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Pope Alexander II

Pope Alexander II, born Anselm of Baggio, was pope from 1061 to his death in 1073. Born in Milan, Anselm was involved in the Pataria reform movement. Elected on 30 September according to the terms of his predecessor's bull, In nomine Domini, Anselm's was the first election by the cardinals without the participation of the people and minor clergy of Rome. Anselm was born in a town near Milan from 1923 district of the city, of a noble family. Contemporary sources do not provide any information, it was traditionally believed that Anselm de Baggio studied under Lanfranc at Bec Abbey, modern historiography rejects such possibility. He was one of the founders of the Pataria, a movement in the Archdiocese of Milan, aimed at reforming the clergy and ecclesiastic government in the province and supportive of Papal sanctions against simony and clerical marriage, they contested the ancient rights of the cathedral clergy of Milan and supported the Gregorian reforms. Anselm was one of four "upright and honest" priests suggested to succeed Ariberto da Intimiano as prince bishop of Milan.

When Emperor Henry III chose instead the more worldly Guido da Velate, protests followed. In order to silence a vocal critic, Bishop Guido sent Anselm to the Imperial Court; the emperor named Anselm bishop of Lucca. As bishop, he was an energetic coadjutor with Hildebrand of Sovana in endeavouring to suppress simony and enforce clerical celibacy. So bad was the state of things at Milan, that benefices were bought and sold, the clergy publicly married the women with whom they lived. With the increased prestige of his office, he reappeared twice in Milan as legate of the Holy See, in 1057 in the company of Hildebrand, in 1059 with Peter Damian. In the papal election of 1061 following the death of Pope Nicholas II, Anselmo de Baggio of Lucca was elected as Pope Alexander II. Unlike previous papal elections, the assent of the Holy Roman Emperor to the election was not sought, cardinal bishops were the sole electors of the pope for the first time in the history of the Catholic Church; the bull removed the control held by the Roman metropolitan church over the election of the pontiff.

The new Pope Alexander II was crowned at nightfall on October 1, 1061 in San Pietro in Vincoli Basilica, because opposition to the election made a coronation in St. Peter's Basilica impossible, the German court nominated another candidate, bishop of Parma, proclaimed Pope at the council of Basel under the name of Honorius II, he marched for a long time threatened his rival's position. At length, Honorius was deposed by a council held at Mantua. In 1065, Pope Alexander II wrote to Béranger, Viscount of Narbonne, to Guifred, bishop of the city, praising them for having prevented the massacre of the Jews in their district, reminding them that God does not approve of the shedding of innocent blood; that same year, he admonished Landulf VI of Benevento "that the conversion of Jews is not to be obtained by force." In the same year, Alexander called for the Crusade of Barbastro against the Moors in Spain. Alexander II issued orders to the Bishops of Narbonne, instructing crusaders en route "that you protect the Jews who live among you, so that they may not be killed by those who are setting out for Spain against the Saracens... for the situation of the Jews is different from that of the Saracens.

One may justly fight against those who persecute Christians and drive them from their towns and their own homes." In 1066, he entertained an embassy from William, Duke of Normandy, after his successful invasion of Brittany. The embassy had been sent to obtain his blessing for William's prospective invasion of Anglo-Saxon England. Alexander gave it, along with a papal ring, the Standard of St. George, an edict to the autonomous Old English clergy guiding them to submit to the new regime; these favors were instrumental in the submission of the English church following the Battle of Hastings. Count Eustace carried his papal insignia, a gonfanon with three tails charged with a cross, which William of Poitiers says was given to William I to signify the pope's blessing of his invasion to secure a submission to Rome. Alexander elevated his former teacher, Lanfranc of Bec, to the See of Canterbury and appointed him Primate of England. In 1068, Emperor Henry IV attempted to divorce Bertha of Savoy; the Papal legate Peter Damian hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the Pope to deny his coronation.

