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Pope Gregory IX

Pope Gregory IX was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241. He is known for issuing the Decretales and instituting the Papal Inquisition in response to the failures of the episcopal inquisitions established during the time of Pope Lucius III through his papal bull Ad abolendam issued in 1184; the successor of Pope Honorius III, he inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his own cousin Pope Innocent III and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy. Ugolino was born in Anagni; the date of his birth varies in sources between c. 1145 and 1170. He received his education at the Universities of Bologna, he was created Cardinal-Deacon of the church of Sant'Eustachio by his cousin Innocent III in December 1198. In 1206 he was promoted to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia e Velletri, he became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1218 or 1219. Upon the special request of Saint Francis, in 1220, Pope Honorius III appointed him Cardinal Protector of the order of the Franciscans.

As Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, he cultivated a wide range of acquaintances, among them the Queen of England, Isabella of Angoulême. Gregory IX was elevated to the papacy in the papal election of 1227, he took the name "Gregory" because he formally assumed the papal office at the monastery of Saint Gregory ad Septem Solia. That same year, in one of his earliest acts as pope, he expanded the Inquisition powers of Konrad von Marburg to encompass the investigation of heresy throughout the whole of Germany. Gregory's Bull Parens scientiarum of 1231, after the University of Paris strike of 1229, resolved differences between the unruly university scholars of Paris and the local authorities, his solution was in the manner of a true follower of Innocent III: he issued what in retrospect has been viewed as the magna carta of the University, assuming direct control by extending papal patronage: his Bull allowed future suspension of lectures over a flexible range of provocations, from "monstrous injury or offense" to squabbles over "the right to assess the rents of lodgings".

In October 1232, after an investigation by legates, Gregory proclaimed a crusade against the Stedinger to be preached in northern Germany. In June 1233, he granted a plenary indulgence to those. In 1233 Gregory IX established the Papal Inquisition to regularize the persecution of heresy; the Papal Inquisition was intended to bring order to the haphazard episcopal inquisitions, established by Lucius III in 1184. Gregory's aim was to bring order and legality to the process of dealing with heresy, since there had been tendencies by mobs of townspeople to burn alleged heretics without much of a trial. In 1231 Pope Gregory IX appointed a number of Papal Inquisitors Dominicans and Franciscans, for the various regions of France and parts of Germany; the aim was to introduce due process and objective investigation into the beliefs of those accused to the erratic and unjust persecution of heresy on the part of local ecclesiastical and secular jurisdictions. Gregory was a remarkably learned lawyer, he caused to be prepared Nova Compilatio decretalium, promulgated in numerous copies in 1234.

This New Compilation of Decretals was the culmination of a long process of systematising the mass of pronouncements that had accumulated since the Early Middle Ages, a process, under way since the first half of the 12th century and had come to fruition in the Decretum and edited by the papally commissioned legist Gratian and published in 1140. The supplement completed the work. In the 1234 Decretals, he invested the doctrine of perpetua servitus iudaeorum – perpetual servitude of the Jews – with the force of canonical law. According to this, the followers of the Talmud would have to remain in a condition of political servitude until Judgment Day; the doctrine found its way into the doctrine of servitus camerae imperialis, or servitude subject to the Emperor's authority, promulgated by Frederick II. The Jews were thus suppressed from having direct influence over the political process and the life of Christian states into the 19th century with the rise of liberalism. In 1239, under the influence of Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, Gregory ordered that all copies of the Jewish Talmud be confiscated.

Following a public disputation between Christians and Jewish theologians, this culminated in a mass burning of some 12,000 handwritten Talmudic manuscripts on 12 June 1242, in Paris. Gregory was a supporter of the mendicant orders which he saw as an excellent means for counteracting by voluntary poverty the love of luxury and splendour, possessing many ecclesiastics, he was a friend of Saint Dominic as well as Clare of Assisi. On 17 January 1235, he approved the Order of Our Lady of Mercy for the redemption of captives, he appointed ten cardinals and canonized Saints Elisabeth of Hungary, Anthony of Padua, Francis of Assisi, of whom he had been a personal friend and early patron. He transformed a chapel to Our Lady in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome. Gregory IX endorsed the Northern Crusades and attempts to bring Orthodox Slavic peoples in Eastern Europe under Papacy's fold. In 1232, Gregory IX requested the Livonian Brothers of the Sword to send troops to protect Finland, whose semi-Pagan people were fighting against the Novgorod Republic in the Finnish-Novgorodian wars.

