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Pope Anastasius III

Pope Anastasius III was Pope from April 911 to his death in 913. He was a Roman by birth. A Roman nobleman, Lucian, is sometimes recognized as his father, although other sources assert that he was the illegitimate son of his predecessor Pope Sergius III. Nothing is recorded of Pope Anastasius III, his pontificate falling in the period when Rome and the Papacy were in the power of Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, his wife Theodora, who approved Anastasius III's candidacy. Under his reign the Normans of Rollo were evangelized, his papacy faced renewed threats from the Saracens, after they established themselves on the Garigliano river. He was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. List of Catholic saints List of popes Saeculum obscurum This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Anastasius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Anastasius III Catholic Forum: Pope Anastasius III Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes

Karl Abraham Zedlitz

Karl Abraham Freiherr von Zedlitz und Leipe was a Prussian minister of education, instrumental in establishing mandatory education in Prussia, which served as a model for the public education system in the United States. Zedlitz was born in Schwarzwaldau in Silesia. After his education at the Military Academy in Brandenburg an der Havel, he took a civil service position as clerk in the Chamber Court in 1755. In 1759 he took a position in the Oberamt Government in Breslau. In 1764 he became the president of the Government of Silesia. In 1771 he was in charge of the criminal department, oversaw the entire spiritual Department, was in charge of school supplies. A follower of Kant's philosophy, he promoted education and a free spiritual direction for people in the higher schools. In 1788 he lost the spiritual Department. Zedlitz resigned from government service. In 1788 and 1789 he was director of the Knight's Academy in Liegnitz, he died on his estate in Kapsdorf. Carl Rethwisch: Zedlitz, Karl Abraham Freiherr von.

In: General German Biography. 44th Volume Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1898, p. 744-748

Chip art

Chip art known as silicon art, chip graffiti or silicon doodling, refers to microscopic artwork built into integrated circuits called chips or ICs. Since ICs are printed by photolithography, not constructed a component at a time, there is no additional cost to include features in otherwise unused space on the chip. Designers have used this freedom to put all sorts of artwork on the chips themselves, from designers' simple initials to rather complex drawings. Given the small size of chips, these figures cannot be seen without a microscope. Chip graffiti is sometimes called the hardware version of software easter eggs. Prior to 1984, these doodles served a practical purpose. If a competitor produced a similar chip, examination showed it contained the same doodles this was strong evidence that the design was copied and not independently derived. A 1984 revision of the US copyright law made all chip masks automatically copyrighted, with exclusive rights to the creator, similar rules apply in most other countries that manufacture ICs.

Since an exact copy is now automatically a copyright violation, the doodles serve no useful purpose. Integrated Circuits are constructed from multiple layers of material silicon, silicon dioxide, aluminum; the composition and thickness of these layers give them their distinctive appearance. These elements created an irresistible palette for IC layout engineers; the creative process involved in the design of these chips, a strong sense of pride in their work, an artistic temperament combined compels people to want to mark their work as their own. It is common to find initials, or groups of initials on chips; this is the design engineer's way of "signing" her work. This creative artist's instinct extends to the inclusion of small pictures or icons; these may be images of significance to the designers, comments related to the chip's function, inside jokes, or satirical references. Because of the difficulty in verifying their existence, chip art has been the subject of online hoaxes; the mass production of these works of art as parasites on the body of a commercial IC goes unnoticed by most observers and is discouraged by semiconductor corporations from the fear that the presence of the artwork will interfere with some necessary function in the chip or design flow.

Some laboratories have started collaborating with artists or directly producing books and exhibits with the micrographs of these chips. Such is the case of Harvard chemist George Whitesides, who collaborated with pioneer photographer Felice Frankel to publish On the Surface of Things, a praised photography book on experiments from the Whitesides lab; the laboratory of Albert Folch at the University of Washington's Bioengineering Dept. has a popular online gallery with more than 1,700 free BioMEMS-related chip art micrographs and has produced three art exhibits in the Seattle area, with online sales. The Silicon Zoo - A portion of the Molecular Expressions web site from Florida State University, containing pictures of hundreds of discovered chip artworks; the buffalo shown here is from this website. Yahoo directory of chip art articles. Chipworks An entire silicon art gallery found on the chips analysed by Chipworks. Chip graffiti from the Smithsonian Museum of American History Art on the Head of a Microchip, Bruce Headlam, New York Times, 4 March 1999

USS Keystone State (1853)

