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Pope Eugene III

Pope Eugene III, born Bernardo Pignatelli, called Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153. He was the first Cistercian to become Pope. In response to the fall of Edessa to the Muslims in 1144, Eugene proclaimed the Second Crusade; the crusade failed to recapture Edessa, the first of many failures by the Christians in the crusades to recapture lands won in the First Crusade. He was beatified on 28 December 1872 by Pope Pius IX on the account of his sanctity. Bernardo was born in the vicinity of Pisa. Little is known about his origins and family except. From the 16th century he is identified as member of the family of Paganelli di Montemagno, which belonged to the Pisan aristocracy, but this has not been proven and contradicts earlier testimonies that suggest he was a man of rather humble origins. In 1106 he was a canon of the cathedral chapter from 1115 is attested as subdeacon. 1133–1138 he acted as vicedominus of the archdiocese of Pisa. Between May 1134 and February 1137 he was ordained to the priesthood by Pope Innocent II, who resided at that time in Pisa.

Under the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux he entered the Cistercian Order in the monastery of Clairvaux in 1138. A year he returned to Italy as leader of the Cistercian community in Scandriglia. In Autumn 1140, Pope Innocent II named him abbot of the monastery of S. Anastasio alle Tre Fontane outside Rome; some chronicles indicate that he was elevated to the College of Cardinals, but these testimonies resulted from a confusion because Bernardo is not attested as cardinal in any document and from the letter of Bernard of Clairvaux addressed to the cardinals shortly after his election appears that he was not a cardinal. Bernardo was elected pope on 15 February 1145, the same day as the death of his predecessor Lucius II who had unwisely decided to take the offensive against the Roman Senate and was killed by a "heavy stone" thrown at him during an attack on the Capitol, he took the pontifical name of "Eugene III". He was "a simple character and retiring - not at all, men thought, the material of which Popes are made".

He owed his elevation to the fact that no one was eager to accept an office the duties of which were at the time so difficult and dangerous and because the election was "held on safe Frangipani territory". His election was assisted by being a friend and pupil of Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the Western Church and a strong assertor of the pope's temporal authority; the choice did not have the approval of Bernard, who remonstrated against the election, writing to the entire Curia:"May God forgive you what you have done!... What reason or counsel, when the Supreme Pontiff was dead, made you rush upon a mere rustic, lay hands on him in his refuge, wrest from his hands the axe, pick or hoe, lift him to a throne?"Bernard was forthright in his views directly to Eugene, writing:"Thus does the finger of God raise up the poor out of the dust and lift up the beggar from the dunghill that he may sit with princes and inherit the throne of glory."Despite these criticisms, Eugene seems to have borne no resentment to Bernard and notwithstanding these criticisms, after the choice was made, Bernard took advantage of the qualities in Eugene III which he objected to, so as to rule in his name.

During nearly the whole of his pontificate, Eugene III was unable to reside in Rome. Hardly had he left the city to be consecrated in the monastery of Farfa, when the citizens, under the influence of Arnold of Brescia, the great opponent of the Pope's temporal power, established the old Roman constitution, the Commune of Rome and elected Giordano Pierleoni to be Patrician. Eugene III appealed for help to Tivoli, Italy, to other cities at feud with Rome, to King Roger II of Sicily, with their aid was successful in making such conditions with the Roman citizens as enabled him for a time to hold the semblance of authority in his capital, but as he would not agree to a treacherous compact against Tivoli, he was compelled to leave the city in March 1146. He stayed for some time at Viterbo, at Siena, but went to France. On hearing of the fall of Edessa to the Turks, which occurred in 1144, he had, in December 1145, addressed the bull Quantum praedecessores to Louis VII of France, calling on him to take part in another crusade.

At a great diet held at Speyer in 1146, King of the Romans Conrad III and many of his nobles were incited to dedicate themselves to the crusade by the eloquence of Bernard who preached to an enormous crowd at Vézelay. In the end, the Second Crusade was "an ignominious fiasco" and, after travelling for a year, the army abandoned their campaign after just five days of siege "having regained not one inch of Muslim territory." The crusaders suffered immense losses in both men and materiel and suffered, in the view of one modern historian, "the ultimate humiliation which neither they, nor their enemies, would forget". Eugene III held synods in northern Europe at Paris and Trier in 1147 that were devoted to the reform of clerical life, he considered and approved the works of Hildegard of Bingen. In June 1148, Eugene III took up his residence at Viterbo, he was unable to return to Rome due to the popularity of Arnold of Brescia, who opposed Papal temporal authority, in the city. He established himself at Prince Ptolemy's fortress in Tusculum, the closest town to Rome at which he could safely install himself, on 8 April 1149.

