click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pope Boniface IV

Pope Boniface IV was Pope from 25 September 608 to his death in 615. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church with a universal feast falling annually on 8 May. Boniface had served as a deacon under Pope Gregory I, like his mentor had made his house into a monastery; as Pope, he encouraged monks and monasticism. With permission of the Emperor, he converted the Pantheon into the Church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. In 610, he conferred with Mellitus, first bishop of London, regarding the needs of the English Church. Boniface was born in, his family was of Marsi origins according to the Liber Pontificalis. At the time of Pope Gregory I, he was a deacon of the Roman Church and held the position of dispensator, that is, the first official in connection with the administration of the patrimonies, he succeeded Boniface III after a vacancy of over nine months, awaiting confirmation from Constantinople. He was consecrated on either 25 August or 15 September in 608. Boniface obtained leave from the Byzantine Emperor Phocas to convert the Pantheon in Rome into a Christian church, on 13 May 609, the temple erected by Agrippa to Jupiter the Avenger and Mars was consecrated by the pope to the Virgin Mary and all the Martyrs.

It was the first instance at Rome of the transformation of a pagan temple into a place of Christian worship. Twenty-eight cartloads of sacred bones were said to have been removed from the Catacombs and placed in a porphyry basin beneath the high altar. In 610, the first Bishop of London, went to Rome "to consult the pope on important matters relative to the newly established English Church". While in Rome he assisted at a synod being held concerning certain questions on "the life and monastic peace of monks", and, on his departure, took with him to England the decree of the council together with letters from the pope to Lawrence, Archbishop of Canterbury, to all the clergy, to King Æthelberht of Kent, to all the English people in general; the decrees of the council now extant are spurious. The letter to Æthelberht is considered spurious by Hefele, questionable by Haddan and Stubbs, genuine by Jaffé. Between 612 and 615, the Irish missionary Columbanus living at Bobbio in Italy, was persuaded by Agilulf, King of the Lombards, to address a letter on the condemnation of the "Three Chapters" to Boniface IV.

He tells the pope that he is suspect of heresy for accepting the Fifth Ecumenical Council, exhorts him to summon a council and prove his orthodoxy. There is no record of a rejoinder from Boniface. Boniface had converted his own house into a monastery, where he died, he was buried in the portico of St. Peter's Basilica, his remains were three times removed — in the tenth or eleventh century, at the close of the thirteenth under Boniface VIII, to the new St. Peter's on 21 October 1603. Boniface IV is commemorated as a saint in the Roman Martyrology on 8 May. List of popes Bede. Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. Mula, Stefano. Muhammad and the Saints: The History of the Prophet in the Golden Legend; the University of Chicago Press. P. 178. Retrieved 17 December 2014. Hefele, Karl Joseph von. Conciliengeschichte. III. Freiburg im Breisgau Herder. P. 66. William of Malmesbury. Gesta Pontificum Anglorum. I. Migne. P. 1465. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Oestreich, Thomas.

"Pope Boniface IV". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. New York: Robert Appleton. Endnotes: Duchesne, Louis. Liber Pontificalis. 1. P. 317. Gasquet, Francis Aidan. A Short History of the Catholic Church in England. P. 19. Gregorovius, Ferdinand, II, 104 Hunt, William; the English Church from Its Foundation to the Norman Conquest. 1. London & New York: Macmillan and Co. p. 42. Jaffé, Philipp. Regesta Pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum 1198. I. Leipsic. P. 220. Langen, Joseph. Geschichte der Römischen Kirche. 2. P. 501. Mann, Horace K.. The lives of the popes in the early middle ages: The popes under the Lombard rule: St. Gregory I to Leo III, 590-795. I:1. Pp. 268-279. Mansi, Gian Domenico. Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio. X. p. 501. Paul the Deacon. "Book III: Chapter IV". History of the Lombards. Translated by Foulke, William Dudley. University of Pennsylvania. Pp. 36–37. Reumont, Alfred von. Geschichte der Stadt Rom. II. Berlin. Pp. 156, 165. Biography from CFPeople.org Saints. SQPN: Boniface IV Santiebeati: Boniface IV

