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Pope Clement VIII

Pope Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605. Born in Fano, Italy to a prominent Florentine family, he came to prominence as a canon lawyer before being made a Cardinal-Priest in 1585. In 1592 he took the name of Clement. During his papacy he effected the reconciliation of Henry IV of France to the Catholic faith and was instrumental in setting up an alliance of Christian nations to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the so-called Long War, he successfully adjudicated in a bitter dispute between the Dominicans and the Jesuits on the issue of efficacious grace and free will. In 1600 he presided over a jubilee, he had little pity for his opponents, presiding over the trial and execution of Giordano Bruno and implementing strict measures against Jewish residents of the Papal States. He may have been the first pope to drink coffee. Clement VIII died at the age of 69 in 1605 and his remains now rest in the Santa Maria Maggiore.

He was from a Florentine family, followed his father as a canon lawyer, becoming an Auditor of the Roman Rota, the highest ecclesiastical court constituted by the Holy See. He was only ordained as a priest at the age of 45, rose to Pope in a further 12 years, he was an effective, if sometimes ruthless, administrator. He was made Cardinal-Priest of S. Pancrazio in 1585 by Pope Sixtus V, who named him major penitentiary in January 1586 and in 1588 sent him as legate in Poland, he placed himself under the direction of the reformer Philip Neri, who for thirty years was his confessor. Aldobrandini won the gratitude of the Habsburgs by his successful diplomatic efforts in Poland to obtain the release of the imprisoned Archduke Maximilian, the defeated claimant to the Polish throne. After the death of Pope Innocent IX, another stormy conclave ensued, in which a determined minority of Italian Cardinals were unwilling to be dictated to by Philip II of Spain. Known to be intelligent, in tune with the inter workings of the Church, Cardinal Aldobrandini's election on 30 January 1592 was received as a portent of more balanced and liberal Papal policy in European affairs.

He took the non-politicised name Clement VIII. He proved to be an able Pope, with an unlimited capacity for work, a lawyer's eye for detail, a wise statesman, the general object of whose policy was to free the Papacy from its dependence upon Spain. In November 1592, he published the Clementine Vulgate, it was issued with the Bull Cum Sacrorum which asserted that every subsequent edition must be assimilated to this one, no word of the text may be changed, nor variant readings printed in the margin. This new official version of the Vulgate, known as the Clementine Vulgate" or Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, became the official Bible of the Catholic Church. In 1597, he established the Congregatio de Auxiliis, to settle the theological controversy between the Dominican Order and the Jesuits concerning the respective role of efficacious grace and free will. Although the debate tended toward a condemnation of Molinism's insistence on free will to the detriment of efficacious grace, the important influence of the Jesuit Order — among other considerations — which, beside important political and theological power in Europe, had various missions abroad, led the Pope to abstain from an official condemnation of the Jesuits.

In 1611 and again in 1625 a decree prohibited any discussion of the matter, although it was informally avoided by the publication of commentaries on Thomas Aquinas. During the jubilee of 1600, three million pilgrims visited the holy places; the Synod of Brest was held 1595 in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, by which a great part of the Ruthenian clergy and people were reunited to Rome. Clement VIII canonised Hyacinth, Julian of Cuenca, Raymond of Peñafort, he beatified 200 of them being group martyrs. The pope created 53 cardinals in six consistories during his pontificate. Notable cardinals named during his reign included Camillo Borghese as well as the noted theologians Roberto Bellarmino and Cesare Baronio; the most remarkable event of Clement VIII's reign was the reconciliation to the Church of Henry IV of France, after long negotiations, carried on with great dexterity through Cardinal Arnaud d'Ossat, that resolved the complicated situation in France. Henry embraced Catholicism on 25 July 1593.

After a pause to assess Henry IV's sincerity, Clement VIII braved Spanish displeasure, in the autumn of 1595 he solemnly absolved Henry IV, thus putting an end to the thirty years' religious war in France. Henry IV's friendship was of essential importance to the Papacy two years when Alfonso II, Duke of Ferrara, died childless, the Pope resolved to attach the stronghold of the Este family to the states of the Church. Though Spain and the Emperor Rudolf II encouraged Alfonso II's illegitimate cousin, Cesare d'Este, to withstand the Pope, they were deterred from giving him any material aid by Henry IV's threats, a papal army entered Ferrara unopposed. In 1598 Clement VIII won more credit for the papacy by bringing about a definite treaty of peace between Spain and France in the Peace of Vervins, this put an end to their long contest, he negotiated peace between France and Savoy as well. In 1595, Clement VIII initiated an alliance of Christian European powers to take p