At the coronation of Frederick II in Rome, 22 November 1220, the emperor made a

Spirit level

A spirit level, bubble level or a level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal or vertical. Different types of spirit levels may be used by carpenters, bricklayers, other building trades workers, surveyors and other metalworkers, in some photographic or videographic work. Early tubular spirit levels had slightly curved glass vials with constant inner diameter at each viewing point; these vials are incompletely filled with a liquid a colored spirit or alcohol, leaving a bubble in the tube. They have a slight upward curve, so that the bubble rests in the center, the highest point. At slight inclinations the bubble travels away from the marked center position. Where a spirit level must be usable upside-down or on its side, the curved constant-diameter tube is replaced by an uncurved barrel-shaped tube with a larger diameter in its middle. Alcohols such as ethanol are used rather than water. Alcohols have low viscosity and surface tension, which allows the bubble to travel the tube and settle with minimal interference from the glass surface.

Alcohols have a much wider liquid temperature range, won't break the vial as water could due to ice expansion. A colorant such as fluorescein yellow or green, may be added to increase the visibility of the bubble. A variant of the linear spirit level is the bull's eye level: a circular, flat-bottomed device with the liquid under a convex glass face with a circle at the center, it serves to level a surface across a plane, while the tubular level only does so in the direction of the tube. To check the accuracy of a carpenter's type level, a horizontal surface is not needed; the level is placed on a flat and level surface and the reading on the bubble tube is noted. This reading indicates to what extent the surface is parallel to the horizontal plane, according to the level, which at this stage is of unknown accuracy; the spirit level is rotated through 180 degrees in the horizontal plane, another reading is noted. If the level is accurate, it will indicate the same orientation with respect to the horizontal plane.

A difference implies. Adjustment of the spirit level is performed by successively rotating the level and moving the bubble tube within its housing to take up half of the discrepancy, until the magnitude of the reading remains constant when the level is flipped. A similar procedure is applied to more sophisticated instruments such as a surveyor's optical level or a theodolite and is a matter of course each time the instrument is set up. In this latter case, the plane of rotation of the instrument is levelled, along with the spirit level; this is done in two horizontal perpendicular directions. The sensitivity is an important specification for a spirit level; the sensitivity of a level is given as the change of angle or gradient required to move the bubble by unit distance. If the bubble housing has graduated divisions the sensitivity is the angle or gradient change that moves the bubble by one of these divisions. 2 mm is the usual spacing for graduations. For a precision machinist level with 2 mm divisions, when the vial is tilted one division, the level will change of 0.0005 in one foot from the pivot point, referred to as 5 ten-thousandths per foot.

There are different types of spirit levels for different uses: Surveyor's leveling instrument Carpenter's level Mason's level Torpedo level Post level Line level Engineer's precision level Electronic level Inclinometer Slip or Skid Indicator Bull's eye levelA spirit level is found on the head of combination squares. Tilting level, dumpy level or automatic level are terms used to refer to types of leveling instruments as used in surveying to measure height differences over larger distances, it has a spirit level mounted on a telescope with cross-hairs, itself mounted on a tripod. The observer reads height values off two graduated vertical rods, one'behind' and one'in front', to obtain the height difference between the ground points on which the rods are resting. Starting from a point with a known elevation and going cross country height differences can be measured cumulatively over long distances and elevations can be calculated. Precise levelling is supposed to give the difference in elevation between two points one kilometer apart correct to within a few millimeters.

A traditional carpenter's spirit level looks like a short plank of wood and has a wide body to ensure stability, that the surface is being measured correctly. In the middle of the spirit level is a small window where the tube is mounted. Two notches designate. An indicator for a 45 degree inclination is included. A line level is a level designed to hang on a builder's string line; the body of the level incorporates small hooks to allow it to hang from the string line. The body is lightweight, so as not to weigh down the string line, it is small in size as the string line in effect becomes the body. An engineer's precision level permits leveling items to greater accuracy than a plain spirit level, they are used to level the foundations, or beds of machines to ensure the machine can output workpieces to the accuracy pre-built in the machine. Melchisédech Thévenot, a French scient

Port Melbourne SC

Port Melbourne SC is an Australian soccer club based in Port Melbourne, a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria. The club was formed in 1968 by local Greek Australians, was promoted over the years to the Victorian Premier League in 1994, it spent the years 1994–2003 in the Victorian Premier League, winning the minor premiership twice, but was unable to secure the title during its time in the VPL. The club competes in the National Premier Leagues Victoria; the club was formed in 1968 by local Greek Australians. The club spent the majority of its early years in the lower Divisions of Victorian football. From 1973 to 1989, the club competed between Victorian League Division 2 and 3; the club was promoted to Victorian League Division 1 for the first time in 1989, but were relegated back to Division 2 in 1991. The club achieved successive promotions in 1992 and 1993 to take Port Melbourne to the Victorian Premier League for the first time in its history in 1994; the club managed to make the finals in its first season in the competition and went all the way to the grand final after wins against Sunshine George Cross and Bulleen Lions, but lost the final to Preston Lions FC.

