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Pope Adrian V

Pope Adrian V, born Ottobuono de' Fieschi, was Pope from 11 July 1276 to his death on 18 August 1276. Ottobuono belonged to a feudal family of the Fieschi, Counts of Lavagna, his first clerical position came in 1243. Subsequently, he received several ecclesiastical benefices, becoming archdeacon in Bologna and Parma and chancellor of the cathedral chapter in Reims and dean of the chapter in Piacenza and canon of the cathedral chapter in Paris. In December 1251, he was created Cardinal Deacon of San Adriano by his uncle Pope Innocent IV, he was archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica. He was sent to England in 1265 by Pope Clement IV to mediate between King Henry III of England and his barons, to preach the Crusades. Fieschi was related distantly, by affinity, to Henry III, he remained in England for several years as the papal legate, serving from October 1265 to July 1268. His diplomatic position was such that his name is still on the oldest extant piece of English statute law, the Statute of Marlborough of 1267, where the formal title mentions as a witness "the Lord Ottobon, at that time legate in England".

In April 1268 he issued a set of canons, which formed the basis of church law in England until the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century. Under the influence of Charles of Anjou, he was elected Pope to succeed Innocent V on 11 July 1276 but died at Viterbo on 18 August 1276 from illness without having been ordained to the priesthood, he is buried there in the church of San Francesco alla Rocca. His funeral monument is attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio. Adrian V was the third pope in "The Year of Four Popes" of 1276, he annulled Pope Gregory X's bull on the holding of papal conclaves, but died before enacting new regulations. In the Divine Comedy, Dante meets Adrian's spirit in Purgatory, on the level reserved for the avaricious, where Adrian atones for his sin of worldly ambition.. List of popes Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Adrian V". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Cristofori, Francesco. Le tombe dei pape in Viterbo. Siena 1887. Sternfeld, Richard. Der Kardinal Johann Gaetan Orsini 1244-1277.

Berlin: E. Ebering 1905. Gregorovius, Ferdinand. History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V.2 second edition, revised. London: George Bell, 1906. Schöpp, Natalie. Papst Hadrian V. Heidelberg. Winter 1916. Gatto, Ludovico. "Adriano V," Enciclopedia dei papi Vol. I, pp. 425–427. Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002, p. 117–118. ISBN 0-500-01798-0. Paravicini Bagliani, A.. Cardinali di curia e familiae cardinalizie dal 1227 al 1254, Padova 1972, p. 358–365 Bolton, Brenda M.. "Ottobuono ". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/50348

Moose Factory

Moose Factory is a community in the Cochrane District, Canada. It is located on Moose Factory Island, near the mouth of the Moose River, at the southern end of James Bay, it was the first English-speaking settlement in lands now making up Ontario and the second Hudson's Bay Company post to be set up in North America after Fort Rupert. On the mainland, across the Moose River, is the nearby community of Moosonee, accessible by water taxi in the summer, ice road in the winter, chartered helicopter in the off-season; the settlement is inhabited by the Cree, but the hospital that provides healthcare services to the people of the island and surrounding area employs a diverse group of people. The term "Factory" refers to the jurisdiction of a factor of the Hudson's Bay Company; the area was explored by Pierre-Esprit Radisson in the winter of 1670/71 from the base at Rupert House. In 1673, Charles Bayly of the Hudson's Bay Company established a fur-trading post called Moose Fort. Besides trading, it was intended to protect the company's interests from French traders to the south.

The fort had a direct impact on the fur trade in New France. So in 1686, Chevalier de Troyes led a small contingent of French soldiers north on an expedition to raid HBC forts; the English defenders surrendered. The French renamed it to Fort St. Louis. Ten years in 1696, the English recaptured it and burned it to the ground. No trace has remained of this original fort; the Hudson's Bay Company set up a new fort in 1730, one mile upstream from the old site, to accommodate Cree traders for whom travel to the other James Bay posts was too dangerous. Five years this one was destroyed by a fire that started in the kitchen, but was rebuilt over a period of seven years. In 1821, when the Hudson's Bay Company merged with the rival North West Company, there were no longer any serious threats and the post expanded beyond the fort's palisades. Thereafter it came to be known as Moose Factory, it became HBC's main base on James Bay, being the administrative headquarters of the Southern Department. The Governor of Rupert's Land and Council met there to plan for the coming year's operations.

