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Pope Celestine IV

Pope Celestine IV, born Goffredo da Castiglione, was Pope from 25 October 1241 to his death on 10 November of the same year after a short reign of sixteen days. Born in Milan, Goffredo or Godfrey is referred to as son of a sister of Pope Urban III, but this claim is without foundation. Nothing is known of his early life. Pope Gregory IX made him a cardinal on 18 September 1227 with the diocese and benefice of San Marco, in 1228–29 sent him as legate in Lombardy and Tuscany, where the cities and communes had remained true to the Hohenstaufen emperor, Frederick II, he was dispatched in an attempt to bring these territories around to the papal side, but without success. In 1238 he was made cardinal bishop of Sabina; the papal election of 1241 that elevated Celestine to the papal chair was held under stringent conditions that hastened his death. The papal curia was disunited over the violent struggle to bring the Emperor and King of Sicily Frederick II to heel. One group of cardinals favored the ambitious schemes of the Gregorian Reform and aimed to humble Frederick as a papal vassal.

Frederick, controlled as his unwilling guests in Tivoli two cardinals whom he had captured at sea, in Rome Cardinal Giovanni Colonna was his ally because the curia was in the hands of the Colonna archenemy, the senator Matteo Rosso Orsini. The latter held the consistory immured under his guards in the ramshackle palace of the Septizodium, where rains leaked through the roof of their chamber, mingled with the urine of Orsini's guards on the rooftiles. One of the cardinals died. One group of cardinals, which included Sinibaldo de' Fieschi backed a candidate from the inner circle of Pope Gregory IX expected to pursue the hard line with Frederick II. Another group advocated a moderated middle course, not allies of the Hohenstaufen, but keen to reach an end to the Italian war. Overtures to Frederick II, were met with the impossible demand that if they wished the cardinals in his hands to return to Rome, they must elect as Pope Otto of St. Nicholas, an amenable compromise figure. Matteo Orsini's candidate, Romano da Porto, who had persecuted scholars at the University of Paris, was considered unacceptable.

The cardinal bishop of Sabina was elected Pope Celestine IV by the required two-thirds majority, seven cardinals out of ten, only on 25 October 1241. He occupied the throne for only seventeen days, his only notable papal act being the timely excommunication of Matteo Rosso Orsini, he was buried in St Peter's. List of popes Reardon, Wendy J.. The Deaths of the Popes: Comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-1527-4. Abulafia, David. Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. New York: Oxford University Press. P. 352. ISBN 978-0-19-508040-7. Lexikon der Mittelalters, vol. iii, part 7. Bagliani, Agostino Pallavicini. Cardinali di curia e familiae cardinalizie dal 1227 al 1254. Italia Sacra vols 18–19. Padua, Italy: Antenore. OCLC 2205084. A standard account

Danilo Suarez

Danilo "Danny" Etorma Suarez is a Filipino politician and the incumbent Governor of Quezon. He served as Minority Floor Leader of the House of Representatives of the Philippines representing the 3rd District of Quezon. Suarez first served as Quezon 3rd districts representative in 1992 and serve for three consecutive terms until 2001. Due to term limitation his wife Aleta Suarez run in 2001, he was appointed as vice chair of the National Road Board by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. After his wife's term ended, he served for three consecutive terms from 2004 to 2013. On January 16, 2012, Suarez assumed post as Minority Floor Leader of the House of Representatives of the Philippines replacing Edcel Lagman who earlier resigned due to a term-sharing agreement, he ran again unopposed during the 2016 election. He ran for the Speakership in the 17th Congress of the Philippines but lost to Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez where he got 7 votes while Teddy Baguilat got 8 votes. Though it's a tradition that the one who got the second highest votes is automatically the minority floor leader, a change in the house rules says that there should be an election within the minority bloc.

He won as minority floor leader during the election on July 27, 2016 with 22 votes and 3 abstentions. Suarez has been championing the protection of the environment throughout his political career, he opposed the Kaliwa Dam Project in Rizal province during the term of former President Benigno Aquino III. As House Representative, Suarez has been fighting for the growth and development of local palm oil industry, urging the Department of Trade and Industry and other concerned agencies to stop the importation of palm oil in support of the development of the country’s coconut industry. Suarez pushed for a congressional investigation on palm oil importation back in 2013 since it was dragging copra prices down. Suarez introduced House Bill 599, an Act Mandating the Construction of the Quezon-Bicol Expressway to be called QuBEx, an expressway that shall link the provinces of Quezon with the Bicol regions starting from Malicboy in Pagbilao and terminating in the province of Sorsogon in Bicol, he filed House Bill 6479, an act establishing Quezon Coconut Research and Development Center in Catanauan, Quezon.