Thomas Fulljames

Thomas Fulljames FRIBA was an architect active in Gloucestershire, England, in the first half of the nineteenth century. As diocesan surveyor from 1832 until 1870, latterly in partnership with Frederick Sandham Waller, he designed, reconstructed or extended a number of churches in Gloucestershire, he is known for designing the Gloucester Court of Probate in the Gothic style. He designed a barrage across the River Severn, never built, he built Foscombe house for his own use in Ashleworth, classified as a grade II* heritage building. Thomas Fulljames was born in Walworth, now in Greater London, on 4 March 1808, to Trophimus Fulljames, a land surveyor, Margaret Fulljames, he was baptised at Hasfield, Gloucestershire, on 15 September 1808. He had an older brother Trophimus, born around 1805. Fulljames studied with his uncle, the surveyor Thomas Fulljames, who had established a practice in Gloucestershire by the 1790s, from 1821 was apprenticed to the architect Thomas Rickman, a position arranged by Fulljames's uncle Thomas.

He first practised in his own name from around 1830. He was appointed county surveyor in 1831. In 1838 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 1846 the firm became Fulljames & Waller after he formed a partnership in that year with Frederick Sandham Waller, articled to him in 1839, he taught the architect James Piers St Aubyn. In 1847 the office moved to College Green. Fulljames was diocesan surveyor in Gloucestershire from 1832 until 1870, as Fulljames & Waller from 1846, in that time they completed a great deal of church architecture in the county. Among his designs was the Church of St Luke, High Orchard, St Matthew's Parish Church, adding a north aisle to Hasfield, the reconstruction of the Church of St Lawrence and the Church of St Mary & Corpus Christi, Down Hatherley. After Frederick William Waller became a partner in 1868 the firm was renamed Son. In 1849, Fulljames proposed a barrage across the River Severn from Beachley to Aust, a span of just over 1 mile.

Since this was before commercial electricity production, the first proposals were based on the desire for a large shipping harbour in the Severn Estuary and railway transport, flood protection. Other projects by Fulljames in Gloucester include the Albion Hotel in Southgate Street known as Albion House. Around 1860 he built Foscombe, a country house in the Gothic Revival style in Ashleworth for his own use, it is now a grade II* listed building. Plans relating to the Gloucestershire Royal Infirmary and Second County Asylum are held by Gloucestershire Archives. In 1840, Fulljames married Catherine Kirkes at Lancaster; this led to him designing the Custom House Arcade at Liverpool. At first they lived at Maisemore, Gloucestershire but from 1847 to 1863, he was living with his wife at Hasfield Court in Gloucestershire and was described as an "Architect & Landed Proprietor" in the 1851 census. Three relatives were living with the family employed seven servants. In the 1861 census, they were described as employing six servants.

Fulljames died on 24 April 1874 at Foscombe in Ashleworth. His will was proved by his wife Catherine and the executors John Jackson Myers of Huyton, James Wintle of Newnham, he left less than £12,000. There is a monument to him in the churchyard of the Church of Hasfield. In 1970 and 1987, records relating to Fulljames were among those deposited in the Gloucestershire Archives by the Astam Design Partnership where they had been stored in the attic of the firm's former offices in College Green. Carne and Martin J. Crossley Evans. Thomas Fulljames: An almost-forgotten Gloucestershire architect, his work in Lancashire and Cheshire. Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire & Cheshire, 152, pp. 133–152. Archive Media related to Thomas Fulljames at Wikimedia Commons

International Defence Exhibition

The International Defence Exhibition & Conference, or IDEX, is a biennial arms and defence technology sales exhibition. The exhibition is the largest defence exhibition and conference in the Middle East and takes place in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; the first edition of the exhibition took place in 1993. The exhibition is organized through the state-run Abu Dhabi National Exhibitions Company; the business conducted at the 2005 IDEX totalled 2 billion US dollars. According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, the arms sales of the SIPRI Top 100 arms-producing and military services companies in 2017 totalled at $398.2 billion. As of 2010 well known exhibitors are Lockheed Martin, Airbus Group, Jobaria Defence, Streit Group, Oshkosh Corporation and Saab. IDEF—Defence expo in Istanbul, Turkey IDEAS—Defence expo in Karachi, Pakistan Special Operations Forces Exhibition —Defence expo in Amman, Jordan Eurosatory—Defence expo in Paris, France Official website Jane's IDEX 2011 show site at the Jane's Defence Weekly website 2009 Review at the Monocle website IDEX -2011 Press Release official IDEX website IDEX 2011—TheNational IDEX topic

