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Pope Caius

Pope Caius called Gaius, was the Bishop of Rome from 17 December 283 to his death in 296. Christian tradition makes him a native of the Dalmatian city of Salona, today Solin near Split, the son of a man named Caius, a member of a noble family related to the Emperor Diocletian. Little information on Caius is available except that given by the Liber Pontificalis, which relies on a legendary account of the martyrdom of Susanna of Rome for its information. According to legend, Caius baptized the men and women, converted by Tiburtius and Castulus, his legend states that Caius died a martyr. About 280, an early Christian house of worship was established on the site of Santa Susanna, like many of the earliest Christian meeting places, was in a house; the domus belonged, according to the sixth-century acta, to brothers named Caius and Gabinus, prominent Christians. Caius may be Caius the Presbyter. Gabinus is the name given to the father of Susanna. Thus, sources state; as pope, Caius decreed that before someone could assume the position of bishop, he must first be porter, exorcist, subdeacon and priest.

He divided the districts of Rome among the deacons. During his pontificate, anti-Christian measures increased, although new churches were built and cemeteries were expanded. St Caius may not have been martyred: Diocletian’s persecution of Christians began in 303 AD, after Caius’ alleged death, Diocletian was not hostile to Christianity upon becoming emperor. Caius is mentioned in the fourth-century Depositio Episcoporum: X kl maii Caii in Callisti. Caius' tomb, with the original epitaph, was discovered in the catacomb of Callixtus and in it the ring with which he used to seal his letters. In 1631, his alleged residence in Rome was turned into a church. However, it was demolished in 1880 to make room for the Ministry of War, on the Via XX Settembre, his relics were transferred to the chapel of the Barberini family. Saint Caius's feast day is celebrated on 22 April, they are celebrated jointly in the Tridentine Calendar and in the successive versions of the General Roman Calendar until that of 1969, since when they are omitted.

Both are mentioned under 22 April in the official list of recognized saints. The entry for Saint Caius is as follows: "At Rome, in the cemetery of Callistus on the Via Appia, the burial of Saint Caius, who, fleeing from the persecution of Diocletian, died as a confessor of the faith."Saint Caius is portrayed in art wearing the papal tiara with Saint Nereus. He is venerated in Venice. In Florence, the church of San Gaggio on the via Senese was dedicated to him. In 2003, plans were put into effect to turn it into residential council housing. List of Catholic saints List of popes Opera Omnia by Migne patrologia Latina

Eteläsuomalainen osakunta

Eteläsuomalainen osakunta is one of the 15 student nations at the University of Helsinki, Finnish-speaking, established in 1905 and it has Uusimaa and Eastern Uusimaa as recruitment regions. Before 1905, Nylands Nation gathered both Finnish- and Swedish-speaking university students from Southern Finland, but seceded from NN in 1905 to form a similar, but Finnish-speaking nation. ESO has its premises in downtown Helsinki, at Uusi Ylioppilastalo, at Mannerheimintie 5, alongside four other Nations, Savolainen osakunta, Varsinaissuomalainen osakunta, Åbo Nation and Östra Finlands Nation; the Nation has friendship contracts with several student nations, student associations and student societies at universities in Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Nylands Nation Sähköinsinöörikilta Eesti Üliõpilaste Selts Põhjala Estonian Women Students' Society Malmö nation Stockholms nation Värmlands nation Studenterforeningen Det Norske Studentersamfund Der Allgemeine Studierenden Ausschuss der Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz Official website


Paros is a Greek island in the central Aegean Sea. One of the Cyclades island group, it lies to the west of Naxos, from which it is separated by a channel about 8 kilometres wide, it lies 150 km south-east of Piraeus. The Municipality of Paros includes numerous uninhabited offshore islets totaling 196.308 square kilometres of land. Its nearest neighbor is the municipality of Antiparos. In ancient Greece, the city-state of Paros was located on the island. Paros was known for its fine white marble, which gave rise to the term "Parian" to describe marble or china of similar qualities. Today, abandoned marble quarries and mines can be found on the island, but Paros is known as a popular tourist spot. Paros' geographic co-ordinates are 37° N. latitude, 25° 10' E. longitude. The area is 165 km2, its greatest length from N. E. to S. W. is 21 km, its greatest breadth 16 km. The island is of a round, plump-pear shape, formed by a single mountain sloping evenly down on all sides to a maritime plain, broadest on the north-east and south-west sides.