In 1905, the Cree signed a treaty with the government that established the Factory Island Indian Reserve. Around the same time, the Parisian furrier company Revillon Frères set up a trading post on the west bank of the Moose River; this post, first known as Moose River Post, grew into the town of Moosonee and provided stiff competition to the HBC Moose Factory post. In 1931, the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway was completed at Moosonee; this allowed supplies to be delivered from the south by train, thereby making redundant the once-yearly sea voyages on which the settlement had relied. In 1936, the last supply ship arrived. After World War II, the Hudson's Bay Company transformed into a retail business, in 1960 it opened a modern retail store in Moose Factory; the HBC staff house and other historic properties were converted into the open-air museum of Centennial Park that opened in 1967. The HBC continued to operate in Moose Factory until 1987, when its operations in northern Canada, including Moose Factory, were sold to The North West Company.

Today, the North West Company operates a grocery and general goods store at the Moose Cree Complex and a furniture, outdoor vehicles, fast food outlet and convenience store near some of the historic HBC buildings. The Moose Factory and Moosonee area has a cold humid continental climate; the climate data is from the Moosonee around 2.5 kilometres to the west. The economy of the island is based on the healthcare, service and construction industries; the largest employer is the Weeneebayko General Hospital, followed by Moose Cree First Nation and Northern Stores. Northern Stores, G. G.'s and QuickStop are the main stores on the island. "The Complex" is the retail and community centre containing a grocery store, a restaurant, a Canada Post outlet, a pharmacy, offices. Although few people practice a traditional lifestyle, the majority of people still participate in the spring and fall moose hunt. Traditional skills such as preparing and tanning of moose hides as well as the creation of moccasins and moose hide mitts with beading are still practiced today.

Other crafts practiced in Moose Factory include the production of tamarack geese and soapstone carvings which are sold locally. In 1949 the Moose Factory General Hospital was built - a $3 million project - as a sanitarium for tuberculosis patients on Moose Factory Island "in order to isolate the disease" in response to a tuberculosis epidemic, it served both First Inuit patients. Today the Weeneebayko General Hospital provides medical services as part of the Weeneebayko Area Health Authority to residents of Moose Factory, Moosonee as well as Fort Albany, Attawapiskat First Nation, Kashechewan First Nation and Peawanuck First Nation; the medical staff work with their tertiary care facilities in Kingston, Toronto and Timmins. The hospital provides various specialized services: 24-hour emergency services family medicine clinics dentistry occupational and rehabilitative services general surgery and anesthesia dialysis traditional healing program diabetes education services scheduled specialities including: pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, geriatrics rheumatology, rehabilitatio

Robert Bergland

Robert Selmer Bergland was an American politician. He served as a member of the House of Representatives from Minnesota's 7th congressional district from 1971 to 1977, he served as United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1977 until 1981, during the administration of President Jimmy Carter. Bergland was born near Roseau, the son of Mabel and Selmer Bennett Bergland, a garage mechanic, he studied agriculture at the University of Minnesota in a two-year program. A farmer, he became an official of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service for the Department of Agriculture from 1963-68. Bergland was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1971 to 1977 as a member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, entering the House by defeating U. S. Republican incumbent Odin Langen in 1970, he was elected to the 92nd, 93rd, 94th, 95th Congresses. In Congress, he served on the House Committee on Agriculture's subcommittees for Conservation and Credit, Livestock, Grains and Poultry.

On January 22, 1977, Bergland resigned from the House shortly after the beginning of a new term, was appointed by President Jimmy Carter as Secretary of Agriculture and served from January 23, 1977 until January 20, 1981. A minor but much-celebrated struggle between the United States Department of Agriculture and the General Services Administration occurred during his tenure, resulting in the ironic dedication of the USDA executive cafeteria in honor of Alferd Packer in order to shame the General Services Administration into terminating the Nixon-era cafeteria services contract. Following the end of the Carter administration in 1981, Bergland became the chairman of Farmland World Trade until 1982, when he became the vice president and general manager of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. In the latter capacity, Bergland lobbied both Congress and the regulatory agencies on behalf of the Cooperative's electricity business. After retiring in 1994, Bergland was elected by the Minnesota State Legislature to a term on the University of Minnesota Board of Regents.

Bergland owned a 600-acre farm in Minnesota. He married Helen Elaine Grahn in 1950, they had seven children. Bergland died on December 9, 2018 at a nursing home in Roseau at the age of 90. United States Congress. "Robert Bergland". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Bob Bergland Papers, including extensive records of his congressional service, are available for research use at the Minnesota Historical Society. Robert Selmer Bergland Collection - National Agricultural Library, includes pressing clippings and a photograph album. Appearances on C-SPAN