He filed House Bill 7503, an act declaring Filipino sign language as the National sign language of the Filipino deaf. This was enacted into Republic Act RA11106 on 2018


Open.... was the trading name of Open Interactive Limited, a subsidiary of British Interactive Broadcasting. British Interactive Broadcasting was in turn owned by a consortium consisting of companies involving the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, British Telecom, Matsushita and BSkyB. Launching a few months late in August 1999, it only survived until the service was acquired and rebranded by BSkyB in October 2001, losing GB£116 million; the service was awarded a Design Council Millennium Product Award. Following disappointing revenues and a shift in marketing at Sky, BSkyB bought out the remaining shares of Open in May 2001 and the service was rebranded as "Sky Active". Open was marketed as the flagship Interactive TV service on the newly launched Sky Digital platform in the UK. Open was designed to house all of Sky Digital's interactive functions under the one name and in the one place. Open had a state of the art refurbished head office in Farringdon Street, London where its own content was designed and built.

The offices housed their service control room and the services proxy servers. Transmission took place at the BT Teleport site in North London. Services included Shopping, gaming and information services like film guides or weather; the content was extensive and wide-ranging, however it was a "walled garden" as users could not go on the Internet or on traditional web pages. All content was designed for use on Open and was not available on any other platform. During its short life, despite Open processing 65 000 shopping transactions, it lost £116 million. Access was available to all Sky Digital subscribers and could be accessed at any time by pressing the "Interactive" button on customer's Sky Digital remote control. Open.... was marketed as being available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year for the customer's convenience. However, in reality, the service was unavailable for a number of minutes at quieter times when Open....'s proxy server software was being updated. This update meant that digiboxes could not connect online and left customers unable to make purchases or download weather forecasts etc...

Users could navigate through Open.... using either the number keys or via the four coloured buttons on their Sky Digital remote control. Other buttons which were used included the "back-up" button to go back a screen or the directional arrows on their Sky Digital remote control. All screens regardless of who provided the content, displayed the Open.... Navigation banner, it featured the four coloured buttons. The function of each coloured button varied, however the red button was always the "go to" menu, it allowed users to view their browsing history or "go back" a screen. On entering the Open.... Platform, users were presented with the Top Level Menu homepage; this consisted of 7 or 8 numbered options and a quarter screen video featuring traditional TV advertising. As users navigated through the various menus, they could enter Open.... Service provider portals such as WH Smith shop or Talk21 email. Open.... was divided up into five main zones or areas, these included: - Shopping - Banking - Information - Gaming - Personal Retailers such as Woolworths or The Gadget Shop were able to provide a small shop presence through Open....

Featuring their own branding and products. Because of the way Open.... Worked, users had to connect and allow their digibox to go online at a local rate number to download product information and in all cases, make a purchase through Open.... Iceland were the flagship Interactive store but despite extensive advertising - never launched; the three main banks to feature a presence on Open.... were HSBC, Halifax and The Woolwich. However HSBC were the only bank to provide a true online banking experience. Halifax and The Woolwich only provided information pages on their range of services. Open.... provided various information screens such as news and sports coverage from Sky News and Sky Sports, weather forecasts, showbiz as well as cinema listings and travel guides. Open.... featured a Going Places travel agent outlook, but again this was just for information. No holidays could be purchased via Open.... Gaming was exceptionally popular with younger Open.... Users. Games were available over the satellite transmission and as such did not require the user to go online to download game data.