There he met the returning Crusader

Saussure (crater)

Saussure is a lunar impact crater. It is located in the crater-riddled terrain in the southern hemisphere of the Moon's near side. Just to the north and nearly attached to the rim is the larger crater Orontius. About a half crater diameter due west is the larger crater Pictet. Just to the east is a curving ridge in the surface the remains of a crater, completely overlaid by Saussure; the outer rim of Saussure is worn but intact, with only the southern edge being somewhat disrupted. A small impact lies across a pair of craterlets along the western edge; the inner walls are featureless, slope down to the level interior floor. This bottom surface is marked only by a few tiny craters, it was named after 18th century Genevan geologist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure. He was the professor, colleague and friend of Marc-Auguste Pictet. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Saussure

Angel of Retribution

Angel of Retribution is the fifteenth studio album by British heavy metal band Judas Priest, released in 2005. It is the band's first album since 1990's Painkiller to feature Rob Halford; the album debuted at No. 13 on the US Billboard 200 chart, which makes it the fourth highest chart of a Judas Priest album. The album was produced by Roy Z, who co-wrote the song "Deal with the Devil", it won a 2005 Metal Hammer award for Best Album. In the 2005 Burrn! magazine Readers' Pop Poll, it was voted Best Album of the Year and Best Album Cover. Angel of Retribution was scheduled to be released in late 2004, but the label changed the release date to early 2005, hoping for better sales. Early pressings have the year 2004 printed on the covers. In a descriptive detail about the album, Glenn Tipton explains, "We've got a lot of energy. We’re firing on all cylinders and it's obvious on this album. I think. A lot of people who have listened to it have said. You couldn't date it." Rob Halford adds, "That decade that we were out of each other's company just seems to have vanished in smoke.

When we got together to begin writing the new material for'Angel of Retribution', it was a continuation of where we would have been had we made the next record after'Painkiller'. All the pieces were in place."Six of the album's songs have been performed live, with "Hellrider", "Deal With the Devil", "Worth Fighting For" and "Revolution" only appearing on 2005 setlists. "Judas Rising" was performed in 2005 and returned for the 2011-12 and 2019 tours, "Angel" being added to the setlist in 2008-9 and reappearing for a few shows in 2018. Within the album, nods to the sound of past albums and songs are found, as well as lyrics that reference earlier songs; the song "Demonizer" references both "The Hellion" from Screaming for Vengeance, as well as "Painkiller" from Painkiller. "Hellrider" mentions the title track of Ram It Down, "Tyrant" from Sad Wings of Destiny. "Eulogy" references "Stained Class" and "The Sentinel" from the albums Stained Class and Defenders of the Faith, respectively. "Worth Fighting For" acts as a sequel/prequel to "Desert Plains" from Point of Entry.

The song "Deal With the Devil" can be viewed as an autobiography of Judas Priest, telling their origins from the Black Country of England's West Midlands, mentioning their transitory days gigging around England and practising at the Church of Holy Joseph in Walsall, where Judas Priest was born. "Deal With the Devil" mentions the song "Blood Red Skies" from Ram It Down and "Take on the World" from Killing Machine. The album was released on the DualDisc format which had traditional CD content on one side and DVD content on the other side; the DVD side of this album featured a documentary entitled "Reunited" as well as the entire album in an enhanced audio format. In Japan, it was released as a 2-disc set containing DVD video. All tracks written by Rob Halford, K. K. Downing and Glenn Tipton except where noted Credits adapted from liner notes: Official album website

Critical Blow

Critical Blow is a 1997 Japanese video game for the Sony PlayStation developed by Racdym and published by Banpresto. It is a three dimensional fighting game, is a sequel to Genei Tougi: Shadow Struggle, it features character designs by manga artist Ryōji Minagawa. The game was never released outside of Japan; the game uses three dimensional polygons to render the graphics, runs at 60fps. It features four distinct gameplay modes: tournament mode, theater mode, VS mode, a trading mode. Trading mode allows for the customization of characters using skills earned by defeating computer controlled opponents; the game was developed by Japanese game developer Racdym. It is a sequel to Genei Tougi: many characters returned in that game. Character designs for the game were created by manga artist Ryoji Minagawa, best known as the illustrator of the series Spriggan. To render the animations in the game, the developers used motion capture. Critical Blow was released on December 4, 1997 for the Sony PlayStation home console and was published by Banpresto.

The game was never released outside of Japan, nor was it re-released through the PlayStation Network Game Archives. Gamespot gave the game a score of 6.9 out of 10. MegaFun gave the game a score of 74 out of 100. Famitsu gave the game a score of 26 out of 40. Three reviewers for GameFan gave it scores of 95, 92, 92

Comparison of file archivers

The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of file archivers. Please see the individual products' articles for further information, they are neither all-inclusive nor are some entries up to date. Unless otherwise specified in the footnotes section, comparisons are based on the stable versions—without add-ons, extensions or external programs. Note: Archivers names in purple are no longer in development. Basic general information about the archivers: creator/company, license/price etc; the operating systems the archivers can run on without compatibility layer. Linux Ubuntu's own GUI Archive manager, for example, can open and create many archive formats to the extent of splitting into parts and encryption and ability to be read by the native program; this is a "compatibility layer." Notes: ^ A separate 64-bit Windows x64 Edition version is available. ^ The Unix-like system port is known as p7zip. P7zip is provided by FreeDOS. ^ A Windows Mobile release is available. ^ The programs for other platforms are called Unace, do not have the same GUI, can only perform decompression.