The island is composed of marble. To the west of Paros lies its smaller sister island Antiparos. At its narrowest, the channel between the two islands is less than 2 km wide. A car-carrying shuttle-ferry operates all day. In addition a dozen smaller islets surround Paros. Paros has numerous beaches including Golden Beach near Drios on the east coast, at Pounda, Piso Livadi, Naousa Bay and Agia Irini; the constant strong wind in the strait between Paros and Naxos makes it a favoured windsurfing location. Gaiduronisi – north of Xifara Portes Island – west of the town of Paros Tigani Island – southwest of Paros Drionisi – southeast of Paros The story that Paros of Parrhasia colonized the island with Arcadians is an etymological fiction of the type that abounds in Greek legends. Ancient names of the island are said to have been Plateia, Strongyle, Hyleessa and Cabarnis; the island received from Athens a colony of Ionians under whom it attained a high degree of prosperity. It sent out colonies to Parium on the Hellespont.

In the former colony, planted in the 15th or 18th Olympiad, the poet Archilochus, a native of Paros, is said to have taken part. As late as 385 BC the Parians, in conjunction with Dionysius of Syracuse, founded a colony on the Illyrian island of Pharos. Shortly before the Persian War, Paros seems to have been a dependency of Naxos. In the first Greco-Persian War, Paros sided with the Persians and sent a trireme to Marathon to support them. In retaliation, the capital was besieged by an Athenian fleet under Miltiades, who demanded a fine of 100 talents, but the town offered a vigorous resistance, the Athenians were obliged to sail away after a siege of 26 days, during which they had wasted the island. It was at a temple of Demeter Thesmophoros in Paros that Miltiades received the wound from which he died. By means of an inscription, Ross was able to identify the site of the temple. Paros sided with shahanshah Xerxes I of Persia against Greece in the second Greco-Persian War, after the battle of Artemisium, the Parian contingent remained inactive at Kythnos as they watched the progression of events.

For their support of the Persians, the islanders were punished by the Athenian war leader Themistocles, who exacted a heavy fine. Under the Delian League, the Athenian-dominated naval confederacy, Paros paid the highest tribute of the island members: 30 talents annually, according to the estimate of Olympiodorus; this implies. Little is known about the constitution of Paros, but inscriptions seem to show that it was modeled on the Athenian democracy, with a boule at the head of affairs. In 410 BC, Athenian general Theramenes discovered. Paros was included in the second Athenian confederacy. In c. 357 BC, along with Chios, it severed its connection with Athens. From the inscription of Adule, it is understood that the Cyclades, which are presumed to include Paros, were subjected to the Ptolemies, the Hellenistic dynasty that ruled Egypt. Paros became part of the Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Empire, its Greek-speaking successor state. In 1204, the soldiers of the Fourth Crusade seized Constantinople and overthrew the Byzantine Empire.

Although a residual Byzantine state known as the Empire of Nicaea survived the Crusader onslaught and recovered Constantinople, many of the original Byzantine territories, including Paros, were lost permanently to the crusading powers. Paros became subject to the Duchy of the Archipelago, a fiefdom made up of various Aegean islands ruled by a Venetian duke as nominal vassal of a succession of crusader states. In practice, the duchy was always a client state of the Republic of Venice. In 1537, Paros was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and remained under the Ottoman Empire until the Greek War of Independence. During the Russo-Turkish War in 1770–1775 Naoussa Bay was the home base for the Russian Archipelago Squadron of Count Alexey Orlov. Under the Treaty of Constantinople, Paros became part of the newly independent Kingdom of Greece, the

