Chippewa River (Minnesota)
The Chippewa River is a 153-mile-long tributary of the Minnesota River in western and southwestern Minnesota in the United States. Via the Minnesota River, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River; the river was named after the Chippewa Indians. The Chippewa River issues from Stowe Lake in Douglas County, 3 miles northwest of Brandon, at the west end of a series of lakes that extends northward to lakes Aaron and Moses and eastward to Chippewa Lake; the Chippewa River passes through several more lakes in its upper course. It flows westwardly into Grant County, where it turns southward for the remainder of its course through Pope, Stevens and Chippewa counties; the river passes the towns of Hoffman and Benson. Some sections of the river along its middle course in Pope and Swift Counties, have been straightened and channelized. In Pope County, the river collects the Little Chippewa River, 41 miles long, which flows southwestwardly through Douglas and Pope counties. At Benson it collects the East Branch Chippewa River, about 64 miles long, which rises in southeastern Douglas County and flows southward through Pope County, passing through several lakes, into Swift County, where it turns westward.
List of rivers of Minnesota Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme. Minnesota Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-222-6. Geographic Names Information System entries for U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Chippewa River, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: East Branch Chippewa River, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Little Chippewa River
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the "Beaux Arts" style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the "Grand Prix de Rome" in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.
The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.
Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended toward urbane contexts. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.
Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.
Swift County, Minnesota
Swift County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 9,783, its county seat is Benson. Swift County is in west central Minnesota and consists of 757 square miles with three tiers of seven townships each, it was established on February 18, 1870, named for Henry Adoniram Swift, the third governor of Minnesota. The Indians had grievances against the government, including delays in sending annuities that caused near starvation several times. In August 1862, an Indian rebellion broke out in Minnesota; the warfare reached the settlements just getting started in northeastern Swift County. By late September 1862, the Indian War was over but the settlers hesitated to venture back to Swift County until 1865, when all danger was over. Scandinavians and Germans were in decided majority among the early settlers. A number of them came with the honor and privileges of Civil War veterans. In 1869, the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad reached Willmar, the next year it arrived in Benson.
The railroad company determined the number of future trading centers in the county by locating sites at intervals of 8 miles. The Swift County Courthouse was built in 1897 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Benson is the county seat. Railroad tracks run through Benson's downtown business district with parks on each side. Historic buildings in Swift County include: Gethsemane Episcopal Church in Appleton built in 1879 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011. Swift County was traditionally a Democratic stronghold, with the last Republican to win it before 2016 being Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952. A dramatic swing against the Democrats in the Rust Belt saw Donald Trump win the county over Hillary Clinton by 26%; the Minnesota River flows southeast along the county's lower western border. The Pomme de Terre River flows south-southwest through the county's western part, discharging into the Minnesota; the Chippewa River flows south-southwest through the central part of the county to discharge into the Minnesota south of the county.
The county's terrain consists of rolling hills devoted to agriculture. It slopes to south and the west, with its highest point near its northeast corner at 1,240' ASL; the county has a total area of 752 square miles, of which 742 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water. Swift County is agricultural, but hosts agriculture equipment manufacturers, an ethanol plant, the Fibrominn Combined Heat & Power Plant, which burns turkey litter mixed with wood chips and mulch. Swift County contains 24 lakes. Lake Oliver is one of the county's biggest, at 416 acres. There streams in the county; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 11,956 people, 4,353 households, 2,881 families in the county. The population density was 16.1/sqmi. There were 4,821 housing units at an average density of 6.50/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 90.67% White, 2.69% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 1.52% Pacific Islander, 1.40% from other races, 1.79% from two or more races. 2.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Swift County has the highest percentage of Pacific Islander natives out of any U. S. county outside Hawaii. 34.4% were of German, 30.5% Norwegian, 5.2% Swedish and 5.1% Irish ancestry. There were 4,353 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 6.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.80% were non-families. 30.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 23.00% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 29.60% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 18.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 120.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 124.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,820, the median income for a family was $44,208.