Henry obeyed and his wife, who had retired to Lorsch Abbey returned to Court. In an attempt to curtail simony, Alexander II sent out many legates and archbishoprics across Europe to enforce reform among local synods. Any clergy suspected of simony were investigated. Any clergy, invested into office by a lay person were required to undergo a new investiture by a papal legate. A well-known victim of these campaigns included the bishop of Constance, removed from office for simony. A consequence of Alexander's reforms, in 1071, led to an open rupture with Emperor Henry IV. Archbishop Guido of Milan died so Henry IV appointed Godfrey de Castiglione as successor to Guido. However, Alexander II declared this investiture void as nobody can appoint an archbishop other than the pope. Alexander appointed a Milanese priest named Attone. Henry IV sent five men to Rome to disc

Oregon Route 213

Oregon Route 213 is an Oregon state highway that serves the eastern Willamette Valley between Portland and Salem. It is a north–south route; the route is known as the Cascade Highway, though specific segments are better known by more localized names. OR 213 begins on the grounds of Portland International Airport at an intersection with Airport Way, halfway between I-205 and the airport terminal, it heads south, where it is known as N. E. and S. E. 82nd Avenue, a major five-lane thoroughfare through east Portland, until reaching its other end at OR 224 in the Clackamas area. Throughout this stretch, OR 213 runs parallel to Interstate 205 and thus serves local traffic. However, traffic can still be heavy due to incidents on I-205 as well as the street's many businesses; the street has some of the highest bus ridership in the region, along Tri-Met Route 72, which connects with the MAX Blue Line at the 82nd Avenue MAX Station. OR 213 follows I-205 for 3 miles, before departing the freeway in Oregon City.

It proceeds south on a four-lane expressway through a scenic canyon on Oregon City's eastern edge until it intersects with Molalla Avenue in the vicinity of Clackamas Community College. This route goes by a number of names, known alternately as 82nd Drive, the Oregon City Bypass or the Trails End Highway, it continues south as a two-lane, undivided route, through the communities of Carus and Liberal. In Liberal, Oregon Route 213 continues south. 12 miles south of Molalla, the highway enters the town of Silverton, where it intersects Oregon Route 214. Oregon Route 213 veers southwest along Silverton Road until it reaches Salem. A separate roadway known as the Cascade Highway South continues south from Silverton until an intersection with OR 22 just north of Stayton. OR 213 comprises the following named highways from north to south: The Cascade Highway North No. 68. For the most part, the alignment of OR 213 has remained the same over the years. Now, one can only enter I-84 headed westbound or exit I-84 onto OR 213 headed eastbound.

The OR 213 and I-84 intersection is where OR 213 crosses over the MAX Blue and Green light rail lines at the Northeast 82nd Avenue station. Prior to the construction of the OR 224 Expressway, OR 213 headed south from Sunnyside Road, turned east onto what is Sunnybrook, turned again south onto 84th Avenue, proceeded onto what is now Ambler, continued onto 82nd Drive through Clackamas. Prior to the construction of I-205, OR 213 shared an alignment with OR 212 between Clackamas and Oregon City along a local street known as 82nd Drive. Prior to the construction of the Oregon City Bypass in the late 1980s, the highway was routed on an alignment through Oregon City along Washington and 7th Streets and Molalla Avenue. In Salem, the highway did not used to connect to I-5 via Lancaster Market Streets. Z indicates overlapping mileage due to construction longer than established route, – indicates negative mileage behind established beginning point. Segments that are locally maintained may be omitted. For routes traversing multiple named state highways, each milepoint is preceded by the corresponding state highway number.

List of streets in Portland, Oregon

Main Aur Mr. Riight

Main Aur Mr. Riight is a romantic Bollywood movie; the film stars Barun Shenaz Treasurywala as the lead pair. Main Aur Mr. Riight tells the story of a single girl in search of her Mr. Right; the movie released on 12 December 2014. A trailer was released in November 2014; the other actors in the movie are Danny Sura, Maia Sethna, Anagha Mane, Varun Khandelwal and Neha Gosai. Alia Raj is a popular casting director in Mumbai, who believes she has the perfect life, perfect friends, perfect personality, therefore needs the perfect guy, Mr. Right. All of her friends are in committed relationships, dating and married, are trying to match make for her. Sick of her friends trying to control her life, Alia decides to take things into her hands. Here enters Sukhwinder Singh, born in Punjab and raised in Delhi, is an aspiring actor who has not gotten his break in movies yet. Alia pays Sukhi to play the role of a guy named Vridhaan Dalmia, her version of Mr. Right, to get her friends off her back. Sukhi, the complete opposite of Alia, takes time into getting into the role, but wins the heart of all of Alia's friends and becomes friends with Alia.

