click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pope Constantine

Pope Constantine was Bishop of Rome from 25 March 708 to his death in 715. With the exception of Antipope Constantine, he was the only pope to bear such a "quintessentially" Eastern name of an emperor. During this period, the regnal name was used by emperors and patriarchs. Selected as one of the last popes of the Byzantine Papacy, the defining moment of Constantine's pontificate was his 710/711 visit to Constantinople where he compromised with Justinian II on the Trullan canons of the Quinisext Council. Constantine was the last pope to visit Constantinople until Pope Paul VI did in 1967. Constantine was a Syrian by birth, fluent in the Greek language and immersed in Eastern rituals and practices. By his upbringing, he would have been "fully at ease in the oriental milieu of the early-eighth-century Byzantine court". Before his selection as pope, he had visited Constantinople twice, he was one of the Roman legates to the Third Council of Constantinople there in 680/681. He delivered a combative letter from Pope Leo II to Constantine IV in 682.

He met and developed a rapport with Prince Justinian, the heir apparent to the Byzantine throne, on both occasions. Constantine's predecessor Pope Sisinnius, a Syrian, was pope for only twenty days. Constantine became pope in March 708, less than two months later. Constantine was one of the many Greek popes of the Byzantine Papacy, the period during which Rome was under the rule of the Byzantine Empire and popes required the approval of the emperor for consecration as pope; the defining issue of the papacy at the time of Constantine's election was the Western rejection of the Trullan canons of the Quinisext Council. Pope John VII had been sent the canons for approval and instead had sent them back, "without any emendations at all". John VII's predecessor, Pope Sergius I had declared that he would rather die than subscribe to the council. In 710, Justinian II demanded in a iussio that Constantine appear before the emperor in Constantinople; the imperial mandate made it "obvious that the relentless emperor meant to settle once and for all the issue of Rome's acceptance of the Trullan decrees".

Unlike his predecessors, Constantine neither delayed nor made excuses to avoid appearing in the imperial city. Prior to Constantine's departure, the Emperor had blinded Archbishop Felix of Ravenna for plotting to overthrow the Emperor, an act that had improved the papal-Byzantine rapport. However, Constantine's primary motivation for the trip was to "forestall" a rift between Rome and Constantinople over the Trullan decrees. Constantine departed on 5 October 710. In Constantinople, Constantine stayed in the Placidia Palace, occupied by Pope Vigilius in 547, the representatives of Pope Martin I, Pope Agatho. Eleven of Constantine's thirteen companions who can be identified by name were of Eastern extraction. Accompanying Constantine was the future Pope Gregory II a deacon, another Latin subdeacon Julian. Constantine chose attendants who were "cut from similar cloth" as he, to be sympathetic to the East. While stopping in transit in Naples, Constantine crossed paths with Exarch of Ravenna John III Rizocopo on his way to Rome to execute four high-ranking papal officials by cutting their throats.

The four were opposed to Constantine's new policy of rapproachment with Constantinople. Doubtlessly, Constantine himself learned of the exarch's errand before departing for Sicily Gallipoli, Otranto, where the group stayed for winter. In the spring, Constantine crossed the Ionian Sea, meeting the strategos of the imperial fleet on the island of Chios and was received by the Karabisianoi before proceeding to Constantinople. Constantine entered Constantinople on a "horse caparisoned with gilded saddle clothes and golden bridles and bearing on his head the kamelaukion, or diadem, which the sovereign alone was authorized to wear and only on'a great public festival of the Lord'"; the Emperor Justinian II's son and co-emperor Tiberios greeted Constantine at the seventh milestone from the city in the style of an imperial adventus. Justinian II urged the pontiff to meet him in Nicomedia; the Liber pontificalis recounts a bizarre scene of the crowned emperor prostrating himself before the pope, but a more mutual greeting is probable.

That Sunday, Justinian II received communion from the hands of the pope and issued a vague confirmation of the various privileges of the Roman See. The negotiations regarding the Trullan canons were conducted by the future Pope Gregory II. A degree of compromise —which "diplomatically skirted" the actual issue of their acceptance—was reached. While Constantine made concessions regarding the economia, he did not give ground on the vast majority of the Roman grievances; the agreement was more designed to secure East-West political unity than resolve any doctrinal dispute. The fact of Constantine's having been summoned to Constantinople was the real proof that the "imperial writ still ran in Rome". Constantine left the city in October 711. However, shortly after Constantine's return to Rome, Justinian was killed by mutinous troops, in November 711; the new emperor Philippikos Bardanes was an adherent of Monothelitism, rejected the arrangements of the Third Council of Constantinople, demanded Constantine's support of the view that Christ had only one will.