Males had a median income of $29,362 versus $21,667 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,360. About 5.30% of families and 8.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.90% of those under age 18 and 13.80% of those age 65 or over. Fairfield Swift Falls National Register of Historic Places listings in Swift County, Minnesota Swift County official website Swift County Monitor website
John Pope (military officer)
John Pope was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. He had a brief stint in the Western Theater, but he is best known for his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the East. Pope was a graduate of the United States Military Academy in 1842, he served in the Mexican–American War and had numerous assignments as a topographical engineer and surveyor in Florida, New Mexico, Minnesota. He spent much of the last decade before the Civil War surveying possible southern routes for the proposed First Transcontinental Railroad, he was an early appointee as a Union brigadier general of volunteers and served under Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont, he achieved initial success against Brig. Gen. Sterling Price in Missouri led a successful campaign that captured Island No. 10 on the Mississippi River. This inspired the Lincoln administration to bring him to the Eastern Theater to lead the newly formed Army of Virginia, he alienated many of his officers and men by publicly denigrating their record in comparison to his Western command.
He launched an offensive against the Confederate army of General Robert E. Lee, in which he fell prey to a strategic turning movement into his rear areas by Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson. At Second Bull Run, he concentrated his attention on attacking Jackson while the other Confederate corps attacked his flank and routed his army. Following Manassas, Pope was banished far from the Eastern Theater to the Department of the Northwest in Minnesota, where he commanded U. S. Forces in the Dakota War of 1862, he was appointed to command the Department of the Missouri in 1865 and was a prominent and activist commander during Reconstruction in Atlanta. For the rest of his military career, he fought in the Indian Wars against the Apache and Sioux. Pope was born in Louisville, the son of Nathaniel Pope, a prominent Federal judge in early Illinois Territory and a friend of lawyer Abraham Lincoln, he was the brother-in-law of Manning Force, a distant cousin married the sister of Mary Todd Lincoln. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1842, was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers.
He served in Florida and helped survey the northeastern border between the United States and Canada. He fought under Zachary Taylor in the Battle of Monterrey and Battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican–American War, for which he was appointed a brevet first lieutenant and captain, respectively. After the war Pope worked as a surveyor in Minnesota. In 1850 he demonstrated the navigability of the Red River, he served as the chief engineer of the Department of New Mexico from 1851 to 1853 and spent the remainder of the antebellum years surveying a route for the Pacific Railroad. Pope was serving on lighthouse duty when Abraham Lincoln was elected and he was one of four officers selected to escort the president-elect to Washington, D. C, he offered to serve Lincoln as an aide, but on June 14, 1861, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and was ordered to Illinois to recruit volunteers. In the Department of the West under Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont, Pope assumed command of the District of North and Central Missouri in July, with operational control along a portion of the Mississippi River.
He had an uncomfortable relationship with Frémont and politicked behind the scenes to get him removed from command. Frémont was convinced that Pope had treacherous intentions toward him, demonstrated by his lack of action in following Frémont's offensive plans in Missouri. Historian Allan Nevins wrote, "Actually and timidity offer a better explanation of Pope than treachery, though he showed an insubordinate spirit."Pope forced the Confederates under Sterling Price to retreat southward, taking 1,200 prisoners in a minor action at Blackwater, Missouri, on December 18. Pope, who established a reputation as a braggart early in the war, was able to generate significant press interest in his minor victory, which brought him to the attention of Frémont's replacement, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck. Halleck appointed Pope to command the Army of the Mississippi on February 23, 1862. Given 25,000 men, he was ordered to clear Confederate obstacles on the Mississippi River, he made a surprise march on New Madrid and captured it on March 14.
He orchestrated a campaign to capture Island No. 10, a fortified post garrisoned by 12,000 men and 58 guns. Pope's engineers cut a channel. Assisted by the gunboats of Captain Andrew H. Foote, he landed his men on the opposite shore, which isolated the defenders; the island garrison surrendered on April 7, 1862, freeing Union navigation of the Mississippi as far south as Memphis. Pope's outstanding performance on the Mississippi earned him a promotion to major general, dated as of March 21, 1862. During the Siege of Corinth, he commanded the left wing of Halleck's army, but he was soon summoned to the East by Lincoln. After the collapse of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign, Pope was appointed to command the Army of Virginia, assembled from scattered forces in the Shenandoah Valley and Northern Virginia; this promotion infuriated Frémont. Pope brought an attitude of self-assurance, offensive to the eastern soldiers under his command, he issued an astonishing message to his new army on July 14, 1862, that included the following: Let us understand each other.
I have come to you from the West.