Alia's friend Abhay, dating the gold digger Diya, reveals he has feelings for Alia, Alia decides to choose Abhay. Sukhi, who has developed feelings for Alia goes away; the rest of the story is about how Alia discovers her feelings for Sukhi and realizes that Mr. Right is not always who you think it is supposed to be. Barun Sobti as Sukhwinder Singh aka Sukhi/Vridhaan Dalmia Shenaz Treasurywala as Aliya Raj Kavi Shastri Danny Sura Maia Sethna Anagha Mane Varun Khandelwal Neha Gosai Main Aur Mr. Riight on IMDb


Chailey is a village and civil parish in the Lewes District of East Sussex, England. It is located 7 miles north of Lewes, on the A272 road from Winchester to Canterbury; the Prime Meridian passes just to the east of Chailey. The parish consists of the settlements: South Chailey, South Street and North Chailey; the windmill is situated on the Red House Common. There used to be a mill on the South Common in South Chailey, opposite where Chailey School is situated, but it has worn away over time; the parish church is dedicated to St. Peter and is recorded as having been built in 1256. A special service was held to commemorate its 750 years. At one time Chailey had more churches than pubs; the churches being St Peter's, St Martin's, Chailey Free Church, St John's, St Mary's, the pubs being the King's Head, Five Bells, Horns Lodge and the Swan House. In addition it is believed. Chailey is reputed to be the inspiration for the 1969 children's television series Chigley by Gordon Murray. Chailey is governed at the local level by Chailey Parish Council which consists of eleven councillors meeting twice monthly.

The parish council is responsible for local amenities such as the provision of litter bins, bus shelters and allotments. They provide a voice into the district council meetings; the May 2007 election was uncontested due to only eight candidates standing. Three more councillors were co-opted to the council; the next level of government is Lewes District Council. The District council supplies services such as refuse collection, planning consent, leisure amenities and council tax collection. Chailey is covered by the Chailey and Wivelsfield ward which returns two seats. In the May 2007 election, two councillors from the local Conservative party were elected; this ward had a population of 5,068 at the 2011 Census. Chailey lies within the Chailey ward for the next tier of East Sussex County Council; the ward includes Ditchling, East Chiltington, Plumpton, St John Without, Streat and Wivelsfield. The County Council provides services such as roads and transport, social services and trading standards; the June 2009 election resulted in a win for the Conservative Meg Stroude.

The UK Parliament constituency for Chailey is Lewes. The Liberal Democrat Norman Baker served as the constituency MP from 1997 to 2015 when it was won by Maria Caulfield. At European level, Chailey is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament; the June 2004 election returned four Conservatives, two Liberal Democrats, two UK Independence, one Labour and one Green, none of whom live in East Sussex. Chailey Common is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, located within the parish; the site, part of a nature reserve, is of biological interest due to its heath habitat. Chailey Moat, the former rectory, is a two-storey moated house to the west of the village. There are three schools in the village: Chailey St Peters Primary School, the primary school in South Chailey. Chailey at Curlie Chailey 1914-1918 _____________________________________________________ Chailey is a modern-day female Christian name which derived from the original Latin spelling is Coeli, meaning "Of Heaven."

Chailey has taken on several spellings such as Coeli and Ceali. All derivatives of the original name "Coeli"

Battle of Nooitgedacht

In the Battle of Nooitgedacht on 13 December 1900, Boer commandos led by Generals Koos de la Rey and Christiaan Beyers combined to deal a defeat to a British brigade under the command of Major General R. A. P. Clements during the Second Boer War. Lord Roberts captured Pretoria on 5 June and the armies soon passed to the east. After the guerrilla war began, a force under Clements harried the Boers in the Moot, a valley in the Magaliesberg mountains. By the end of the year, the British grew careless. On 2 December, De la Rey's commando ambushed an ox-wagon convoy east of Rustenburg and wounding 64 British soldiers and capturing 54 men and 118 wagons. De la Rey's deputy, Jan Smuts had a close call; the raiders appropriated the boots and clothing and burned the rest of the supplies, while setting their prisoners free. De la Rey scouted Clement's camp at Nooitgedacht for three days; the camp had good water supply and a nearby mountain allowed communication by heliograph with Major General Robert Broadwood at Rustenburg.