In 712, Constantine rejected Philippik

Daewoo Precision Industries USAS-12

The Daewoo Precision Industries USAS-12 is an automatic shotgun manufactured in South Korea by Daewoo Precision Industries during the 1980s. The USAS-12 is a gas-operated, selective fire weapon, designed to provide sustained firepower in close-combat scenarios, it accepts detachable 10-round box magazines or 20-round drum magazines. Both types of magazine are made of polymer, drum magazines have their rear side made from translucent polymer for quick determination of the number of shot shells left, it has an effective range of 40 m. In the early 1990s, a new CQ model of the USAS-12 was created, it looks similar to the original model, but unlike the original, it lacks the front sight and has a re-modeled carry handle. The history of the USAS-12 dates from the 1980s vintage designs of Maxwell Atchisson. In about 1989, Gilbert Equipment Co. decided to bring up the selective fired weapon, broadly based on principles employed in Atchisson shotguns. The design of the new weapon was produced by Jr.. Since Gilbert Equipment Co. had no manufacturing capabilities, it started to look for possible manufacturers.

It turned out that the only maker that agreed to produce this weapon was the South Korean company Daewoo Precision Industries, a part of the high-tech Daewoo conglomerate. Daewoo engineers adapted the new weapon to their manufacturing techniques, mass production commenced in the early 1990s; the USAS-12 sold well to military and security forces of several countries in Asia, more than 30,000 of USAS-12 shotguns were made by mid-1990s. During the same timeframe, Gilbert Equipment Co. tried to bring a semi-automatic version of the USAS-12 to the U. S. market, but Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen classified this firearm as "having no sporting purpose", so it became a "destructive device" under the U. S. National Firearms Act of 1934; this restricted its civilian use. During the late 1990s, RAMO Defence Co. began to assemble USAS-12 shotguns from Korean and U. S.-made parts for sale on the domestic market, but sales of this weapon were limited to government agencies only. Today, this shotgun is still being manufactured by S&T Daewoo in Korea for military and law enforcement sales only.

A U. S. firearms manufacturer, Ameetec Arms LLC of Scottsdale, started the manufacture of a USAS-12 semi-automatic clone in 2007, called the WM-12. The manufacturer stated that the WM-12 is not a "destructive device", would thus be available to civilians; as of January 2008, the WM-12 was no longer to be found on Ameetec Arms online catalogs, because it was discontinued after its pre-production run. Only a few WM-12s were built using USAS-12 demilitarized shotguns. Colombia Dominican Republic Philippines South Korea Brazil: Used by the GRUMEC and the army Special Forces battalions As recorded in the police interview of mass shooter Martin Bryant, the Daewoo 12-gauge was owned by Bryant but not used in the Port Arthur massacre, Martin himself claimed to have paid AU $3,000 for the weapon but "never got around to using it". Karen National Liberation Army: Seen in the hands of a Karen rebel. Atchisson Assault Shotgun — another automatic shotgun Combat shotgun List of shotguns Saiga-12 Modern Firearms Patent USAS-12 Combat Shotgun on YouTube — disassembly video

Ciriaco Álvarez

Ciriaco Álvarez was a businessman from Chonchi, Chiloé who rose to prominence in the exploitation of Pilgerodendron uviferum in the southern Chilean archipelagoes. His dominance of the industry led him being dubbed "The King of Pilgerodendron"; the chief export products of Álvarez were poles and vine training stacks that went to northern Chile and Peru. To make vine stacks smaller Pilgerodendron than usual were harvested. In 1880 Álvarez established a small shop at río Álvarez in the Patagonian mainland, between present-day Puerto Chacabuco and Puerto Aysén. Álvarez remained active in the industry until the 1920s.Álvarez industry had great effects on the incipient economic development that came to link the archipelagoes of Chiloé, Guaitecas and Chonos

2014–15 Motherwell F.C. season

The 2014–15 season is Motherwell's thirtieth consecutive season in the top flight of Scottish football and the second in the newly established Scottish Premiership, having been promoted from the Scottish First Division at the end of the 1984–85 season. Motherwell will compete in the Europa League, League Cup and the Scottish Cup. On 2 November Stuart McCall resigned as manager, with Kenny Black taking over as caretaker manager until Ian Baraclough was appointed as manager on 13 December. Black returned to his role as assistant manager following the appointment of Baraclough, but was sacked by the club on 6 February 2015. Win Draw Loss Postponed As of match played 31 May 2015 As of 31 May 2015 As of 31 May 2015 Motherwell score first Source: 2014–15 Scottish Premiership#Results List of Motherwell F. C. seasons Bilel Mohsni and Fraser Kerr where show Red Cards following the full-time whistle. Lee Erwin was shown a yellow card following the full-time whistle. Motherwell F. C. Website BBC My Club Page Motherwell F.

