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Pope Gregory VIII

Gregory VIII, born Alberto di Morra, was pope for two months in 1187. Alberto di Morra was born about 1105 in Italy, his father was the nobleman Sartorius di Morra. He became a monk early as a Cistercian in Laon, or a Benedictine at Monte Cassino. Alberto joined a new religious order, the Premonstratensian or Norbertine order between the ages of 20-30, he was a canon at St. Martin's Abbey in Laon, he became a professor of canon law in Bologna. Before the first Crusade, he believed. With good reason, this attitude alienated many Byzantines. In 1156, Pope Adrian IV made him cardinal-deacon of Sant'Adriano, on 14 March 1158 he became cardinal-priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina; as a papal legate of Pope Alexander III, he was sent to teach canon law throughout Europe in the 1160s, was sent to Portugal to crown Afonso II. He brought an offer of reconciliation in 1163 to Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, whom Pope Alexander III had excommunicated in 1160. Alexander sent him to England to investigate the murder of Thomas Becket, he absolved King Henry II of England of the murder during the Council of Avranches.

From 1177-1179, Alberto served as a legate in Italy and in February 1178 was named Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. As Chancellor he pursued a conciliatory line toward the Emperor, it was in this position that di Morra "...compiled a Forma Dicendi, a collection of official papal acts, completed a codification of the cursus, a compilation of the stringent rules governing the euphonious arrangements of sentence endings and phrasing in papal acts. In his honor, the cursus was called stylus gregorianus." These two documents were influential in shaping the rhetoric used in papal documents. Shortly before his election to the papacy, Alberto founded a monastery in his hometown of Benevento. On 21 October 1187, the day after the death of Pope Urban III, Alberto di Morra was elected pope and took the name Gregory VIII in honour of Pope Gregory VII, he was consecrated on 25 October. His previous dealings with Frederick Barbarossa put the church back in a friendly relationship with the Holy Roman Emperor.

In response to the defeat of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin, Gregory issued the papal bull Audita tremendi calling for the Third Crusade. Gregory travelled to Pisa in order to end Pisan hostilities with Genoa so that both seaports and naval fleets could join together for the crusade. On the way to Pisa, he stopped at Lucca and ordered Antipope Victor IV's body to be removed from his tomb and his remains thrown out of the church. Gregory died in Pisa on 17 December 1187 of a fever after holding the papacy for only 57 days, he was buried in the Duomo in Pisa. He was succeeded by Pope Clement III. According to Joseph S. Brusher, "His pontificate though brief was glorious." List of popes October 1187 Papal election Brusher, Joseph S. Popes through the Ages. Delaney, John J. and James E. Tobin. Dictionary of Catholic Biography. New York, NY: Doubleday, 1961. Giesebrecht, Wilhelm von & Simson, Bernhard von, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, VI, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, available at the Internet Archive here: Volume VI.

Kelly, J. N; the Oxford Dictionary of Popes. New York: Oxford UP, 1986. Levillain, Philippe, ed; the Papacy: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, 2002. Loughlin, James. "Pope Gregory VIII." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 7 December 2008 <>. "Premonstratenisans/Norbertines A Look at out Way of Life." The International Website for the Order of Premontre. The Order of Premontre. 7 December 2008 <>

Unto Us

Unto Us is the sixth studio album by Aaron Shust. Centricity Music released the project on October 14, 2014. Aaron Shust worked with producers James Fitzpatrick and David Hamilton in the creation of this album. Specifying in a four star review by CCM Magazine, Grace S. Aspinwall realizes, "Although this is a Christmas album, the signature sound of worship leader Aaron Shust peeks through the cinematic feel and beautiful tapestry of the record... The intricate strings and lovely movement of the record will secure it as a favorite for years to come." Adding a half star to his rating compared to the aforementioned, Jesus Freak Hideout's Christopher Smith responds, "Aaron Shust has pulled off something spectacular with Unto Us." Jonathan Francesco, indicating in a four and a half star review for New Release Tuesday, recognizes, "Aaron Shust has created a modern Christmas classic that flirts with terms like'masterpiece.'"

Hari Bhakta Kandel

Hari Bhakta Kandel a.k.a. Prateek is a communist politician and one of the senior most leaders of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal, he holds the rank of senior leader in the politburo of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal, the largest political party in Nepal, according to the results of the 2008 election. As a revolutionary communist party, the UCPN waged the "Nepalese People's War" in 1996 regime of Shah Dynasty of Nepal under the framework of constitutional monarchy. And, with the rise of People's War and the gaining of popularity of its agendas among the Nepalese Mass, the UCPN along with other political parties of Nepal was successful overthrowing the 238-year-old Monarchy with the Federal Democratic Republic; the Nepalese Civil War from 1994-2005 resulted in death of more than 19000 Nepali people. In addition, an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. Kandel was born in a village named Biukot of Baglung district in the western region of Nepal.

His was a family of traditional Brahman values and his ancestors had the history of serving as the respected Purohits in the society. But he never liked, he finished his secondary education from Amar Jyoti Secondary School, Baglung. And moved to the capital city Kathmandu for his higher education, he passed his Intermediate in Science from Tribhuwan University and joined the Bachelor of Science in Physics. He served as the Principal of the same secondary school from where he had completed his secondary education, he cultivated the true communist character since his early childhood. He started his political career from the student front in Patan Campus where he was elected Chairman of the Free Students Union. During his college life in Kathmandu, he shared the same room with Mr. Puspa Kamal Dahal, incumbent Chairman of UCPN, they were involved in the student politics, he along with Chairman Prachanda and another senior leader Ram Bahadur Thapa'Badal' got affiliated to the communist movement of Nepal at the same time.