However, the site was dominated on the north by a 300-metre mountain. A 1500-man commando led by General Beyers soon arrived, giving the Boers numerical superiority over their adversaries. Smuts wrote, "I do not think it was possible to have selected a more fatal spot for a camp." The Boer leaders soon agreed on a plan. Half of Beyers' men would stay behind to keep Broadwood from marching to the rescue; the remainder, about 1500 men, were split into three attacking groups. Beyers would lead his commando against 300 British pickets on the mountaintop. Beyers detached Commandant Badenhorst to attack the camp from the west. De la Rey would capture several kopjes in the Moot to the south. If all went well, Clements' brigade would be destroyed. In the event, Badenhorst's column blundered into the British picket lines in the pre-dawn darkness. In a brief fusillade at close range, the Boers were driven back, with losses on both sides; the alerted British now manned their defensive positions. Beyer launched his attack on the mountaintop, but his tired men were soon stopped by sturdy resistance from the Northumberland Fusiliers.

After witnessing De la Rey's initial attack being repulsed in the valley below, Beyer's men became inspired and stormed the British positions on the mountaintop. After losing about 100 casualties, Captain Yatman surrendered at about 7:00 am. Reinforcements climbing the mountain lost when Beyers' men poured fire into them; that morning it was too hazy to flash a message to Broadwood, so Clements was on his own. Meanwhile, De la Rey and Smuts had managed to capture all the kopjes in the Moot except one, Yeomanry Hill. Clements swiftly concentrated his survivors on this position. At 8:00 am, the British drove away a group of Boers, they worked furiously to make the hill defensible. A 4.7-inch naval gun was saved by rolling it downhill from its original perch and dragging it back to the main British position. Meanwhile, the men under Beyers turned aside to loot the British camp and nothing the Boer general could do would get them back to the battle. One Boer remarked, "We were refitted from head to heel."

At 4:00 pm, Clements and the remnant of his brigade rode off with his artillery toward Pretoria. Their retreat was unopposed because the Boers were exhausted and by this time De la Rey's men had joined the other Boers in plundering the enemy camp. Thanks to his quick response to the crisis, Clements saved his brigade from annihilation. However, the general lost half his brigade due to his poor choice for a camp; the Imperial forces suffered no consequences from their defeat aside from the casualties suffered and the supplies lost. Within a short time, a column under Clements was again harassing the Moot

Mario Payeras

Mario Payeras was a Guatemalan writer, poet and Guatemalan guerrilla leader Mario Payeras born in Chimaltenango, Guatemala in 1940. He died in Mexico in 1995, he studied philosophy at the University of San Carlos, in the Autonomous University of Mexico, the University of Leipzig, Germany. Youth was a member of the Guatemalan Labor Party, which provided intellectuals with scholarships to socialist countries. In Cuba. Payeras was part of the ranks of the Guerrilla Army of the Poor in 1968, as one of its founders and a member of its Dirección Nacional. Payeras was the ideologist of EGP's military-political strategy. Payeras was part of the first contingent that forms the original focus of the EGP in the jungles of Ixcan where he wrote his first novel about Los Días de la Selva. After the military offensive of the dictatorial regime in 1981–82, he contemplated the military defeat of the rebellion in his work Los fusiles de Octubre and El Trueno en la Ciudad; the work argues for a change in strategy of revolutionary struggle but it was rejected by EGP.

As a result Payeras broke away from the organization in 1984 citing ethical and ideological differences. Along with a prominent contingent of cadres that followed him, he formed a new armed revolutionary organization called Octubre Revolucionario. Abandoned years by several of his followers, Payeras died in hiding in Mexico City, his remains were buried in a remote cemetery in southeastern Mexico along with the legendary guerrilla leader Marco Antonio Yon Sosa and an Achi indigenous guerrilla leader. A few years after, the remains of Payeras have since disappeared, he is remembered as a writer to win the Casa de las Americas Prize for his play The Days of the Jungle. He was included in the Dictionary of Guatemalans Authors and Critics and has influenced several prominent Guatemalan writers like Francisco Alejandro Mendez and others, his works been translated into several languages including German. The Days of the Jungle /Los Días de la Selva The Thunder in the City / El Trueno en la Ciudad The World as Flower and Invention/ El Mundo como Flor y como Invento Latitude of the Flower and the Hailstone / Latitud de la Flor y el Granizo The Guns of October / Los Fusiles de Octubre Siege on Utopia / Asedio a la Utopía Poems from the Queenly Zone Poemas de la Zona Reina This article was translated from the Spanish Wikipedia