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Pope Gregory VI

Pope Gregory VI, born John Gratian in Rome, was Pope from 1 May 1045 until his abdication at the Council of Sutri on 20 December 1046. Theophylactus of Tusculum was twenty years old when, in 1032, his father, Alberic III, Count of Tusculum, purchased his election as pope through some well-placed bribes; the young man took the name Benedict IX, after his uncle, Benedict VIII. Factional strife increased and in September 1044 members of the Roman nobility ousted Benedict and, in January 1045, replaced him with their own candidate, the bishop of Sabina, who took the name Sylvester III; the following March, Benedict sent Sylvester back to his diocese. Shortly thereafter, Benedict approached his godfather and indicating that he wished to marry, offered to resign, provided he were reimbursed for his election expenses. Desirous of seeing Rome free of Benedict, Gratian agreed, by May was recognized as Benedict's successor under the name Gregory VI. Benedict had second thoughts and again laid claim to the papal throne.

Supporters of Sylvester, had not given up his claim. With three parties claiming the papacy and controlling their respective parts of the city, influential members of both the clergy and the laity asked the Henry III, King of the Germans to intervene. Henry expected to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor, but preferred it be done by a pope whose legitimacy was not in question. Henry crossed the Alps and, in December 1046, convened the Council of Sutri, which deposed Benedict and Sylvester. Gregory agreed to resign. Gregory's chaplain was Hildebrand, who became Pope Gregory VII. Gratian, the Archpriest of St. John by the Latin Gate, was a man of great reputation for uprightness of character, he was the godfather of Pope Benedict IX, who, at the age of twenty, was foisted on the papacy by his powerful family, the Theophylacti, counts of Tusculum. Benedict IX, wishing to marry and vacate the position into which he had been thrust by his family, consulted his godfather as to whether he could resign the pontificate.

When he was convinced that he might do so, he offered to give up the papacy into the hands of his godfather if he would reimburse him for his election expenses. Desirous of ridding the See of Rome of such an unworthy pontiff, John Gratian paid him the money and was recognized as Pope in his stead; the accession of Gratian, who took the name Gregory VI, did not bring peace, though it was hailed with joy by such a strict upholder of the right as St. Peter Damian; when Benedict IX left the city after selling the papacy, there was another aspirant to the See of Peter in the field. John, Bishop of Sabina, had been hailed as Pope Sylvester III by the faction of the nobility that had driven Benedict IX from Rome in 1044, had installed him in his place. Though Benedict IX soon returned, forced Sylvester III to retire to his See of Sabina, Sylvester never gave up his claims to the papal throne, through his political allies contrived to keep some hold on a portion of Rome. To complicate matters, Benedict IX, unable to obtain the bride on whom he had set his heart, soon repented his resignation, claimed the papacy again, in his turn is thought to have succeeded in acquiring dominion over a part of the city.

With an empty exchequer and a clergy that had lost the savour of righteousness, Gregory VI was confronted by an hopeless task. With the aid of his "capellanus" or chaplain, destined to be Pope Gregory VII, he tried to bring about civil and religious order, he strove to effect the latter by means of letters and councils, the former by force of arms. But the factions of his rivals were too strong to be put down, the confusion only increased. Convinced that nothing could meet the challenges facing the Church except imperial intervention, a number of influential clergy and laity separated themselves from communion with Gregory VI or either of his two rivals and implored Emperor Henry III to cross the Alps and restore order. Henry III responded to these pleas by descending into Italy in the autumn of 1046. Strong in the conviction of his innocence, Gregory VI went north to meet him, he was received by Henry III with all the honour due to a Pope, in accordance with the royal request, summoned a council to meet at Sutri.

