Pope Cornelius was the Bishop of Rome from 6 or 13 March 251 to his martyrdom in 253. He was pope during and following a period of persecution of the church and a schism occurred over how repentant church members who had practiced pagan sacrifices to protect themselves could be readmitted to the church. Cornelius agreed with Cyprian of Carthage that those who had lapsed could be restored to communion after varying forms of penance; that position was in contrast to the Novationists, who held that those who failed to maintain their confession of faith under persecution would not be received again into communion with the church. That resulted in a schism in the Church of Rome. Cornelius held a synod that confirmed his election and excommunicated Novatian, but the controversy regarding lapsed members continued for years; the persecutions resumed in 251 under Emperor Trebonianus Gallus. Cornelius was sent into exile and may have died from the rigours of his banishment, but accounts say that he was beheaded.
Emperor Decius, who ruled from 249 to 251 AD, persecuted Christians in the Roman Empire rather sporadically and locally, but starting in January of the year 250, he ordered all citizens to perform a religious sacrifice in the presence of commissioners, or else face death. Many Christians refused and were martyred, while others partook in the sacrifices in order to save their own lives. Two schools of thought arose after the persecution. One side, led by Novatian, a priest in the diocese of Rome, believed that those who had stopped practising Christianity during the persecution could not be accepted back into the church if they repented, he held that idolatry was an unpardonable sin, that the Church had no authority to forgive apostates, but that their forgiveness must be left to God. The opposing side, including Cornelius and Cyprian of Carthage, believed that the lapsi could be restored to communion through repentance, demonstrated by a period of penance. During the persecution it proved impossible to elect a successor, the papal seat remained vacant for a year.
During this period the church was governed including Novatian. However, when Decius left Rome to fight the invading Goths, the Roman clergy chose a new bishop. In the fourteen months without a pope, the leading candidate, had died under the persecution. Novatian believed; those who supported a more rigorist position had Novatian consecrated bishop and refused to recognize Cornelius as Bishop of Rome. Both sides sent out letters to other bishops seeking support. Cornelius had the support of Cyprian and most African and Eastern bishops while Novatian had the support of a minority of clergy and laymen in Rome. Cornelius's next action was to convene a synod of 60 bishops to acknowledge him as the rightful pope and the council excommunicated Novatian as well as all Novatianists. Addressed in the synod was that Christians who stopped practising during Emperor Decius's persecution could be re-admitted into the Christian community only after doing penance; the verdict of the synod was sent to the Christian bishops, most notably the bishop of Antioch, a fierce Novatian supporter, in order to convince him to accept Cornelius as bishop of Rome.
The letters that Cornelius sent to surrounding bishops provide information of the size of the church in Rome at that time. Cornelius mentions that the Roman Church had, "forty six priests, seven deacons, seven sub-deacons, forty two acolytes, fifty two ostiarii, over one thousand five hundred widows and persons in distress." His letters inform that Cornelius had a staff of over 150 clergy members and the church fed over 1,500 people daily. From these numbers, it has been estimated that there were at least 50,000 Christians in Rome during the papacy of Pope Cornelius. In June 251, Decius was killed in battle with the Goths. Cornelius was exiled to Centumcellae, where he died in June 253; the Liberian catalogue lists his death as being from the hardships of banishment. Cornelius is not buried in the chapel of the popes, but in a nearby catacomb, the inscription on his tomb is in Latin, instead of the Greek of his predecessor Pope Fabian and successor Lucius I, it reads, "Cornelius Martyr." The letters Cornelius sent while in exile are all written in the colloquial Latin of the period instead of the classical style used by the educated such as Cyprian, a theologian as well as a bishop, Novatian, a philosopher.
This suggests that Cornelius did not come from an wealthy family and thus was not given a sophisticated education as a child. A letter from Cornelius while in exile mentions an office of "exorcist" in the church for the first time. Canon law has since required each diocese to have an exorcist; some of his relics were taken to Germany during the Middle Ages. In the Rhineland, he was a patron saint of lovers. A legend associated with Cornelius tells of a young artist, commissioned to decorate the Corneliuskapelle in the Selikum quarter of Neuss; the daughter of a local townsman fell in love with the artist, but her father forbade the marriage, remarking that he would only consent if the pope did as well. Miraculously, the statue of Cornelius leaned forward from the altar and blessed the pair, the two lovers were thus married. Cornelius, along with Quirinus of Neuss and Anthony the Great, was venerated as one o
Antikarisma is an Iranian rockband formed by Iranian singer Shahin Najafi on January 17, 2010. Shahin Najafi and Antikarisma participated in the Persian Rap festival which toured Stockholm and Malmö in Sweden on February 4 to 6, 2010, they performed songs in hip hop styles. Antikarisma did an old song by Fereydoon Foroughi, they dedicated the song "Judge" to Majid Tavakoli, a student, in prison. Shahin Najafi: singer, composer and guitarist Babak Khzaei: guitar, piano and drums Armin Mostaed: bass guitar Pejman Afshari: drums Persian hip hop Iranian rock Shahin Najafi's official website Antikarisma's official blog
The Upper Florentine Valley, in the south of Tasmania, Australia, is an area recognised for its landscape and old growth forests. It is situated along the Gordon River Road near Maydena in the southwest of the island three hours drive from Hobart and comprises around 60 square kilometres of temperate rainforest; the Upper Florentine forms part of the Florentine catchment upstream from Churchill Creek and lies just outside the World Heritage Area. Geographically it is an area of low relief valleys and flats; the area is a known habitat for threatened species of flora and fauna, including sallow wattle, myrtle elbow orchid, grey goshawk, spotted-tail quoll. In 2009, the Upper Florentine received attention in the media for a series of arrests made by Tasmanian Police of protesters taking part in various pro-conservationist rallies; the valley is managed by Forestry Tasmania on behalf of the Tasmanian Government and features intermittently in the ongoing political debate on deforestation and the logging of old-growth forests of Australia.
While Forestry Tasmania asserts that only ten percent of the Upper Florentine catchment is available for sustainable timber production, environmental groups argue that protected areas consist of shrubs and trees that are of little use to the timber industry, whereas old growth and high conservation value forests have been targeted for timber harvest. Ongoing logging operations in this area have prompted pro-conservationist groups such as the Derwent Forest Alliance and The Wilderness Society to set up a permanent blockade in the area known as Camp Florentine as early as 2006. In 2011, community activism and environmental civil disobedience were continuing in the Upper Florentine with over 80 arrests being carried out in the area in 2010. Protesters utilised obstructionist techniques, such as blockading structures attached to tree sits to stand in the way of logging operations and prevent forest harvester equipment from moving into the valley; the conservationist camp is manned by environmental campaigners, including the organisation Still Wild Still Threatened.