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Pope Formosus

Pope Formosus was Cardinal-bishop and Pope, his papacy lasting from 6 October 891 to his death in 896. His brief reign as Pope was troubled, marked by interventions in power struggles over the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the kingdom of West Francia, the Holy Roman Empire. Formosus's remains were put on trial in the Cadaver Synod. A native of Rome, Formosus was born around 816, he became Cardinal Bishop of Porto in 864. Two years Pope Nicholas I appointed him a papal legate to Bulgaria, he undertook diplomatic missions to France. Upon the death of Louis II of Italy in 875, the nobles elected his uncle, Charles the Bald, King of the Franks to be the Holy Roman Emperor. Formosus conveyed Pope John VIII's invitation for King Charles to come to Rome to be crowned emperor. Charles received the imperial insignia in Rome on 29 December; those who favored the widowed Empress Engelberga or her brother-in-law, Louis the German, did not support the coronation. Fearing political retribution, many of them left Rome surreptitiously.

Formosus fled to Tours after despoiling the cloisters in Rome. On April 19, John VIII called a synod which ordered Formosus and other papal officials to return to Rome; when Formosus did not comply, he was removed from the ranks of the clergy and excommunicated on the grounds that he had deserted his diocese without papal permission, had aspired to the position of Archbishop of Bulgaria. Additional charges included the accusations; the condemnation of Formosus and others was announced in July 872. In 878 the sentence of excommunication was withdrawn after he promised never to return to Rome or exercise his priestly functions. In 867, while Formosus was serving as legate to the Bulgarian court, Prince Bogoris requested that he be named Archbishop of Bulgaria. Since the canons forbade a bishop to leave his own see to undertake the government of another, the request was denied; as early as 872 he was a candidate for the papacy. In 883, John's successor, Pope Marinus I, restored Formosus to his suburbicarian diocese of Portus.

Following the reigns of Marinus, Pope Hadrian III and Pope Stephen V, Formosus was unanimously elected Pope on 6 October 891. Shortly after Formosus' election, he was asked to intervene in Constantinople, where Patriarch Photius I had been ejected and Stephen, the son of Emperor Basil I, had taken the office. Formosus refused to reinstate those, ordained by Photius, as his predecessor, Stephen V, had nullified all of Photius' ordinations. However, the eastern Bishops determined to recognize Photius' ordinations nonetheless. Formosus immediately immersed himself in the dispute between Odo, Count of Paris, Charles the Simple for the French crown. Formosus was distrustful of Guy III of Spoleto, the Holy Roman Emperor, began looking for support against the Emperor. To bolster his position, Guy III forced Formosus to crown his son Lambert as co-Emperor in April 892; the following year, Formosus persuaded Arnulf of Carinthia to advance to Rome, invade the Italian peninsula, liberate Italy from the control of Spoleto.

In 894, Arnulf's army occupied all the country north of the Po River. Guy III of Spoleto died in December, leaving his son Lambert in the care of his mother Agiltrude, an opponent of the Carolingians. In autumn 895 Arnulf undertook his second Italian campaign, progressing to Rome by February and seizing the city from Agiltrude by force on February 21; the following day, Formosus crowned Arnulf Holy Roman Emperor in St. Peter's Basilica; the new emperor moved against Spoleto but was struck with paralysis on the way and was unable to continue the campaign. During his papacy he had to contend with the Saracens, who were attacking Lazio. On 4 April 896, Formosus died, he was succeeded by Pope Boniface VI. Pope Stephen VI, the successor of Boniface, influenced by Lambert and Agiltrude, sat in judgment of Formosus in 897, in what was called the Cadaver Synod; the corpse was disinterred, clad in papal vestments, seated on a throne to face all the charges from John VIII. The verdict was; the damnatio memoriae, an old judicial practice from Ancient Rome, was applied to Formosus, all his measures and acts were annulled and the orders conferred by him were declared invalid.