Of his rivals, Sylvester III alone presented himself at the synod, opened on 20 December 1046. Both his claim to the papacy and that of Benedict IX were soon disposed of. Deprived of all clerical rank and considered a usurper from the beginning, Sylvester III was condemned to be confined in a monastery for the rest of his life. Gregory VI was accused of purchasing the papacy and admitted it. However, the bishops of the synod impressed upon Gratian that this act was indeed simoniacal, regardless of his virtuous motivations for it, called upon him to resign. Gregory VI, seeing that little choice was left to him, complied of his own accord and laid down his office. Gregory VI was succeeded in the papacy by the German bishop of Bamberg, who took the name Pope Clement II. Gregory VI himself was taken by the Emperor to Germany in May 1047, where he died in 1048 at Cologne. Gregory VI was accompanied by Hildebrand. After about a year in Cluny, Hildebrand returned to Rome in January 1049 with the new Pope Leo IX, successor of Popes Clement II and Damasus II.

And when Hildebrand himself was elected Pope in 1073, he deliberately chose for himself the title Pope Gregory VII in order to proclaim his firm and loyal belief in the legiti

List of star names in Crux

This is the list of the proper names for the stars in the constellation Crux. Acrux:< coined from the Alpha of Crux, the former English form of it Bayer designation, Alpha Crucis, it was invented by Elijah H. Burritt in his star atlas in 1833. Magalhanica:< Magalhãnica, "the Magellanic", meaning Estrela de Magalhães, "the Star of Magellan". Mimosa:< In portuguese it means cuddly, it is a plant name mimosa. Becrux:< analogy from Acrux of Alpha Crucis, it was coined from the Beta of Crux, the former English form of it Beta Crucis. It was invented by the editor of nautical almanac in the middle of the 20th century. Gacrux:< analogy from Acrux for Alpha Crucis, it was coined from the Gamma of Crux, the former English form of it Gamma Crucis. It was invented by the editor of nautical almanac in the middle of the 20th century. Rubidea:<?? rubídea, "reddish". According to Japanese astronomer Keishin Suzuki, it was invented by John Herschel. Palida:< pálida, "pale". Intrometida:< intrometida, "nosy"? List of stars in Crux List of star names Bandeira do Brasil: Sobre as estrelas Allen, Richard Hinckley.

Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning. New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-486-21079-0. Kunitzsch, Paul. A Dictionary of Modern star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations. Cambridge, MA: Sky Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7. Da Silva Oliveira, R. "Crux Australis: o Cruzeiro do Sul", Artigos: Planetario Movel Inflavel AsterDomus

2013 Macanese legislative election

The 2013 Macanese general election took place on 15 September 2013 according to the provisions of the Basic Law of Macau. This election was the first of its kind succeeding the reform of the Legislative Assembly that created four new seats. Out of a total of 33 seats, 14 were elected by universal suffrage under the highest averages method, while 12 were voted on from the Functional constituency, 7 from nomination by the Chief Executive. A Portuguese colony, Macau has been a Special Administrative Region within China since 1999; as a Special Administrative Region it is entitled to a high degree of autonomy from the mainland Chinese legal system through the year 2050, although China represents the city on foreign policy matters. Macau's economy is based on its status as a tech and financial sector, as well as its internationally famous casino industry; the previous legislative election took place in 2009. The pro-democracy camp ANMD+APMD, led by António Ng, received 19.35% of the votes cast, the next largest party, the pro-establishment camp UPD, received 14.88% in vote with 2 seats while the pro-establishment ACUM received 12.00% with 2 seats.

Due to the characteristics of the Macanese election system, only 14 members are directly elected. On 1 July 2013 twenty-two parties have submitted their nominations for the direct election including current incumbents and new candidates. See also: Legislative Assembly of Macau and Chief Executive of Macau Macau's government is headed by the Chief Executive, who controls government appointments and in many ways serves as the face of the city. Prior to 2012, the Chief Executive was elected by a 300-member Election Committee consisting of representatives from functional constituencies. 100 total came from the industrial and financial sectors, 18 from the culture sector, 20 from the education sector, 30 from the "specialty" sector, 12 from the sports sector, 40 from the labor sector, 34 from the social services sector, 6 total from various religious groups. 16 were representatives of the Macanese Legislative Assembly and 24 were Macanese representatives in the mainland Chinese government. While all members of the Election Committee are technically elected, in practice they are appointed as each functional constituency nominates only one candidate.