You Are In a Maze of Twisty Little Passages, All Different

You Are In a Maze of Twisty Little Passages, All Different: Films and Videos by Daniel Cockburn is a 2009 Canadian experimental film anthology consisting of a curated programme of eleven short films by video artist Daniel Cockburn. An attempt to graph the shape of a human life through animation, with all its coincidences and repetitions. Texts by Ludwig Wittgenstein are set against lyrics by the cock rock band Faith No More in a "1-to-1 syllable-to-syllable ratio." A karaoke muzak video version of Elton John / Bernie Taupin's Rocket Man set to clips of fifty years' worth of American space films like Forbidden Planet and Lost in Space. An artist goes through his day keeping to a steady rhythm. All the while, his voice-over speaks discussing mental patterns in life, rhythm, as well as determinacy and free will, he talks about Hollywood films that have inspired him, appropriated clips flow along with the artist's own footage. He wonders how many of his daily thoughts are his own, as opposed to ideas coming from films or indeed the rest of his life experience.

Video and audio of Arnold Schwarzenegger as Adam Gibson from The 6th Day is reworked by a videomaker. The manipulation stops with the arrival of the Sabbath, when the videomaker rests, the Schwarzenegger of his creation speaks angrily for himself, the videomaker answers. In a split screen, a man dressed in a black suit and tie speaks directly to the audience, while a black and white home movie is being projected next to him, on the left, he describes a dream. The man wonders; as a metred beat thumps, a metred line is pulled across the screen, a narrator asserts with certainty that the entire universe expanded to twice its size overnight. A meandering video trek across bands of colour reveals a solitary singer struggling to be heard over distortion and echos. A journey from cacophony to harmony. A narrator lashes out at the "little opposite rebellions" he sees in which everything is reversed: "paper uncuts itself, cigarettes unsmoke, broken lightbulbs re-form, pills re-gather and in the final image, the artist himself flies out of the frame."

These are the secret pieces of the universe. When fellow video artist Matthew C. Brown made a work for the One Minute Film & Video Festival titled This Thing Is Bigger Than the Both of Us: The Secret of String, would not tell him what it was about, Cockburn made one of his own with a view to hazarding a guess. Another, different attempt to graph the shape of a human life through animation. In 2009, Cockburn was invited to a six-month fellowship in Berlin, where he began showing a curated programme of his films and videos. An anthology film tour was coordinated by curator Jon Davies with the support of the Canada Council for the Arts. Cockburn returned to Toronto toward the end of the year with a revised programme which saw the launch a publication about his work; the catalogue titled You Are in a Maze of Twisty Little Passages all Different, was edited by Daniel Cockburn and Jon Davies, included five commissioned essays by video artists Steve Reinke and Emily Vey Duke, author Sheila Heti, filmmaker Spencer Parsons, theoretical physicist Lee Smolin.

The final version of You Are in a Maze of Twisty Little Passages all Different was screened in Toronto on 5 December 2009. In addition to the eleven shorts which form the core of the standard programme, the Pleasure Dome screening included The Chinese Room and Matthew C. Brown's This Thing Is Bigger Than The Both Of Us: The Secret Of String. A 55-minute DVD of the final version of the anthology film was released in 2009. Norman Wilner wrote a brief retrospective review of Cockburn's work in advance of the Pleasure Dome event in Toronto:Cockburn's work is strange and recursive and curious and enthralling, sometimes all at once. In works like Metronome and The Impostor, he considers life and dreams - and dreams about death - with a childlike fascination and an adult's sense of gravity. He'll ponder the collective illusion of time in Stupid Coalescing Becomers, or investigate his suspicion that everything in the universe has doubled in size overnight in the aptly titled Nocturnal Doubling. Calmly offering philosophical and metaphysical insights on the audio track, while evidence of his thesis plays out on the screen, he's both prankster and serious inquisitor.