The following year, Port were minor premiers in the VPL for the first time in their history, but successive losses in the finals series meant the season finished on a disappointing note. Port Melbourne made an application to join the NSL ahead of the 1995/96 season however this move was not approved and the club remained in the Victorian system; the club were minor premiers again in 2001, but once more lost the grand final, this time to Heidelberg United FC. The Sharks were relegated to Victorian State League Division 1 at the end of 2003 season and again to Victorian State League Division 2 after season 2007. After spending two-years in State 2 South East, the FFV unilaterally decided to place them in Division 2 North West in Season 2010. Eric Vassiliadis was appointed as player-manager and the club was promoted as Champions having lost only one match and having only conceded seven goals all season. In season 2011 the club lead the league for 21 rounds but failed to gain promotion in the last game of the season where they lost to Pascoe Vale and thus ensured season 2012 will again be played in State League 1.

They backed it up in 2012 with an outstanding season, finishing runners up in the State Knockout Cup and went on and secured promotion to the Victorian Premier League for 2013. During the 2012 season, Vassiliadis retired from playing but continued in his role as Manager at the club. In their first season back in the Victorian top-flight, the Sharks would have qualified for the finals had the league not been compromised by the Southern Stars FC scandal and the club ended 2013 with a 6th-place finish. In 2014, the first year of the National Premier Leagues system, Port Melbourne were seconds away from relegation until a 95th-minute goal from Conor Reddan in the final game of the season secured a draw against Werribee City, safety for the club and an 11th-place finish. In 2015, despite several high-profile signings like Alan Kearney, Shaun Kelly, Adrian Zahra and Alan Mulcahy, the Sharks could only manage an 8th-placed finish in the 2015 National Premier Leagues and exited the 2015 FFA Cup at the qualifying stages after a penalty loss to Avondale.

There was success at the club on an individual level however, with Kamal Ibrahim winning the 2015 NPL Victoria Gold Medal. In 2016, Port Melbourne were dealt three blows early on in the transfer window, with Kamal Ibrahim and Nicholas Krousoratis left for NPL rivals, but the club replaced them with the signings of Bonel Obradovic from Northcote City, David Stirton from South Melbourne and welcomed back former player Lambros Honos, who rejoined the club he spent 2013 and 2014 with, after spending a season at Oakleigh Cannons; the 2016 season was a disappointing one for the Sharks, finishing in 10th place in the league and exiting the FFA Cup in qualifying, losing to Melbourne Knights. After the final round, head coach Eric Vassiliadis resigned from his post. Port announced 2016 Bulleen Lions' coach Dom Barba as Vassiliadis' replacement. Following an 11th place finish in 2017, the club parted ways with Barba and appointed Adam Piddick who coached in the National Premier Leagues Queensland; the Sharks finished in 6th place in 2018, qualifying for the finals series but lost 3-1 to Avondale in the elimination final.

The home of the Port Melbourne Sharks is the SS Anderson Reserve known by the tag JL Murphy Reserve, located in Port Melbourne, Victoria. Over the years the club has developed and expanded its facilities into one of the best in the inner city; the facilities are considered of sufficient standard to warrant being used as training facilities for both the Commonwealth and Olympic Games. The facilities received an upgrade for use as a training venue for the 2015 AFC Asian Cup. Victorian Premier League Minor Premiers – 1995, 2001 Victorian State League Division 1 Champions – 1993, Runners Up 2012 Victorian State League Division 2 Champions – 2010 Victorian State League Division 3 Champions – 1977, 1987 Hellenic Cup Champions – 1994, 1995 Dockerty Cup Runner up – 2012 Victorian Premier League Coach of the Year 1994 – Takis Svigos 2001 – Harry ChalkitisPS4 NPL Gold Medal 1995 – George Svigos 2015 – Kamal IbrahimVictorian Premier League Golden Boot 1994 – Peter Psarros 1995 – Nick Tsaltas 1999 – Peter Kakos 2001 – Peter PsarrosJimmy Rooney Medal – VPL Grand Final Man of the Match 2001 – Peter PsarrosBill Fleming Medal – Media Player Of The Year 1995 – George Svigos Official club website Team App club website OzFootball Port Melbourne Sharks Page