The papal vestments were torn from his body, the three fingers from his right hand he had used in blessings were cut off and the corpse was thrown into the Tiber. Following the death of Stephen VI, Formosus' body was reinterred in St Peter's Basilica. Further trials of this nature against deceased persons were banned, but Pope Sergius III reapproved the decisions against Formosus. Sergius demanded the re-ordination of the bishops consecrated by Formosus, who in turn had conferred orders on many other clerics, causing great confusion; the validity of Formosus' work was re-reinstated. The decision of Sergius with respect to Formosus has subsequently been universally disregarded by the Church, since Formosus' condemnation had little to do with piety and more to do with politics. Bartolomeo Platina writes that Sergius had the much-abused corpse of Formosus exhumed once more, found guilty again, beheaded, thus in effect conducting a second Cadaver Synod, while Joseph Brusher says that "Sergius indulged in no resurrection-man t

Sanjay Kak

Sanjay Kak is a left-wing activist and self-taught film-maker. He is known for his documentaries about environmental resistance politics. Kak was born into a family belonging to the Kashmiri Pandit community of Brahmins. Although of Kashmiri ethnicity, his family has been based in New Delhi for several generations and he works out of that city. Kak studied economics and sociology at the University of Delhi, he is a "self-taught" film-maker, involved in the documentary film movement and in the Campaign against Censorship and the Cinema of Resistance project. A self-taught film-maker, Kak makes documentary films with a left-wing bent, his early work includes Punjab: Doosra Adhay about the Punjab in the days of the Khalistan struggle, Pradakshina, about the river Ganges. He followed this with a 1990 film about Angkor Remembered. In 1993 he released films about the Indian diaspora in South Africa. 1995 saw the release of Harvest of Rain. One Weapon followed, "the documentary that marked Sanjay Kak as an explicitly political filmmaker", according to The Caravan magazine, In the Forest Hangs a Bridge about the making of a bridge in Northeast India.

His next films were Words on Water, about the struggle against the Narmada dams in central India, which won Best Long Film prize at the International Festival of Environmental Film & Video in Brazil, Jashn-e-Azadi - How We Celebrate Freedom about the Kashmiri freedom struggle. Jashn-e-Azadi is a film that has "widely influenced the way Kashmir was perceived in India"; the film has had a chequered screening history. In 2008, he participated in Manifesta7, the European Biennale of Art, in Bolzano, with the installation A Shrine to the Future: The Memory of a Hill, about the mining of bauxite in the Niyamgiri hills of Odisha, he writes occasional political commentary, is the editor of Until My Freedom Has Come – The New Intifada in Kashmir. His latest feature-length documentary is on the revolutionary Maoist movement in India, called Red Ant Dream; the film was under production for more than three years and released in 2013. Punjab: Doosra Adhay Pradakshina Angkor Remembered This Land, My Land, Eng-land A House and a Home Harvest of Rain One Weapon In the Forest Hangs a Bridge Words on Water Jashn-e-Azaadi Red Ant Dream Shuddhabrata Sengupta.

"A Long March: Sanjay Kak’s cinema of rebellion". The Caravan. 1 July 2013. Sanjay Kak. "The Apparatus: Laying bare the state’s terrifying impunity in Kashmir". The Caravan. 1 March 2012. Http:// Official Website of Red Ant Dream/माटी के लाल Jashn-e-Azadi Blog

Von Pimpenstein

Chris Carter, known professionally as Von Pimpenstein, is a record producer and mixer from Los Angeles. Chris Carter grew up in Eugene, Oregon where he made his first professional recordings in high school as a founding member of the popular local band The Boogie Patrol Express, he started in the music business producing a single for the unsigned Backstreet Boys in 1993. The single caught the attention of Mercury Records A&R executive Dave McPherson who signed the group and moved to Jive Records/BMG. Upon learning that Chris Carter and the other two writer/producers of the song, Aaron Walker and Blake Schwab, were not credited and that Lou Pearlman’s label Transcontinental Records had not obtained the rights necessary to release the song under the Jive label, BMG delayed a 1994 U. S. debut until 1997 while promoting the boy band in Europe in the interim. The three writers settled with Lou Pearlman for an undisclosed sum. In 2000 Carter produced & mixed the DJ Times Top 40 single “Rub A Dub Dub” for Filipina singer Yvette.