Original games included Beehive Bedlam, Big Top Drop, Sheep Dip, Marvin Mole, King Tutti, Bumble Tumble, Corporal Cluck. Marvin Mole Level 5 was completed blindfolded in over 1000 moves. Beehive Bedlam was the only game, still available through the Sky Games portal until its closure in January 2015. Although viewers didn't notice a different apart from the Sky Games branding. First launched. Open.... provided a Talk 21 email portal. Through the Digiboxes' online connection, users could register and receive email through the BT Talk 21 service. All emails were sent as plain text. Attachments could not be attached; when the service was first launched, it was expected to use the domain, however as BT were a major shareholder, it was felt better to use the BT Talk 21 email brand. Another Open.... Service was the Open Organiser, it allowed users to create

Nenad Starovlah

Nenad Starovlah is a Bosnian Serb football manager and former player. As a player he was a Yugoslav international, he holds Cypriot citizenship. Nenad Starovlah was the total player. In July 1972, he was chosen as the best young player at the tournament of the Republic Championship and was after the tournament called up to the Željezničar first team, he on played 333 league games for Željezničar from 1972 till 1982 and as a defender scored 18 goals. He was part of the team that played the 1980–81 Yugoslav Cup final against FK Velež which they lost 3:2, he retired from professional football in 1982 at the age of 27 because of a knee injury. He played for the Yugoslav national football team where the Yugoslav team won the gold medal at the 1979 Mediterranean Games in Split, he retired when he was due to a knee injury. After ending his football career in 1982 he took over U-10 side of Željezničar and for eight years he trained with them where they achieved six titles of the Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Due to the fact that sixteen of these players from that generation signed a professional contract with the first team, he took over as assistant coach of Željezničar in 1991 under Milan Ribar. The war in Yugoslavia took place as a result the team split. Many of these players continued their career abroad like Mario Stanić, Elvir Baljić, Marijo Dodik, Boris Vasković, Veldin Karić, others, he took over Yugoslav U-16 team as an assistant coach of Mirko Jozić in 1990. The team reached the finals of the European Championship in Germany in 1990 losing the final to Czechoslovakia by 3-2. During the same period whilst he was the assistant coach at SFR Yugoslavia U-16, he was the manager of the Bosnia and Herzegovina U-17 national team. In 1988 and 1990 the team achieved the championship of Republic of Yugoslavia twice and in 1989 where the team won the second place. In 1992, after years of experience in the previous teams managed, Starovlah moved to Serbia and became manager of Hajduk Kula. While he was Hajduk's manager, the club made the greatest achievement in the history of the club until that period of time.

Radoman Vasović, the club president back declared: "Even if prior to deciding to assign Nenad Starovlah as our coach, we had information about who and what personality he had, it is not till now that we can say that we are certain that we received what we wanted: a young and professional manager, a person, dedicated to football, who has energy and ambition to achieve the goal, set, who knows how to teach the players how to play football but to psychologically motivate them to always give their maximum.” Starovlah moved to Borac Čačak, where the committee of the club considered that he was the ideal coach to help their team achieve their major goal, to get promotion to the First League of FR Yugoslavia. In 1994, with Starovlah the team achieved their goal after a thirty-two year wait. In July 1994, Starovlah signed a 1-year contract with Ethnikos Piraeus, at the time playing in the First League of Greece. After only four months as the club's manager, Starovlah got. From 1995-1999, Starovlah was working in Apollon in Cyprus.

During these four years he took different positions in the team: academy technical director and manager. In his first season with Apollon Starovlah became the manager of the first team of Apollon, he was brought in by club president Dimis Kirzis. The next three years he spent in the club, he was the academy technical advisor. In 1999, Starovlah signed a contract with Cyprus's club Enosis Neon Paralimni. In the 1999–00 Cypriot First League seasom Enosis finished on 8th place and after the end of the season Starovlah left the club. Continuing his career, in 2000 Starovlah returned to FR Yugoslavia and became the manager of FK Sutjeska Nikšić. Prior to signing the contract, Sutjeska was at the bottom of the league table. After Sutjeska, Starovlah made his return to Apollon. During his time at the club, he was the technical director of the academy. Starovlah coached a number of players who are known to be one of the most successful both in the Cypriot League and abroad. On 1 October 2004, the Cypriot newspapers named him “Ο πιο πιστός στρατιώτης,” which in English means “The most dedicated soldier.”

In 2006, Starovlah became the manager of the club where he played his entire career, FK Željezničar Sarajevo in the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In September 2006, Starovlah was controversaly sacked though, at the time, Željezničar was on 4th place and had only 5 points less than first place club, fierce city rivals Sarajevo. In 2008 Starovlah became the team manager of Omonia, he remained on that position until 2016. During that time, Omonia made big success in the league and the cup and Starovlah was much praised for all the success Omonia made during that time; some players guided them to their current careers. Zoran Simunović described Starovlah as “a high quality coach with many diplomas, who managed to make a lot of success in his career.” Panayiotis Frangeskou named Starovlah to be his “football father,” due to his years of support. Zoran Šaraba stated that “Starovlah is a great expert, in love with football, he know how to work, he is ambitious, a real professional whom everyone loves: players and fans."