C. Newsnow

Posthypnotic amnesia

Post-hypnotic amnesia is the inability in hypnotic subjects to recall events that took place while under hypnosis. This can be achieved by giving individuals a suggestion during hypnosis to forget certain material that they have learned either before or during hypnosis. Individuals who are experiencing post-hypnotic amnesia cannot have their memories recovered once put back under hypnosis and is therefore not state dependent. Memories may return when presented with a pre-arranged cue; this makes post-hypnotic amnesia similar to psychogenic amnesia as it disrupts the retrieval process of memory. It has been suggested that inconsistencies in methodologies used to study post-hypnotic amnesia cause varying results. Post-hypnotic amnesia was first discovered by Marquis de Puységur in 1784; when working with his subject Victor, Puységur noticed that when Victor would come out of hypnosis he would have amnesia for everything that had happened during the session. Recognizing the importance of this power, Puységur soon began treating those who were ill with induced amnesia.

When French physician Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault published a book on hypnotism in 1866 he proposed that post-hypnotic amnesia was a "symptom" and a varying degree of hypnotism. 19th century French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot focused on post-hypnotic amnesia. Charcot introduced three states of hypnosis: fatigue and somnambulism, or sleepwalking. Charcot showed that if an individual self-suggested that they had a psychological trauma, those who were neurologically susceptible would display symptoms of psychological trauma, it was hypothesized that this was due to the dissociation of the ideas from the rest of the individual's consciousness. However, dissociation theory was put aside for Freud's psychoanalytic theory and the rise of behaviourism until Ernest Hilgard renewed its study in the 1970s; some of the earliest experimental studies on post-hypnotic amnesia were done by Clark Hull. Hull's work showed that there was dissociation between explicit memory and implicit memory through studies on proactive interference and retroactive interference, pair associations and complex mental addition.

In the mid-1960s, Evan and Thorn produced studies on source amnesia. In one study hypnotized individuals were taught answers to obscure facts and when brought out of their hypnotized states, one third of the individuals were able to produce the correct answers; these same individuals had no conscious memory of where they learned this material. Spontaneous and suggested post-hypnotic amnesia can be induced in an individual. For most of the 19th century, investigators reported that post-hypnotic amnesia only occurred spontaneously as scientific knowledge regarding this form of amnesia was minimal. Spontaneous post-hypnotic amnesia represents a slight memory impairment that results as a consequence of being put under hypnosis or being tested; this form of amnesia can be experienced across susceptibility groups, but to a much lesser extent and magnitude to suggested post-hypnotic amnesia. Spontaneous amnesia has been difficult to determine as research bias has been found to influence in many cases.

In one study participants were put into two groups. The next day the groups were reversed. Results showed that there was little spontaneous amnesia across all participants, leading to doubts towards the actual occurrence of amnesia, it was found that those more susceptible to hypnosis were more susceptible to suggested post-hypnotic amnesia and not spontaneous amnesia. These results suggest that spontaneous amnesia is less common than suggested amnesia and that when high results of spontaneous amnesia are recorded, some incidences may be false. Suggested post-hypnotic amnesia involves the suggestion to hypnotized persons that following hypnosis they will be unable to recall specific material until they receive a reversibility cue; this type of post-hypnotic amnesia is the most used within research surrounding post-hypnotic amnesia due to its controlled nature. Suggested amnesia has been found to result in a more significant memory loss than spontaneous amnesia, regardless of the order of induction.

On average, more individuals experience suggested amnesia and there appears to be a moderate effect across individuals of all levels of hypnotic susceptibility. Suggested post-hypnotic amnesia involves a "temporary, retrieval-based dissociation between episodic and semantic memory". However, it is more common for hypnotizable individuals to remember less information than low hypnotizable individuals or controls while under suggested post-hypnotic amnesia. Post-hypnotic amnesia is reversible, a characteristic that distinguishes it from other forms of amnesia that arise from traumatic brain injury. Whereas the retrieval of memories under retrograde amnesia is a slow and labour-intensive process, the reversal of hypnotically-induced amnesia can occur with a simple suggestion or reversal cue. Post-hypnotic recall amnesia refers to an individual's inability to recall, when in a normal conscious state, the events that occurred during hypnosis. Evidence for this type of post-hypnotic amnesia is seen in a typical research model testing where nonsense syllables, that were paired during hypnosis, are unable to be recalled post hypnotically when a suggestion for amnesia was given during hypnosis.

