, I became an artist in literature; some of them I should doubtless have reached without the aid of the Australian environment, scarcely all, most of them I could never have achieved so if chance had not cast me into the solitude of the Liverpool Range."

Ellis returned to England in April 1879. He had decided to take up the study of sex and felt his first step must be to qualify as a physician, he studied at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School now part of King's College London, but never had a regular medical practice. His training was aided by a small legacy and income earned from editing works in the Mermaid Series of lesser known Elizabethan and Jacobean drama, he joined The Fellowship of the New Life in 1883, meeting other social reformers Eleanor Marx, Edward Carpenter and George Bernard Shaw. The 1897 English translation of Ellis's book Sexual Inversion, co-authored with John Addington Symonds and published in German in 1896, was the first English medical textbook on homosexuality, it describes the sexual relations including men with boys. Ellis wrote the first objective study of homosexuality, as he did not characterise it as a disease, immoral, or a crime; the work assumes. In 1897 a bookseller was prosecuted for stocking Ellis's book. Although the term homosexual is attributed to Ellis, he wrote in 1897, "'Homosexual' is a barbarously hybrid word, I claim no responsibility for it."

In fact, the word homosexual was coined in 1868 by the Hungarian author Karl-Maria Kertbeny. Ellis may have developed psychological concepts of autoerotism and narcissism, both of which were developed further by Sigmund Freud. Ellis's influence may have reached Radclyffe Hall, who would have been about 17 years old at the time Sexual Inversion was published, she referred to herself as a sexual invert and wrote of female "sexual inverts" in Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself and The Well of Loneliness. When Ellis bowed out as the star witness in the trial of The Well of Loneliness on 14 May 1928, Norman Haire was set to replace him but no witnesses were called. Ellis studied. Together with Magnus Hirschfeld, Havelock Ellis is considered a major figure in the history of sexology to establish a new category, separate and distinct from homosexuality. Aware of Hirschfeld's studies of transvestism, but disagreeing with his terminology, in 1913 Ellis proposed the term sexo-aesthetic inversion to describe the phenomenon.

In 1920 he coined the term eonism, which he derived from the name of a historical figure, Chevalier d'Eon. Ellis explained: On the psychic side, as I view it, the Eonist is embodying, in an extreme degree, the aesthetic attitude of imitation of, identification with, the admired object, it is normal for a man to identify himself with the woman. The Eonist carries that identification too far, stimulated by a sensitive and feminine element in himself, associated with a rather defective virile sexuality on what may be a neurotic basis. Ellis found eonism to be "a remarkably common anomaly", "next in frequency to homosexuality among sexual deviations", categorized it as "among the transitional or intermediate forms of sexuality"; as in the Freudian tradition, Ellis postulated that a "too close attachment to the mother" may encourage eonism, but considered that it "probably invokes some defective endocrine balance". In November 1891, at the age of 32, still a virgin, Ellis married the Engl