Michel Duc-Goninaz

Michel Duc Goninaz was a French Esperantist known worldwide for his 2002 revision of La Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto. A member of the World Esperanto Youth Organization during the 1950s, he served as co-editor of La Folieto, distributed among young Esperantists of Île-de-France. In 1956 he married Arlette Lecourtois, he played a role in the 1964 Esperanto-language feature film Angoroj. Notably, he compiled Vocabulaire Espéranto, a thematic French-Esperanto dictionary published by Ophrys in 1971, he adapted Alexander Pushkin's play The Stone Guest into Esperanto as La Ŝtona Gasto, he translated The Stranger by Albert Camus and Dream Story by Arthur Schnitzler into Esperanto. For many years he was a lecturer in Esperanto at the University of Provence. Duc Goninaz is now a lecturer at the International Academy of Sciences in San Marino and is a regular contributing editor to the Esperanto-language monthly magazine Monato. In 2002, he and Claude Roux updated and revised La Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto, a monolingual reference dictionary of Esperanto by Gaston Waringhien, published in 1976.

In 2002 the journal La Ondo de Esperanto named Duc Goninaz as Esperantist of the Year in recognition of his work as chief editor for the dictionary revision. Another revised edition corrected numerous typographical errors, many of, noted by Esperanto grammarian and lexicographer Bertilo Wennergren. 2005. La Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto. Paris: Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, 1265 pp. ISBN 2-9502432-8-2. 1979. "Esperanto en Perspektivo: Faktoj kaj analizoj pri la internacia lingvo" in Language Problems and Language Planning, 3:1, 40–45. 1983. "Les langues d'U. R. S. S.: Aspects linguistiques et sociolinguistiques" in Language Problems and Language Planning, 7:2, 198 ff. 2000. "L’espérantologie en revue" in Language Problems and Language Planning, 24:2, 197–200

A Winter's Tale (David Essex song)

"A Winter's Tale" is a song performed by David Essex on the 1983 album The Whisper. First released as a single in 1982, it reached #2 in the UK singles chart in January 1983, kept off #1 by Phil Collins's cover version of "You Can't Hurry Love". "A Winter's Tale" was written by Mike Batt and Tim Rice in late 1982 in response to a request from Essex. It was released as a single in December 1982, it spent ten weeks in the UK chart, peaking at #2 on 15 January 1983. In 1983, the song was included on Essex's album The Whisper; the song was covered by Michael Ball for his 2000 album Christmas. It was covered by the English a capella group The Magnets in 2000; the Moody Blues recorded a version of December. Joe McElderry performed the song at Durham Cathedral, this version features a new verse written by Sir Tim Rice. "A Winter's Tale" was used to open the musical All the Fun of the Fair, launched in 2008, in which it was performed by Louise English. A 2008 article by Asian News International saw "A Winter's Tale" placed as the fourth worst Christmas song.

However, in 2014 The Independent reported a list of 50 Best Christmas songs by PRS for Music, ranking "A Winter's Tale" as the 34th best Christmas song. The Coronation Street Christmas special of 2010 ended with the character Rita Sullivan performing a version of the song accompanied by Mary Taylor on the electric piano in the Rovers Return pub. During the song, various characters come to terms with their losses after the devastating tram crash. True Winter’s Tale for David Essex fan after Muswell Hill fall

George Alexander (Australian cricketer)

George Alexander was a cricketer who played for Victoria and for Australia. Alexander was born at Britwell Salome, England. Alexander was a forceful bat and a fast bowler, acted as the manager of the Australian teams that toured England under Billy Murdoch in 1880 and 1884, he managed the England tour of 1882-83 under Ivo Bligh that went to Australia to retrieve The Ashes. In 1880, in addition to his management duties, Alexander was one of the leading bowlers of the team that visited other colonies as well as England. On the tour as a whole, he took 109 wickets at an average of nine runs each, he played in the first Test match on English soil at The Oval, took two wickets and with his captain added 52 runs for the ninth wicket, which helped avoid an innings defeat. He played a second Test match four years at the Adelaide Oval, but did not take a wicket