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
CU project controversy
The CU Project Controversy involved years of protest against a proposed high-voltage direct current powerline, erected on the property of hundreds of farmers in west central Minnesota in the late 1970s. The electrical cooperatives Cooperative Power Association and United Power Association proposed construction of the powerline, part of a larger construction project that involved the construction of an electrical generating station and coal mine. CU is a combination of the names Cooperative Power United Power Association. Opposition to the powerline began in 1974 and involved political parties, civic organizations, businesses in several different Minnesota counties. Farmers were concerned that construction of the powerline on their land might make farming difficult, reduce the value of the land, or adversely impact their health; the powerline was reviewed in 33 meetings in North Dakota and 48 meetings in Minnesota and in two years of hearings. Multiple candidates for state office included the powerline issue as part of their platforms.
Farmers employed tractors, manure spreaders, ammonia sprayers and used direct action and civil disobedience in an attempt to prevent construction of the line. Powerline protests drew national attention when over 200 state troopers, nearly half the Minnesota Highway Patrol, were deployed to ensure that construction of the line would continue. During a two-year period, a group of opponents to the line who called themselves "bolt weevils" tore down 14 powerline towers and shot out nearly 10,000 electrical insulators; the CU Powerline Project was initiated by Cooperative Power Association of Edina and United Power Association of Elk River, Minnesota. CPA and UPA were Minnesota electrical generation and transmission associations of a combined total of 34 retail electrical co-ops. Retail electrical co-ops developed following the establishment of the Rural Electrification Administration in 1935 and the Rural Electrification Act in 1936; the REA began to distribute loans to groups involved in increasing access to electricity in the rural United States.
Retail electrical co-ops formed. Co-ops combined in federations to purchase power from private utilities or federal agencies; these co-op associations built their own generating stations. Several factors led CPA to undertake the CU Project. UPA and CPA traditionally purchased most of their power from the Bureau of Reclamation's Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota. UPA and CPA wanted to curtail their purchase of power to avoid the long term contract commitments, they desired to increase their "control over their energy supplies and costs". UPA and CPA predicted that they would not be able to meet the demand of retail co-op members for their electricity; as a result of the oil crisis of the 1970s, oil prices more than doubled from 1973 to 1978. UPA and CPA believed that consumers would switch to electricity as a source of power to avoid high oil prices. Demand for the electricity provided by UPA and CPA was growing and UPA and CPA predicted that this growth would continue at the same rate.
A 1972 study of the CU Project's feasibility predicted that UPA and CPA would face a "projected power generation deficit of 665 megawatts by 1978". As well, UPA and CPA needed the CU Project to meet their agreements with the Mid-continent Area Power Pool, an association of twenty-eight utilities serving seven states in the Midwest. In order to join MAPP, UPA and CPA had to sign an agreement that obligated them to "power pool" or maintain a 15% surplus of power for sale to the other members of MAPP. In 1972, UPA and CPA approached REA about the possibility of building a new generating station; the REA favored a lignite coal generator in North Dakota over a Minnesota plant using Montana coal shipped by train. The REA had financed other lignite coal generators in North Dakota, three of which were among the ten most economical plants in the country in the early 1970s; the REA agreed to finance the construction through low-interest loans. At the time of construction, the CU project was the largest and most expensive single project in the history of the REA.
When the project was announced, there was only one other comparable high voltage powerline in the United States: the Bonneville Power Administration's Pacific Intertie that runs from Oregon to Los Angeles. The CU Project consists of three parts: the Falkirk Mine, the Coal Creek Generating Station, the CU Powerline. A subsidiary of North American Coal Corporation runs the Falkirk Mine, a lignite coal strip mine in North Dakota that covers over twenty-five square miles and uses two of the biggest dragline excavators assembled; the lignite uncovered by the draglines travels by conveyor belt to Coal Creek Station, the largest lignite-fired plant in North Dakota. The Coal Creek Station produces AC current, converted into DC current at a conversion station; this DC current is transmitted from Coal Creek Station in North Dakota 440 miles to a station near Buffalo, Minnesota where it is converted back into AC current. The powerline crosses 9 western and central Minnesota counties and includes a total of 659 towers placed at one-quarter mile intervals on the property of 476 landowners: corn, wheat and sugar beet farms.
The first opponents to the CU Project were farmers who found out that the powerline would be built on their land. Farmers were upset with the way that the powerline route was conceived. In 1973 UPA and CPA hired a consulting firm which used a numbering system to assess the value of the land between North Da