Whilst Starovlah was working in FK Hajduk K

El Hijo del Villano III

El Hijo del Villano III is a Mexican masked professional wrestler, working for Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre as a rudo or heel. He is a third generation luchador son of Villano III and La Infernal, grandson of Ray Mendoza, his older brother is a professional wrestler, known as Villano III Jr. his uncles include luchadors Villano I, Villano II, Villano IV, Villano V and he is the cousin on Villano V Jr. and Rokambole Jr. In CMLL he has been programmed opposite Atlantis Jr. alluding to the long running storyline feud between their fathers Villano III and Atlantis. El Hijo del Villano III's real name is not a matter of public record, as is the case with masked wrestlers in Mexico where their private lives are kept a secret from the wrestling fans. El Hijo del Villano III was born on November 26, 1999, son of professional wrestlers Arturo Díaz Mendoza and Luz Lorena Velarde Murillo, his older brother, known as Villano III Jr. was born a year prior, on July 11, 1998. is birth name has not been revealed to the general public, the tradition in Lucha Libre where newsoutlets do not publish the real names of any masked wrestler who has not lost their mask in a match.

Four of his uncles worked in professional wrestling, all using the ring name "Villano". He started training for a career in lucha libre when he was only 8 years old and made his actual debut at the age of 15, he was trained by his father as well as his uncles Arturo Raymundo and Thomas. El Hijo del Villano III made his first in-ring appearance at the age of just 13, working an exhibition match on the undercard of a show honoring his father's 40th wrestling anniversary. Once he turned 15 and could be licensed by the boxing and wrestling commission he made his official debut on December 25, 2013. In subsequent years he won the Mexican State Tag Team Championship with his brother El Hijo del Villano III as well as the Mexican State Trios Championship with his father and his brother, he began training in the CMLL wrestling school in 2018, receiving training and guidance from Arkangel de la Muerte, Virus, Último Dragoncito and Último Guerrero, building on the training he received from his father and uncle Villano IV prior to his in ring debut.

He made his CMLL debut on their 2018 Christmas show, winning his debut match alongside his uncle Villano IV and Mephisto as they defeated Atlantis, Black Panther and Blue Panther Jr.. During the build to his debut CMLL presented him as a natural rival to Atlantis Jr. mirroring the rivalry between Villano III and Atlantis. El Hijo del Villano III made his first appearance as a major CMLL show only a week after his in-ring debut for the company as he, Villano IV and El Felino lost to Los Gorilas del Ring and El Hijo de LA Park at CMLL's annual Sin Piedad show. On May 25, 2019, El Hijo del Villano III participated in his first major CMLL tournament, the Puebla version of their annual Torneo Nacional de Parejas Increíbles tournament where a rudo and a tecnico are forced to team together for the tournament. El Hijo del Villano III was teamed up with one of Carístico; the mismatched duo defeated Atlantis and Vangellys in the first round and Sansón, before losing to Niebla Roja and El Terrible in the semi-final round.

The second generation rivalry between the Villano and Atantis family led to El Hijo del Villano III and Atlantis Jr. facing off in their first one-on-one match on July 5, 2019, a match that ended in a double count out as both wrestlers were fighting outside the ring for too long. Distrito FederalMexican State Tag Team Championship – with Villano III Jr. Mexican State Trios Championship – with El Villano III Jr. and Villano IIIInternational Wrestling Revolution GroupTorneo FILL 58 – with Black Laser, Climax Jr. Kortiz, Máquina Infernal, Villano III Jr. and Zhalon

The Third Part of the Pilgrim's Progress

The Pilgrim's Progress: The Third Part is a pseudepigraphic sequel to John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, written by an anonymous author. It was published with Bunyan's work in editions from 1693 to 1852 because it was believed to be written by Bunyan, it presents the pilgrimage of his companions. In the 19th century it was bowdlerized to omit a few sexual allusions. Tender-Conscience, a native of the town of Vain Delights goes on the pilgrimage of Christian and Christiana to the Celestial City, he stops at some of the same places as they, but he encounters new places not visited by either Christian or Christiana and her party. All of the lands that are outside of the Wicket Gate and the area encompassed by the "walls and borders of that region, wherein lay the way to the heavenly country" are known as the "Valley of Destruction." The time that Tender-Conscience begins his pilgrimage is a time of drought and heat, emblematic of a time of the persecution. Some of them are deterred in their progress, return to their old homes in the Valley of Destruction during the night.