Benetton B193

The Benetton B193 is a Formula One racing car with which the Benetton team competed in the 1993 Formula One World Championship. Designed by Ross Brawn and Rory Byrne, the car was powered by the latest Cosworth HBA engine in an initially-exclusive deal with Ford, ran on Goodyear tyres, it was driven by veteran Italian Riccardo Patrese. The car was distinguishable from its predecessor due to its track being 15 cm narrower per the regulations of 1993, the addition of bargeboards at the Monaco Grand Prix, it had sidepods with a less pronounced cut-in for the radiator ducts. The nose height was raised from that of the B192, as well as having a longer and flatter rear'deck' to allow for smoother airflow over the rear suspension than the B192; the standard rear-wing endplate profile was changed, featuring a straight leading edge rather than the curved design of the B192. In the season this would further change with the addition of the'forward wing'; the leading edge of the front wing now followed a straight profile, rather than curving forward towards the endplates.

The leading edge of the nose followed a smoother curved profile, whereas the B192 was flatter at its tip. In terms of performance it was an improvement on the 1992 competitor. Thanks to the more powerful engine, Michael Schumacher was able to challenge the McLarens and on occasion challenged the unbeatable Williams FW15C, it is arguable that it was overall the second most competitive car on the grid, behind the Williams, with Schumacher scoring podiums and out-qualifying the single-lap ace Ayrton Senna in 8 of the 16 races of the season. Having access to the most potent factory engine in contrast to McLaren having to make do with older-specification units gave Benetton a power advantage, however the McLaren had the edge at some races, in particular in wet conditions due in part to their use of traction control. Due to McLaren's early-season results McLaren were able lobby Ford to provide engines of equal-spec to Benetton from Hockenheim onward, with both running the Series VIII of the HB V8, where Benetton's exclusive deal had seen McLaren using the Series VII which Benetton ran in the B192/B193A.

The car was advanced in the technological sense and featured active suspension, a semi-automatic transmission and traction control from the Monaco Grand Prix onwards although Riccardo Patrese did say that the car was a step down in quality compared to the much more sophisticated Williams cars he had been driving for the previous five years. A variant of this car, the B193C was used as a test mule for an innovative four-wheel steering system and was tested by Schumacher and Patrese at Estoril. Four wheel steering had been introduced on some of Toyota's production cars. Patrese both found the system to not add anything to the performance of the car and slowed the car through slower corners; the system was built onto Schumacher's race car for Japan and Australia, but he failed to complete either race. The system would only have been legal for those 2 races, it was the last car to feature cigarette brand Camel as the team's main sponsor, before the long term sponsorship of an Enstone-based team with Mild Seven cigarettes.

Benetton finished 3rd in the Constructors' Championship just behind McLaren but with a substantial gap to Williams. The B193B was replaced for the 1994 season by the Benetton B194

Yasutsune Uehara

Yasutsune Uehara is a former professional boxer and former WBA and lineal super featherweight champion. He is one of the few Japanese boxers to have won the world title fighting outside Japan. Uehara was born in Okinawa, he won the inter-high school boxing tournament in his senior year in high school, moved on to Nihon University, where he won amateur titles in two weight classes, compiling a distinguished amateur record of 117–8. He was touted as the next Japanese world champion when he announced his decision to turn professional. Uehara made his debut on November 1972, with a fourth-round knockout in Honolulu, Hawaii, he suffered his first professional loss in his second fight. He returned to Japan after five fights in the United States, he won nine fights in a row including seven victories by knockout. Uehara returned to the United States in August, 1974 to challenge WBA super featherweight champion Ben Villaflor, but lost by second-round knockout. Uehara won the Japanese super featherweight title on July 21, 1971, knocking out his opponent in the first round.

He defended a considerable number of defenses for a regional title. Uehara was once again ranked as the number one WBA super featherweight challenger in 1980, challenged Samuel Serrano for the Lineal and WBA super featherweight titles on the undercard of Thomas Hearns' win over José Cuevas in Detroit. Uehara was losing on all three judges' scorecards before connecting with a right hook to knock out the defending champion in the sixth round. Uehara's victory was named The Ring's 1980 upset of the year. Uehara defended his title in November 1980, before meeting Serrano for the second time in April 1981, he lost the rematch by unanimous decision, announced his retirement shortly afterwards. His record was 27-5-0. List of super featherweight boxing champions List of WBA world champions List of Japanese boxing world champions Boxing in Japan Professional boxing record for Yasutsune Uehara from BoxRec Yasutsune Uehara - CBZ Profile