USS Keystone State was a wooden sidewheel steamer that served in the Union Navy during the American Civil War. Keystone State was built at Pennsylvania in 1853 by J. W. Lynn, she was chartered by the navy on 19 April 1861 from the Ocean Steam Navigation Co. at Philadelphia, purchased on 10 June 1861. She commissioned at Philadelphia Navy Yard on 19 July 1861, Commander Gustavus H. Scott in command. Chartered to search for the Confederate States Navy raider CSS Sumter, Keystone State shared in the capture of Hiawatha at Hampton Roads on 10 May 1861; when her charter expired on 23 May, she returned to Philadelphia, where she was purchased for $125,000 from Alexander Heron Jr. fitted out, commissioned. She left the Delaware Capes on 21 July and cruised in the West Indies seeking Confederate blockade runners in Caribbean ports. On the high seas, she captured Saloon on 10 October and towed her to Philadelphia via Key West, Florida. At Philadelphia, Commander William E. Le Roy took command of the ship on 12 November.

The sidewheeler stood down the Delaware River and out to sea on 8 December, visited Bermuda, arrived at Hampton Roads on 26 December 1861. She got underway on 9 January 1862, joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Charleston, South Carolina on 13 January. Ordered to the Florida coast, she engaged Confederate batteries at Amelia Island on 18 January and captured schooner Mars on 5 February. Keystone State arrived at Port Royal, South Carolina for refit and replenishment on 18 March, getting underway again on 29 March, she chased a blockade runner and fired at another on 3 April. On 10 April, she chased schooner Liverpool of Nassau ashore where she was burned to the water's edge. Schooner Dixie fell prey to the vigilant blockader on 15 April, steamer Elizabeth struck her colors on 29 May, schooner Cora surrendered two days later. Keystone State took blockade runner Sarah off Charleston on 20 June and pursued an unidentified steamer all day and night of 24 June before giving up the chase.

She took schooner Fanny attempting to slip into Charleston with a cargo of salt on 22 August. However, this was dangerous work, Keystone State well earned her long list of prizes. On 31 January 1863, she discovered a ship off Charleston, stood fast, fired at her; the ship responded from time to time hitting the blockader. At 06:00, a shot ripped into Keystone State's steam drum, scalding an officer and nineteen men to death and wounding another twenty; that morning, Memphis towed Keystone State to Port Royal for repairs. Ready for action again, she got underway on George Washington's Birthday for blockading station off St. Simons Sound, where she served until departing for Philadelphia on 2 June for repairs at the navy yard, where she decommissioned on 10 June. Keystone State recommissioned on 3 October, Cdr. Edward Donaldson in command, stood out from Delaware Capes on 27 October. Three days she joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Wilmington, North Carolina. While cruising off Wilmington, the veteran side wheeler captured the steamer Margaret and Jessie on 5 November.

On 29 May 1864, she picked up 235 bales of cotton, thrown overboard by a chase. She took North Carolina on 5 June and steamer Rouen at sea 2 July. On 26 July, she chased a steamer. Keystone State picked up over 60 bales. On a similar occasion on 8 August, she salvaged 225 bales. On 24 August, she chased and captured steamer Lilian and, with Gettysburg, in fact the Margaret and Jessie that the Keystone State had captured, picked up 58 bales. On 5 September, with Quaker City, she fired at steamer Elsie. A shell exploded in the blockade runner's forward hold, starting a fire which Keystone State extinguished. Keystone State escorted her prize to Beaufort, North Carolina. During the fall of 1864, the sidewheeler continued blockade duty off the North Carolina coast. Shortly after dawn on Christmas Eve, Keystone State, steaming with the reserve squadron of the fleet in line of battle, got under way toward Fort Fisher, her guns, firing over and between the ships in the first echelon, supported troops as they landed and fought to take the fort.

However, late in the afternoon, the Union Army commander, General Benjamin Franklin Butler, decided that the Confederate works could not be taken and ordered his troops to reembark. Keystone State withdrew to Beaufort. Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter, the Union Navy commander, was not to be thwarted, he renewed the attack on Fort Fisher on 13 January 1865 with a force of 59 warships. He sent some 2,000 sailors and marines ashore to aid the 8,000 Army troops led by Major General Alfred H. Terry. After three days of bitter fighting, the bravely defended Confederate fortress fell, closing the South's last supply line with Europe. Keystone State received the wounded. After the capture of Wilmington, the sidewheeler continued to operate along the Carolina coast supporting clean-up operations which snuffed out Southern resistance, she got underway on 13 March towing monitor Montauk to Hampton Roads, arrived at Baltimore, Maryland on 20 March. Keystone State decommissioned on 25 March and was sold at auction at Washington, D.