Most power in the Macanese government is concentrated in the Legislative Assembly. Macau's Legislative Assembly is unicameral. Prior to 2012 it had 29 members - 12 directly elected, 10 indirectly elected and 7 appointed by the Chief Executive. Macanese democracy advocates had criticized the large number of indirectly elected members, charging that these tended to be pro-establishment and pro-Beijing businesspeople; as an alternative, they called for a larger number of directly elected legislators. As a result of the 2012 passage of "Amendment to Electoral Law for the Legislative Assembly of Macau" known as the "+2+2+100" Law, the number of Legislative Council members is increased from 29 to 33. Two new geographical constituency seats, two new indirectly elected Functional Constituency seats are created. Another key proposal was increasing the Election Committee for the chief executive election from 300 members to 400 on the next Chief Executive election in 2014; these changes were designed to create representation for a larger number of groups in the Election Committee and to reduce the power of the Chief Executive over the Legislative Assembly.

However, democracy advocates criticized the law for not going far enough. Under the constitutional reform package passed in 2012, this election saw AL increase its total size from 29 seats to 33 seats, half of which are geographical constituencies and half functional constituencies; the GC seats are returned by universal suffrage with gaining two extra seats. The Welfare, Culture and Sports constituency is split into two groups. Culture and Sports retains the two seats of the initial group, with the two incumbents running unopposed. Culture and Sports continues to be run by the Excellent Sports Union Association. A new constituency is created for Education, receiving one seat. Welfare and Education is managed by the Association for Promotion of Social Services and Education. Additionally, one seat is added to the Professionals constituency, lead by the Macau Professional Interest Union. Chan Lek Lap is elected, unopposed; this year, there are three lists for the pro-democrats instead of two campaigning on high property prices and freedom of speech.

The three lists included the New Macau Association, New Hope, the addition of New Macau Liberals. Antonio Ng for ANM campaigns for universal suffrage, promotion of a minimum wage and public housing, increasing government accountability. José Maria Pereira Couthino of NE campaigns for improvements in public housing and pension services, equal pay for workers, increasing government accountability. Jason Chao Teng-hei is a radical young candidate for New Macau Liberals and a prominent social activist for LGBT rights. Pro-establishment Chan Meng-kam, casino owner and lawmaker-elect of the ACUM, said he believed the city should implement universal suffrage "step by step", that functional constituencies should be preserved. Others with casino links on the pro-es

Eurasian dotterel

The Eurasian dotterel known in Europe as just dotterel, is a small wader in the plover family of birds. The dotterel is a brown and black streaked bird with a broad white eye-stripe and an orange-red chest band when in breeding plumage; the female is more colourful than the male. The bird is tame and unsuspecting and the term "dotterel" has been applied contemptuously to mean an old fool; the Eurasian dotterel is a migratory species, breeding in northern Europe and Asia and migrating south to north Africa and the Middle East in the winter. It lays two to four eggs; the male does the incubation and rears the chicks, the female having gone off to find another male and lay another clutch of eggs. It is a common bird with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as being of "least concern"; the English name dates from 1440 when it was used to refer to the bird and as an insult for someone considered simple or a dotard. It is not clear which use is the oldest, but the link is its tame and unsuspecting nature which made it easy to catch.

King James VI and I went every year to Royston. It was easy prey for illegal poaching, which depleted its stocks, they were prized as a delicacy: in 1534 Queen Anne Boleyn was presented with "a brace of dotterels". The genus name Charadrius is a Late Latin word for a yellowish bird mentioned in the fourth-century Vulgate, it derives from Ancient Greek kharadrios a bird found in ravines and river valleys. The specific morinellus is Ancient Greek derived from moros "foolish", due to the bird's trusting nature; this plover is more compact than European golden plover. It has plain wings in flight. Adults in summer are unmistakable, with a chestnut breast bordered above with white, black belly and warm brown back; the legs are yellow, the short bill is black. As with the phalaropes, the female is brighter than the male. Winter birds lack the rich underpart colouration, apart from the white breast line, are greyer above. Young birds have a scaly appearance to their backs, it breeds in the Arctic tundra of northern Eurasia, from Norway to eastern Siberia, on suitable mountain plateaus such as the Scottish highlands and the Alps.