You Are In a Maze of Twisty Little Passages, All Different on Vtape

Alexander Haim Pekelis

Alexander Haim Pekelis was a jurist and activist. He lived and was educated throughout Europe in his early life and was a jurist in pre-fascist Italy before moving to France in 1938 and to the United States in 1941, he became the first foreign-born Editor-in-Chief of the Columbia Law Review. Despite his short time in the United States before his untimely death in 1946 at the age of 44, he left his mark on modern United States jurisprudence, his work advocating and foretelling the role social sciences would come to play in deciding legal issues. Pekelis died in a plane crash in Ireland, at age 44. After his death, his scholarly works and theories were discussed by the Karl E. Meyer, Max Ascoli and Milton R. Konvitz among others. Alexander Haim Pekelis was born in Odessa, which at the time was part of the Russian Empire, he graduated from Odessa Gymnasium in 1919, before fleeing from Russia in 1920 at the time of the Russian Revolution. He moved to Leipzig, Germany where he studied for a year before moving to Vienna, Austria until 1924.

After living in Vienna for 3 years he immigrated to Italy where he studied law. He was educated at the University of Florence, where he graduated with a law degree in 1928. An ardent anti-fascist, Pekelis spent a year studying at the London School of Economics in 1929 through a fellowship award from the fascist Ministry of Education of Italy. Two years after his graduation from the University of Florence, his graduate thesis was published under the Italian title "ll diritto come volontà costante". In 1932, he lectured on Jurisprudence at the University of Florence. Pekelis did not become a professor at the University, because the local Fascist party prevented him from doing so, since he had refused to join the party. However, he became a Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Rome in 1935; the Italian Racial Laws, which were first introduced in 1938, prohibited foreign born Jews from practicing law and other professions in Italy. Because of this and the general growing antisemitism and his family left Italy.

He moved to Paris where he practiced law until 1940. When the Germans invaded France, he fled with his young family, traveling through Vichy France and Portugal arriving in the United States as a refugee in 1941. In the United States he became a professor at the New School for Social Research as part of what was called "The University in Exile." While working as a professor, he had to go to law school all over again attending Columbia School of Law. In 1943 he was named the first foreign-born Editor-in-Chief of the Columbia Law Review. After his graduation from Columbia, the University created a new post for him and he became the Graduate Editor-in-Chief, his scholarly work from 1941 onwards dealt with the need for judicial action to be informed by social and economic realities. He was one of the first to anticipate that the Supreme Court would become the champion of a liberal social policy that recognized the role of the social sciences in reaching just results, he wrote, "Law is too serious a business to be left to lawyers…The greatness of the Supreme Court is manifested in its growing awareness that the issues which confront it, no matter how legal, must of necessity find a composition social, economic or political in nature."Pekelis co-authored an Amicus brief for The American Jewish Congress in the Ninth Circuit case, Mendez v. Westminster School District.

In the brief Pekelis argued that classifications that segregated Mexican children according to race, are based on "discriminatory social or legal notions of ‘inferiority’ or ‘superiority’’’ and therefore unconstitutional. In 1945 he became Chief Consultant to the Commission on Law and Social Action, American Jewish Congress. While in this role, he was the Chairman of the committee that drafted the original New York statute against discrimination in education; the law was passed after his death. During 1946, the New York Times published his letters on various topics; that year, on December 28 Alexander Haim Pekelis was killed in a commercial airplane accident in Shannon, Ireland. He was returning from the World Zionist Congress in Basle. Following his death, his work remains a subject of discussion. For example, in 1964 Karl E. Meyer recognized Pekelis’ vision in an article in The New Statesman. Meyer wrote Hardly anybody foresaw the possibility of the judiciary serving as an active instrument of liberal social policy.

The first to articulate this notion was a European emigre who remains in undeserved obscurity. "The federal judiciary, led by the Supreme Court," Alexander Pekelis wrote in the early 1940s, "may well prove to be, in the coming decade, the most liberal of the three branches of the national government." Richard David - Justices and Journalists: The U. S. Supreme Court and the Media Jesse Choper - On the Warren Court and Judicial Review"

Black-backed antshrike

The black-backed antshrike is a species of bird in the family Thamnophilidae. It is found in Colombia and Venezuela, where its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests; the black-backed antshrike was described by the English zoologist Philip Sclater in 1855 and given the binomial name Thamnophilus melanonotus. It was subsequently placed in the genus Sakesphorus. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2007 found that Sakesphorus was polyphyletic and that three species including the black-backed antshrike were embedded within a clade containing members of Thamnophilus; the black-backed antshrike was therefore moved back to its original genus