Bubsy: The Woolies Strike Back

Bubsy: The Woolies Strike Back is a platform video game developed by Black Forest Games. The game was released for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation 4 on October 31, 2017; the game is the fifth entry in the Bubsy series, the first new entry in 21 years. The game returns to the 2D side-scrolling platformer gameplay found in the first Bubsy games, Bubsy in: Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind, Bubsy II and Bubsy in: Fractured Furry Tales, albeit now with 3D character models, a first for the side-scrolling entries in the series; the game sees Bubsy going against the "Woolies", the antagonistic race of creatures from the first Bubsy game. The game was first announced on June 8, 2017, as a brand-new game in the Bubsy series of video games; the entry is the first one in the series in 21 years, following 1996's Bubsy 3D. The game was announced as the first of many game franchise revivals of Accolade games, including potential revivals of HardBall!, Slave Zero, Deadlock: Planetary Conquest and Redline.

The game was published by Tommo's subsidiary UFO Interactive Games, developed by Black Forest Games, who worked on reviving the dormant Giana Sisters series with Giana Sisters: Twisted Dreams. Like Twisted Dreams, the game was developed using the Havok physics engine. To make Bubsy: The Woolies Strike Back an improvement over previous games in the series, Black Forest Games reduced Bubsy's acceleration time, applied better traction, thus giving the player better control of the character. In August 2017, a limited edition, called the Purrfect Edition, was announced for the PlayStation 4 release, which contains a physical copy of the game, a soundtrack CD, a copy of Bubsy's official "business card", a "Mystery Bubsy Movie Poster postcard"; the game announcement was not well-received by video game journalists, whose reactions ranged from indifference to irritation. Accolade seemed to expect this, taking an approach similar to Sega with promoting Sonic the Hedgehog on social media; the game was met with a negative reception, with review aggregator Metacritic giving the PC version a weighted average score of 44 out of a possible 100 and the PS4 version a score of 45 out of 100, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews".

Brian Shea of Game Informer panned the game, calling it "an unnecessary resuscitation". Patrick Hancock of Destructoid questioned why the character of Bubsy was brought back and made note of its release in the same year as other more well-received platformers. Heidi Kemps of IGN dismissed the game as "an short and forgettable platformer based on nothing but irony and nostalgic notoriety". Christian Donlan of Eurogamer wrote "Bubsy's return is more than a little underwhelming". Conversely, Hardcore Gamer gave the game 3.5 out of 5. The game was a runner-up for the "Worst Game" award at Giant Bomb's Game of the Year 2017 Awards. In October 2018, a sixth Bubsy title, Bubsy: Paws on Fire!, was announced for release in 2019 for PlayStation 4, PC and Nintendo Switch. The game was developed by Choice Provisions, which worked on the Bit. Trip series. Official website

Latvian Legion

The Latvian Legion was a formation of the German Waffen-SS during World War II. Created in 1943, it consisted of ethnic Latvian personnel; the legion consisted of two divisions of the Waffen-SS: the 15th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS, the 19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS. The 15th Division was administratively subordinated to the VI SS Corps, but operationally it was in reserve or at the disposal of the XXXXIII Army Corps, 16th Army, Army Group North; the 19th Division held out in the Courland Pocket until May 1945, the close of World War II, when it was among the last of Nazi Germany's forces to surrender. The Latvian Legion was created in January 1943 on the orders of Adolf Hitler following a request by Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS; the initial core of the force was populated by Latvian Police Battalions, which were formed starting in 1941 earlier for security duties. Some who had served in the notorious Arajs Kommando commando unit, responsible for atrocities committed against Jews and civilians along Latvia's border with the Soviet Union were transferred to the Latvian Legion.

One month after the unit was founded, German occupation authorities in Latvia started conscripting military age men. Draftees were given a choice between serving in the Waffen-SS Legions, serving as German Wehrmacht auxiliaries, or being sent to a slave labour camp in Germany; those who tried to avoid one of those options were sent to concentration camps. As a result, only 15-20% of the men serving in the legion were actual volunteers. Unlike in Lithuania, potential legionary recruits in Latvia did not organize an official boycott of conscription. With Nazi Germany losing the war, conscription was extended to larger and larger numbers of Latvians; the first conscription, in 1943, applied to all Latvian men born from 1919 to 1924. The subsequent conscriptions extended to Latvians born between 1906 and 1928; the division commanders and most of the staff were German SS officers. The individual combat regiments were commanded by Latvian officers. After the Red Army broke through German lines at Nevel along the 1st Baltic Front in November 1943, advancing on Latvia, the Latvian Self-Administration took over mobilization from the Germans on November 13.