This species is migratory, wintering in a narrow belt across north Africa from Morocco eastwards to Iran. Migration stopovers are traditional, small parties of dotterels pass through each year at these inland arable or grassy sites; the winter habitat is semi-desert. The dotterel's diet is made up of insects and other small invertebrates such as snails and worms and shellfish; these are obtained by a run-and-pause technique, rather than the steady probing used by other waders. The flight call is a soft pyurr; the female's song is a simple repetitive whistle. The male dotterel is responsible for incubation and looks after the chicks. In most cases the cock dotterel prevents other males from getting his mate and fertilizing her eggs, he rears chicks that he has fathered and only 4.6% of chicks were not the genetic offspring of the caring male, corresponding to 9.1% broods affected. It is a common species with a wide range. Populations seem to be declining but not alarmingly so, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as a "least-concern species".

A survey published in 2015 showed a fall in dotterel numbers in Scotland between 1987 and 2011, from 980 to 423 breeding males - representing a decline of 57%. The Eurasian dotterel is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Hayman, Peter. Shorebirds: An Identification Guide to the Waders of the World. ISBN 978-0-7099-2034-2. Tsherbakov, B. V. "Breeding Dotterels Charadrius morinellus in the Altai mountains of Kazakhstan". International Wader Studies. 10: 342–344. It is not only the males which incubate clutches and rear the chicks: on 24 June 1971, a female was collected from a nest with eggs. Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze Charadrius morinellus in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World BirdLife species factsheet for Charadrius morinellus "Charadrius morinellus". Avibase. "Eurasian dotterel media". Internet Bird Collection. Eurasian dotterel photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Charadrius morinellus at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Eurasian dotterel on Xeno-canto.

Eurasian dotterel media from ARKive

My Love. My Way.

My Love. My Way. is an album by Iowa hardcore quintet Modern Life is War. The album was released via Martyr Records; the reissued and remastered version of My Love. My Way. Contains two additional songs from the M. L. I. W. 7" E. P. Tyler - Drums Matt - Guitar Jeff - Vocals John - Guitar Chris - Bass Recorded in March 2003 at Atomic Recording Company in Brooklyn, N. Y. Dean Baltulonis – Audio Engineering Bob Strakele – Audio Engineering Matt Henderson – Audio Engineering Bice - Assistant Engineering All songs written by Modern Life Is War Reissue remasted by Nick Zampiello at New Alliance House Photography - Christopher Cannon Original Design and Art Direction - Christopher Cannon and Jacob Bannon

Rugby Rovigo Delta

Rugby Rovigo Delta known until 2010 as Rugby Rovigo, is an Italian rugby union club competing in the Top12. They are based in Veneto; the club were founded in 1935 by medical student Dino Lanzoni. They became one of the strongest Italian sides and won 12 titles between 1951 and 2016, they have never been relegated from the top flight of Italian rugby union. Some of the more notable Rovigo players include Mario “Maci” Battaglini, Isidoro Quaglio, Elio De Anna, Stefano Bettarello, Stefano Bordon, Alessandro Moscardi, Carlo Orlandi, Carlo Checchinato, Mirco Bergamasco, Manuel Contepomi, AJ Venter, Gert Smal, Viliami Ofahengaue and Naas Botha. However, in recent times the team has had difficulties, from the death of president Carlo Bego to the serious social conditions that had threatened the team's survival. Italian championship Champions: 1950–51, 1951–52, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1975–76, 1978–79, 1987–88, 1989–90, 2015–16 Runners-up: 1988–89, 1991–92, 2010–11, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2016–17, 2018-19 Coppa Italia/Excellence Trophy Champions: 2019-20 Runners-up: 1997–98, 2005–06, 2013−14 The Rovigo Delta senior squad for 2019–20 is: Former players who have played for Rovigo and have caps for Italy: Former players who have played for Rovigo and have caps for their respective country: Official site