Recall amnesia for word associations tend to be high when done by post-hypnotic indiv

Typhoon Percy (1990)

Typhoon Percy was the third tropical cyclone to affect the Philippines in 1990. The tenth tropical cyclone, sixth tropical storm, third typhoon of the 1990 Pacific typhoon season, Typhoon Percy originated from an area of disturbed weather spawned by the Western Pacific monsoon trough on June 20; that same day, the disturbance was classified as a tropical depression as it organized and on June 21, the depression obtained tropical storm intensity. After tracking westward, Percy turned towards the southwest while deepening. During this time, Percy affected several of the Carolina Islands. Thirty homes were damaged and airline services were halted in and out of Yap. Farther south-southwest, seven homes were destroyed on the Ngulu Atoll. Furthermore, one boy was killed on Koror, where numerous homes lost their roof and communication lines were downed. Percy turned back to the west-northwest and became a typhoon on June 23, it began to deepen at a faster clip, with Percy attaining maximum intensity on June 25.

Two days increased wind shear began to induce a weakening trend and on June 27, the typhoon brushed Luzon. There, eight people over 30,000 individuals lost their homes. Damage in the country was minor, however. After tracking through the South China Sea, Percy made landfall southwest of Xiamen on June 29, on the next day, dissipated inland. In the province of Quanzhou, four people were killed while 100,000 trees were damaged along with 1,000 power lines. One person was killed in Zhangzhou. In Dongshan, one individual died, four others suffered injuries, a third of the trees were downed. Moreover, in the province of Shantou, 95 structures were destroyed and 201 were damaged. Sixteen people were killed throughout southeastern China and more than 100 others sustained injuries. Damage was estimated at US$28 million. Typhoon Percy originated from the eastern end of the Western Pacific monsoon trough that spawned an area of disturbed weather, first noted by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center on the morning of June 20.

Satellite imagery showed signs of a well-defined low-level circulation and the disturbance was situated along with persistent convection, the disturbance was situated in a weakly divergent environment aloft. On the same day, the Japan Meteorological Agency upgraded the system into a tropical depression; the system became more organized as its outflow improved, following a marked increase in convection, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system at 03:00 UTC on June 21. Following a ship report of winds of 65 km/h, both the JTWC and JMA upgraded the system into Tropical Storm Percy. After tracking westward, Percy turned and tracked southwestward for 36 hours, a move predicted by tropical cyclone forecast models but not foreseen by the JTWC. Meanwhile, the storm intensified, aided by the development of an anticyclone aloft. Tracking west-northwestward around another upper-level anticyclone, following Typhoon Ofelia and merged with a subtropical ridge to its north, Percy was upgraded into a severe tropical storm on June 22 by the JMA.

Following the development of an outflow channel to its south, hints of an eye became visible on satellite imagery. Based on a Dvorak classification of T4.0/120 km/h, the JTWC upgraded Percy into a typhoon on the evening of June 23, with the JMA subsequently following suit. After moving away from the Caroline Islands, the typhoon began to intensify at a faster clip as an outflow channel to its north opened though the eye was ragged. On the evening of June 24, the JTWC raised the intensity of the system to 200 km/h. Early on the next day, the JTWC estimated. Meanwhile, the JMA reported that Percy attained its maximum intensity of 145 km/h and a minimum barometric pressure of 960 mbar. Increased vertical wind shear took toll on the storm, by June 27, the JTWC dropped the intensity of the storm to 175 km/h as the storm passed over northeastern Luzon. Overland, the storm weakened but remained a typhoon upon entering the South China Sea. Both computer models and the JTWC expected Percy to begin recurvature.

At 00:00 UTC on June 29, the JMA downgraded Percy to a severe tropical storm, although the JTWC suggested that Percy was still a typhoon at the time. Shortly thereafter, Percy moved onshore around 130 km southwest of Xiamen. At 06:00 UTC, the JTWC downgraded Percy into a tropical storm, noting that the storm had become less organized. By June 30, both the JTWC and JMA had ceased tracking the system. During its formative stages, Percy affected several of the Caroline Islands; the storm first passed about 75 km south of Sorol. The island of Pegelmol was nearly cut in half due to rough seas. Taro patches, coconut trees, other crops were completely wiped out. Percy came within 100 km of Yap to the south-southwest. There, widespread flooding was reported due to storm surge, with most roads on the island requiring closure and 30 homes being damaged. Airline services in and out Yap was halted. To the south-southwest of Yap, the island of Ngulu Atoll bore the brought of the typhoon. Gusts of up to 130 km/h resulted in the destruction of all crops on the island.

Furthermore, seven homes were demolished. However, there were no fatalities; the typhoon passed 230 km north of Koror, where a boy perished when