Tender-Conscience has a difficult time crossing the Slough of Despond, he does not get by it without being covered in mud from it. This mud has the effect of weakening the body and blinding his eyes, Tender-Conscience gropes along until he is overshadowed by a bright cloud from which a hand appears that washes away the mud enabling Tender-Conscience to continue his journey with vigor. At the Wicket Gate Tender-Conscience does not escape the arrows shot against callers from Beelzebub's castle; these cause him to bleed profusely. Good-Will lets him in, registers his name as a pilgrim, he gives Tender-Conscience a crutch, made of wood from the Tree of Life. This crutch stanches the bleeding and strengthens Tender-Conscience, who must bear with the arrows of Beelzebub until he reaches the House of the Interpreter; the Interpreter removes the arrows of Beelzebub from Tender-Conscience's body and lodges him for the night, showing him the same emblems and scenes enjoyed by Christian and their children and companions.

The next day the Interpreter goes a little way with Tender-Conscience to where the King's Highway is walled on either side by the Wall of Salvation. Before they reach this wall they come to two farms on either side of the way; the farm on the right is well-cared for and the one on the left is not. The Interpreter tells Tender-Conscience that this provides an example to pilgrims that they should be like the caretaker of the farm on the right, who improved his farm until it was in its present good condition. Tender-Conscience when parted from the Interpreter comes to the place where Christian found the cross and the sepulchre. On either side of the cross were now erected two houses as competing lodging places for pilgrims. On the right was the House of Mourning, on the left was the House of Mirth; the House of Mirth is like an ale house with carousing men, but the House of Mourning is tended by pious women called "matrons." Tender-Conscience decides to go to the House of Mourning despite the agitation induced in the men of the House of Mirth, who form a mob surrounding the House of Mourning demanding that Tender-Conscience be handed over to them.

Three shining ones appear to Tender-Conscience promising to rescue him. The first shining one breathes on Tender-Conscience making him a new creature, the second clothes him in a white robe in place of his crimson clothes, the third one gives him a sealed roll. With this change Tender-Conscience is able to get by unrecognized by the men from the House of Mirth and, so, go on his way. At the Hill Difficulty Tender-Conscience had the choice of the three ways: the one going up the hill called "Difficulty," the one going around the right hand of the hill called "Danger," and the one going around the left side of the hill called "Destruction." The broadness and pleasantness of the two byways induced Tender-Conscience to take the right-hand byway Danger. He thought that this way would lead him to the top of the hill, but the growing denseness of the forest surrounding the way and the howlings of wild beasts that he heard induced him to go back to the foot of the hill, he remembered the Bible passages that characterized the right way as narrow, so he chose to go up the hill by way of the steep and narrow path.

Working his way up the hill, he is taken into two caves tended by Good-resolution and Contemplation where he is shown alabaster statues of famous pilgrims from the Bible who had gone on before, an image of the Celestial City from a carved diamond. He is given respite and food by Good-Resolution, who warns him about places he should avoid staying while on the hill, he continues on the path, where he is stopped by a flattering man Spiritual-Pride, who convinces him there is a quicker way to his award, leads him to a tower of Lofty-Thoughts with the plans of throwing Tender-Conscience off it, dashing upon the bottom of the hill below. Tender remembers the warnings from Good-resolution, he runs away, going on further he is stopped by an old man, Carnal-Security, who convinces him to turn from the road, he leads to a grand palace tended by the old man's wife Intemperance and his daughters Wantonness and Forgetfulness, where he is enticed to drink wine, dabbles with Wantonness and fall asleep in Forgetfulness' arms.

Servants carry him inside and put him on a bed, music begins to play with the intent of keeping him asleep until he dies, in which case his corpse would be carried down the hill to the path of Destruction, tossed into the fiery Lake of Destruction at the end of the road and die the'second death'. Tender's crutch awakens him, he gets up, a storm and voices in his ear urge hi