C. on 15 September to M. O. Roberts, she was redocumented as SS San Francisco on 22 December, operated in merchant service until 1879. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Specific U. S. S. Keystone on the blockade: page 1 and

Rufina Gasheva

Rufina Sergeyevna Gasheva was a Soviet Polikarpov Po-2 navigator during World War II who served with the all-female 588th Night Bomber Regiment and recipient of the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Postwar, she continued to serve and was a lecturer in foreign languages at the Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy before her retirement. After retiring, Gasheva worked in the Bureau of Foreign Military Literature at Voenizdat. Gasheva was born on 14 October 1921 in the village of Verkhnechusovsky Gorodky in Permsky Uyezd, part of the Perm Governorate, she soon moved to the village of Vasilyevo, living there until 1927. Between 1927 and 1928 she lived in the village of Kasimovo in. Gasheva lived in Perm for the next two years, before moving to Moscow in 1930. In 1939 she graduated from high school, by the summer of 1941 she completed two years at the Moscow State University of Mechanics and Mathematics. Gasheva volunteered for service in September 1941, she graduated from a navigators' course at the Engels Military Aviation School of Pilots in February 1942.

Gasheva was posted to the all-female 588th Night Bomber Regiment of the Red Air Force forming in Engels. She fought in combat from May 1942. In February 1943 the regiment became the 46th Guards Bomber Aviation Regiment. Gasheva fought in the Air Battles in the Kuban, the Kerch–Eltigen Operation, the Crimean Offensive, the Mogilev Offensive, the Belostock Offensive, the Osovets Offensive, the Mlawa-Elbing Offensive, the East Pomeranian Offensive, the Battle of Berlin. Gasheva's aircraft was shot down twice. On the first occasion and her pilot reached Soviet lines, but on the second they bailed over minefields and pilot Olga Sanfirova was killed when she stepped on an anti-personnel mine. During that incident, Gasheva landed on an anti-tank minefield several hundred meters to the South of Sanfirova. By the end of the war she flew 848 combat missions as a navigator of the Po-2 light bomber. Gasheva ended the war as a senior lieutenant, she married bomber pilot Mikhail Pliats at the front. Gasheva served with the regiment in the Northern Group of Forces until October 1945.

Postwar and Pliats had a son, a daughter, Marina. Pliats reached the rank of colonel. In 1952 Gasheva graduated from the Military Institute of Foreign Languages, becoming a senior lecturer at the Foreign Languages Department of the Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy, she worked there until August 1957. She transferred to the reserve in December 1956 with the rank of major. From 1961, she worked as a senior editor in the Voenizdat Bureau of Foreign Military Literature, between 1967 and 1972 she was a senior editor in the Office for Publication of Military Literature in Foreign Languages of the USSR Ministry of Defense, she lived in Moscow and was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 2000 before she passed away on 1 May 2012 and was buried in the Vostryakovsky Cemetery. Hero of the Soviet Union Order of Lenin Two Orders of the Red Banner Two Orders of the Patriotic War 1st class Two Orders of the Red Star Medal "For Battle Merit" campaign and jubilee medals List of female Heroes of the Soviet Union Night Witches Olga Sanfirova Cottam, Kazimiera.

Women in War and Resistance: Selected Biographies of Soviet Women Soldiers. Newburyport, MA: Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Co. ISBN 1585101605. OCLC 228063546. Simonov, Andrey. Женщины - Герои Советского Союза и России. Moscow: Russian Knights Foundation and Museum of Technology Vadim Zadorozhny. ISBN 9785990960701. OCLC 1019634607. Rakobolskaya, Irina. Нас называли ночными ведьмами: так воевал женский 46-й гвардейский полк ночных бомбардировщиков. Moscow: University of Moscow Press. ISBN 5211050088. OCLC 68044852

Bjørn Tidmand

Bjørn Tidmand is a Danish singer, best known for his participation in the 1964 Eurovision Song Contest. After being a member of the Copenhagen Boys Choir as a child, Tidmand began performing in local nightclubs and signed a recording contract in 1959, having a hit with a Danish-language version of "Only Sixteen". In 1963, Tidmand took part in the Dansk Melodi Grand Prix to choose the country's Eurovision Song Contest entry, finished in second place behind Grethe & Jørgen Ingmann, who went on to win that year's Eurovision for Denmark; the following year, Tidmand won the DMGP with the song "Sangen om dig", which went on to the ninth Eurovision, held in his home city of Copenhagen on 21 March. "Sangen om dig" finished the evening in ninth place of the 16 entries. Tidmand went on to enjoy a string of hits in Denmark, while developing a parallel career as a television host in the 1970s and 1980s, he continues touring and performing. Official website