During this time he ran the label Say Music Inc. with Yvette’s husband and manager Joe Desciongco. Desciongco and Carter entered Say Music Inc. into a joint venture deal with Universal Records. In 2001 Carter produced & mixed the single "Love Goes On" for singer Natalise, placed on the 888 Records compilation “Import Jams” and launched her career; the DMA Magazine top 10 single made Natalise popular in the United States earning her a record deal with 888 Records and was released on her album “Forever Now”. Carter continued to produce Natalise on her second album, “I Came To Play,” producing & mixing the DJ Times Top 40 hit radio singles “Make It Clap Now” and “Get Me Off”, the latter of, featured in a Dodge Charger commercial, was played on MTV, earned Natalise nationwide popularity bringing her to the high-point of her career. In 2005, Carter produced the remix to American Idol finalist Jasmine Trias’s single “Excuses” for Universal Records. Carter is first credited with the nickname “Von Pimpenstein” on the self-titled album by Stormy Strong which received awards from Billboard.

In 2007 he produced & mixed the single “Let The Beat Knock” for EMI artist Cyssero, ranked in the top 30 of In 2008 Chris produced & mixed the single “I Wanna Know” for Christabelle, a #1 hit radio single and landed her major music awards. In 2011, Chris mixed the #1 hit single "Animal" by rock band Mr. Rally. In 2012 Carter produced and mixed the follow-up hit single "Say" for Christabelle, released to radio in May 2012, reached #1 June 18, 2012 in its fourth week on the charts and earned Christabelle the 2012 Bay Music Award for Best Solo Artist; some of the artists Chris Carter has worked with include Backstreet Boys, J. Holiday, Jasmine Trias, Natalise, Kaila Yu, Stormy Strong, Dahrio Wonder, Mr. Rally, he has over 100 song placements in TV/film and has made music for Bunim-Murray Productions, MTV Productions, CW Network, Discover Card and The Oprah Winfrey Show. Official Website Psychology of a Mix Engineer: Chris Carter | Modern Mixing Into the Mix: Chris Carter | Modern Mixing

Sir William Milner, 3rd Baronet

Sir William Mordaunt Milner, 3rd Baronet of Nun Appleton Hall, was a British Member of Parliament and Lord Mayor of York. He was the eldest surviving son of Sir William Milner, 2nd Baronet, of Nun Appleton by Elizabeth, the daughter and coheiress of Revd. the Hon. George Mordaunt, he was educated at Eton College between 1766 and 1769. He succeeded his father to the baronetcy in 1774, he served in the British Army as a cornet in the 10th Dragoons from 1772 to 1776. In his life he would serve as an officer in the volunteer militia, he was elected Lord Mayor of York for 1787–88 and again for a second term for 1798–99. He represented the city of York from 1790 to 1811 as a Whig in both the Parliament of Great Britain, from the Acts of Union 1800 the Parliament of the United Kingdom, he married in 1776, the daughter of Humphrey Sturt of Crichel More, Dorset. They had 2 daughters, he was succeeded by his son Sir William Mordaunt Sturt Milner, 4th Baronet

National Park College

National Park College is a public community college in Hot Springs, Arkansas. NPC was founded in 2003 as a result of a merger between Garland County Community College and Quapaw Technical Institute, it is now one of the state's largest community colleges, enrolling 3,000 students annually in credit programs and an additional 3,800 students in non-credit programs. Tuition at NPC is less than half of Arkansas' universities; the name of the college is derived from its location adjacent to Hot Springs National Park. National Park College was founded in 2003 as a result of a merger between Garland County Community College and Quapaw Technical Institute, established in 1973 and 1969, respectively. In 2006, as part of its initial capital campaign, the college received a donation of 1.5 million dollars from Frederick M. Dierks of Hot Springs, associated with a business and owned timberland and produced pulp and paper, and, sold to Weyerhaeuser in 1969; this was the largest cash donation in the history of Arkansas community colleges.