By June 26 there were 7,671 ethnic Russians from Latvia's Latgale, representing ten percent of men from the region, serving in various units of the Latvian Legion. On July 1, 1944 the Latvian Legion had 87,550 men. Another 23,000 Latvians were serving as Wehrmacht "auxiliaries"; the first Latvian Legion unit was the 2nd Latvian SS Brigade, created in February 1943. It fought its first battle in the Siege of Leningrad, opposite the Pulkovo observatory on 18 March 1943, it continued fighting around Leningrad until the German forces retreated in January 1944. The 15th Waffen-SS Division was formed and sent to the front in November 1943, it was sent to the Ostrov and Novosokolniki districts of Pskov Oblast, but after the German Army suffered setbacks there, was moved to positions in the Belebelka district of Novgorod Oblast in January 1944. It retreated from there a month later. At the end of February 1944, both units took joint defensive positions on the Sorota and Velikaya rivers. At that time, the 2nd Brigade was renamed the 19th Waffen-SS division.

Over the next two months, these positions saw intense fighting. In April 1944, the Legion was replaced by other units and moved to less active positions in Bardovo-Kudever, 50 km east of Opochka, it came under attack there in June 1944 and started to retreat on July 10, 1944, crossing the Latvian-Russian border on July 17. In August and September 1944, the 15th Division was moved to Prussia, for replenishment with new recruits, it was in training near Danzig until being ordered into battle on 22 January 1945. At that time, the division consisted of about 15,000 soldiers, it fought near Danzig in February, retreating to Pomerania in early March. By early April, the division was reduced to 8,000 men. About 1,000 were sent by sea to replenish the forces in the Courland Pocket, the rest were lost during the fighting. On April 11, the division was told about plans to transfer the entire division to Courland. Seeing that the war was lost and understanding that being sent to Courland would mean having to surrender to the Soviets, the division decided to surrender to the Western Allies instead, disobeying German orders to the contrary, when necessary.

The 19th Division continued to fight in Latvia. In October 1944, Soviet advances in Lithuania cut off it and other units in the Courland Pocket from the rest of the German forces, it was a part of the six battles between Soviet and German armies in the Courland Pocket in 1944 and 1945. During the third battle in December 1944, the opposing Soviet units included two Latvian divisions, the 43rd and the 308th, formed from recruits drafted in Soviet-occupied Eastern Latvia; when the Latvian units on both sides of the front faced one another, they were quite unwilling and disengaged without firing a shot. The Soviet command would transfer the Latvian divisions elsewhere after a few days. Together with other units in the Courland Pocket, the 19th division surrendered to the Soviets at the end of the war on May 9, 1945. Subsequently 50,000 Latvian soldiers became Soviet prisoners of war, imprisoned in filtration or Gulag camps; some of the Legion soldiers continued fighting the Soviets as Forest Brothers for up to ten years after the end of the war.

Oberführer Adolf Ax, commander of the 15th Division, reported on 27 January 1945: "They are first and foremost Latvians. They want a sustainable Latvian nation state. Forced to choose

Addison B. Colvin

Addison Beecher Colvin was an American businessman and politician. He was the son of Sara Ann Cowels Colvin. On May 16, 1883, he married Maria Louise Hees at Fonda, New York, they had three daughters, he was New York State Treasurer from 1894 to 1898, elected in 1893 and 1895 on the Republican ticket. He appointed his brother-in-law Deputy Treasurer, he was President of the Glens Falls Gaslight Company, Vice President of the Herkimer, Mohawk and Frankfort Railway, owner of the Glens Falls Daily Times and the Glens Falls Weekly Messenger. He was buried at Pineview Cemetery in Glens Falls. RootsWeb: COLVIN-L RE: Addison B. Colvin at archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com Short bio transcribed from Who Was Who in America, at rootsweb His "inauguration ceremony", in NYT on January 5, 1894 The State money deposit controversy, in NYT on January 9, 1894 A listing of his "titles", in NYT on September 17, 1895 Short bios of the re-elected state officers, in NYT on November 6, 1895