^ WinRAR is for RAR for other platforms. ^ This program has a POSIX version available. ^ General Windows CE version. ^ Also Acorn others. Information about what common archiver features are implemented natively. Notes: ^ Application is only for decompression. ^ Traditionally, cpio, or pax calls the external programs gzip and bzip2 to perform compression. This is the case for GNU tar. BSD tar uses its own implementation, since it has to deal with archive formats that do their own compression. ^ Allows adding a variable amount of redundancy for much better error recovery. See RAR. ^ Extracting/adding file and/or directory names into archive in either UTF-7, UTF-8 or UTF-16/UCS-2 encoding to support single file/directory name which contains characters from different languages. More recent versions of the zip file format have support for Unicode filenames. ^ In WinRAR 3.60, when opening 7-Zip archives which contains Unicode file/directory names, they will not be displayed correctly. There will be no problem extracting them, however.

^ Does support Unicode names, but not under the default option settings: the user must tick "Use OEM conversion for filenames" under "General" on the "Miscellaneous" tab in the Configuration dialog to enable Unicode name support. Full support for Unicode files. ^ Commandline batch compression is available only for ALZ formats. ^ UTF-8 file/path-names support was completed in release 3.0.1 on Unix systems, in release 5.8.0 on Windows systems. GUI UTF-8 support for full internationalization of the application was completed in release 2.2.0. Optionally, extended characters can be set to be replaced by jolly "?" Character for exporting scripts to legacy systems. ^ Commandline batch compression and expansion requires free add-on software downloaded from the WinZip website. ^ Peazip supports file encryption and file name encryption, although only in certain types of archives, including its own Pea format, 7-zip and Arc. ^ Many shells have built-in zip file support. Windows Explorer has "Send To"->"ZIP-compressed folder".

^ Unicode and volumes since version 3.0. AES since 3.1. Information about what archive formats. External links lead to information about support in future versions of the archiver or extensions that provide such functionality. Note that gzip, bzip2 and xz are rather compression formats than archive formats. Notes: ^ Used to, but no longer does, due to technical and legal issues. ^ Tar implementations call external programs to perform compression, allowing you to implement your own filters. These external programs may be shipped with your Operating System. ^ GNU tar lets you implement your own filters, allowing you to use other compression programs and filters. ^ Starting from version 11. ^ Requires external program. More info ^ Archive Utility itself is unable to open ISO files, but Disk Utility, which comes with Mac OS X, is able to mount them as virtual disks. ^ Requires external program. ^ Only partial support for reading proprietary SITX format. ^ FreeARC uses.arc as its filename extension, but this format is not the same as the traditional ARC file.

^ Supports these formats as compression stream of other archive formats like tar.bz2 or iso.xz but does not support the format as an archive itself, as they are not archive formats. See the above explanation for tar. ^ B1 Free Archiver for Android and B1 Online Archiver support ARJ format. Information about what archive formats the archivers can create. External links lead to information about support in future versions of the archiver or extensions that provide such functionality. Note that gzip, bzip2 and xz are rather compression formats than archive formats. Notes: ^ Tar implementations call the external programs gzip and bzip2, 7z, xz... to perform compression. ^ Requires rar.exe from WinRAR. ^ Requires external program. More info ^ Requires Ace32.exe from WinAce. ^ The Extract

Thomas Scawen

Sir Thomas Scawen was a British merchant and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1708 and 1722. He was Governor of the Bank of England from 1721 to 1723. Scawen was a younger son of Robert Scawen of Horton and his wife Catherine Alsop, daughter of Cavendish Alsop merchant of London, he married Martha Wessell, the daughter of Abraham Wessell, a London merchant, on 8 September 1691. Like his brother William, Scawen was a successful London merchant, he was an Apprentice of the Fishmongers’ Company in 1671, a freeman in 1679, a liveryman in 1685. In 1699 he was a member of the Russia Company, he was an assistant at the Fishmonger's Company in 1704 and was a director of the Bank of England from 1705 to 1719. At the 1708 British general election he was returned unopposed as Whig Member of Parliament for Grampound, he was Prime Warden of the Fishmongers’ Company from 1708 to 1710. In Parliament, he supported the naturalization of the Palatines in 1709, voted for the impeachment of Dr Sacheverell in 1710.

He did not stand at the 1710 British general election. On 29 January 1712, he was elected an alderman for London, he was knighted on 25 September 1714. At the 1715 British general election, Scawen was elected MP for City of London. From 1719, he was a Director of the Bank of England until 1721 when he became Governor of the Bank of England. In 1722 he inherited the manor of Horton from his brother William; the remainder of William's estates passed to Thomas's eldest son Thomas. From 1723 to his death, Scawen was a Deputy Governor. Scawen died on 22 September 1730 at Carshalton, was buried at Horton, Buckinghamshire, he and his wife had four daughters. He left Horton to his eldest son, who married a daughter of Hon. James Russell, was the father of James Scawen, MP for Surrey; the remainder of his properties went to his younger sons. His daughter Catherine married Sir John Shelley, 4th Baronet and other daughters married John Trenchard and Sir Nathaniel Mead. Media related to Governors of the Bank of England at Wikimedia Commons