These funds were purposed for a new health sciences facility. By December 2007, the college had raised an additional $900,000 for the campaign and initiated a joint program in early-childhood and middle-school teaching with Henderson State University. After Hurricane Katrina in 2005, NPC assisted students displaced from their home colleges by either enrolling in its college programs or finding colleges for them to enroll in. In 1994, when it was known as Garland County Community College, the college was censured by the American Association of University Professors for failure to abide by the 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure and 1958 Statement on Procedural Standards in Faculty Dismissal Proceedings; as of September 2015 the censure remains in place. In 2013, National Park College celebrated two milestone anniversaries: the 40th anniversary of the founding of Garland County Community College and the 10th anniversary of the merger of GCCC with Quapaw Technical Institute that created National Park College.

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BN-800 reactor

The BN-800 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. The reactor is designed to generate 880 MW of electrical power; the plant was considered part of the weapons-grade Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement signed between the United States and Russia, with the reactor part of the final step for a plutonium-burner core. The plant reached its full power production in August, 2016. According to Russian business journal Kommersant, the BN-800 project cost 140.6 billion rubles. The plant is a pool-type reactor, in which the reactor, coolant pumps, intermediate heat exchangers and associated piping are all located in a common liquid sodium pool; the design of this plant was started in 1983 and was revised in 1987 after the Chernobyl Disaster and to a somewhat lesser degree in 1993, according to the new safety guidelines. After the second revision, the electric output power was increased by 10% to 880 MW due to the increased efficiency of the planned power generator steam turbines.

The reactor core is, in size and mechanical properties similar to the BN-600 reactor core, but the fuel composition is different. While BN-600 uses medium-enriched uranium dioxide, this plant burns mixed uranium-plutonium fuel, helping to reduce the weapon-grade plutonium stockpile and provide information about the functioning of the closed uranium-plutonium fuel cycle, it was highlighted that the closed cycle will not require plutonium separation or other chemical processing. The unit employs a three-circuit coolant arrangement. Water and steam flow in the third circuit; this heat is transferred from the reactor core via several independent circulation loops. Each comprises a primary sodium pump, two intermediate heat exchangers, a secondary sodium pump with an expansion tank located upstream, an emergency pressure discharge tank; these feed a steam generator. Many infrastructure facilities were designed to accommodate both the BN-800 and a proposed follow on BN-1200 reactor; the construction of BN-800 started in 1983 as Unit 4 at the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant but was put on hold after the 1986 Chernobyl accident.

It resumed in 2006 and BN-800 achieved minimum controlled power in 2014, but issues led to further fuel development work. On 31 July 2015, the unit achieved minimum controlled power again, at 0.13% of rated power. Commercial operations was expected to start with a power rating of 789 MWe; the reactor was connected to the electricity grid in February 2016 and achieved full power for the first time in August 2016. Commercial power production started on November 1, 2016. With both the United States and Russia reaching an agreement in 2001 to render a joint 34 tons of weapons grade plutonium, into reactor grade plutonium alongside reaching the spent fuel standard, mixed with the other more radioactive products within spent fuel. US president Barack Obama canceled construction of the agreement-supporting US MOX fuel fabrication facility in 2016, citing cost overruns and for financial reasons proposing instead that for the US share of plutonium, it be diluted with non-radioactive material and disposed in the underground WIPP facility.

However, the dilution could be reversed, the material reconverted into weapons-grade plutonium. On October 3, 2016, Russian president Vladimir Putin ordered the agreement to be suspended because the US did not meet their obligations. In January 2020 the reactor started commercial operation with the first batch of MOX reprocessed uranium-plutonium fuel. China's first commercial-scale, 800 MWe, fast neutron reactor, to be situated near Sanming city in Fujian province will be based upon the BN-800. In 2009, an agreement was signed that would entail the Russian BN-800 reactor design to be sold to the PRC once it is completed, this would be the first time commercial-scale fast neutron reactors have been exported. Generation IV reactor BN-reactor BN-350 reactor BN-600 reactor BN-1200 reactor The content in this article is from the existing Russian and German Wikipedia equivalents. Official website "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019. CS1 maint: archived copy as title.

"BN-800 Fast Neutron Reactor". - on OKBM Afrikantov official pdf B. A. Vasilyev. F. Shepelev. R. Ashirmetov. M. Poplavsky. "BN-1200 Reactor Power Unit Design Development". International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios Presentations. International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA. IAEA. Retrieved 14 March 2019; the BN-800 Fast Reactor – a Milestone on a Long Road