He took the membership of Communist Party in 1981 and joined the Communist Party of Nepal. He became the whole-timer of the party in the year 1983, he was inducted in the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Nepal in 1984. He is among the 5 founding Standing Committee Members of the Communist Party of Nepal and served in various departments of the Party, he served as the Head of the Finance Department, Head of the Disciplinary Committee, Head of the Military Academy, as the senior member of the International Department of the UCPN in the different timeframes. He looks after the Tharuwan State Committee of the party as the In-Charge, he has had different party names popular among the cadres as'Bimal','Ananta' but since a long period of time he is popular with his name'Prateek'. Though and during the People's War, he always acted and helped a lot as the right hand of Chairman Prachanda, he is considered close to Senior Comrade Kiran while it comes to two line struggle.

Louis Victor Robert Schwartzkopff

Louis Victor Robert Schwartzkopff was a German industrialist and founder of the Berliner Maschinenbau mechanical engineering company, chiefly known as manufacturer of steam locomotives. Louis Schwartzkopff was born in Magdeburg capital of the Prussian province of Saxony. Between 1831 and 1842 he attended the grammar school in Magdeburg as well as the trade school there, where he, together with Carl Wilhelm Siemens, studied mathematics under Carl’s brother, Werner von Siemens. From 1842 to 1845 Schwartzkopff attended. After that he did his practical training at the firm of Borsig, where he got to know August Borsig personally. Schwartzkopff finished his training with a six-month post as an engine driver on the Berlin-Hamburg Railway. Between 1847 and 1851 he was the chief mechanical engineer of the Magdeburg-Wittenberge Railway. With the support of his family he bought the site at Chausseestrasse 20, bordered to the south by Invalidenstrasse and to the east by the Berlin-Stettin Railway. Under the terrain of the latter is the underground S-Bahn station called Nordbahnhof.

On 3 October 1852 he founded, together with the Berliner Gießereimeister Nitsche the Schwartzkopff and Nitsche Iron Foundry & Engineering Works in Berlin, from which the Berliner Maschinenbau AG vorm. L. Schwartzkopff emerged in 1870. Schwartzkopff wanted above all to expand the engineering works, whilst Nitsche preferred to concentrate on artistic castings. So Schwartzkopff bought Nitsche out in 1853 and from on ran the firm as the only owner; until 30 June 1888 he was the general manager of the company, but pulled out of the firm entirely. The company's production in support of the military and the railway industry resulted, in the 1860s, in Schwartzkopff being granted the title of Kommerzienrat, a historical title conferred on distinguished industrialists or financiers. In 1867, when the production of goods locomotives for the Lower Silesian-Märkische Railway began, Schwartzkopff moved the general engineering side of the business to a newly acquired site in Ackerstrasse, whilst the core business expanded on the previous sites at Chausseestrasse 19 and 23.

Schwartzkopff had acquired the site at Scheringstrasse 13-28 in Berlin-Gesundbrunnen. At the end of the 1880s Schwartzkopff was appointed to the Council of State for the Prussian Government. On 7 March 1892 he died as the result of a stroke. During his life Schwartzkopff always held August Borsig, in high esteem. Schwartzkopff was curator of the Lazarus Hospital. Schwartzkopffstrasse in Berlin-Mitte was named in his honour on 12 March 1889, he was buried at the Dorotheenstadt cemetery in Berlin. - A short biography with a photograph. De:Louis Victor Robert Schwartzkopff

Gail North-Saunders

Diane Gail North-Saunders is a Bahamian historian and author. North-Saunders established the Bahamian National Archives and was the director from 1971 until 2004, she was the president of the Bahamas Historical Society from 1989 until 1999. North-Saunders was president of the Association of Caribbean Historians. North-Saunders has authored books about Bahamian history including Historic Bahamas, Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People, Race and Class in the Colonial Bahamas, 1880–1960. North-Saunders was one of the four women to first represent The Bahamas in an international sports competition as a member of the sprint relay team at the 1962 Central American and Caribbean Games. Diane Gail North was born to Edward Basil and Audrey Virginia North on March 10, 1944. During her high school and college years, she was athlete. North represented the country on the sprint relay team at the 1962 Central American and Caribbean Games, in Kingston, Jamaica. At the event, along with Althea Rolle-Clarke, Elaine Thompson, Christina Jones-Darville, she was one of the four women to first represent The Bahamas in an international sports competition.

North earned a Bachelor of Arts in History in 1966 from University of Newcastle upon Tyne and a postgraduate certificate in Education from the University of Leicester in 1967. She taught history at Government High for two years. North married Winston Saunders in 1968; the couple relocated to England for further schooling. She studied at University College London and worked at the British Council in Public Record Offices to study process for archiving; when they moved back to The Bahamas in 1969, Winston took a position as deputy headmaster at Highbury High School. Upon returning to The Bahamas, North-Saunders took a position at the library in the Ministry of Education where she organized the records of the old Board of Education to make the first deposit in the National Archives. Saunders studied under historian Michael Craton at the University of Waterloo to earn a doctorate; the Ministry of Education asked North-Saunders to establish the Bahamian National Archives. The archives were held at the Eastern Public Library for 16 years.

North-Saunders was the director from 1971 until 2004 and director-general of the archives until her retirement in 2008. North-Saunders was president of the Association of Caribbean Historians. North-Saunders has authored books about Bahamian history including Historic Bahamas, Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People with Michael Craton, Race and Class in the Colonial Bahamas, 1880–1960. After retirement from the National Archives, North-Saunders remains active in academic pursuits as Scholar-in-residence at the College of The Bahamas. In 2006, her husband Winston died. North-Saunders was awarded the Commonwealth honour of the Order of the British Empire in 2003; the University of the West Indies awarded her an honorary degree in 2004. She was inducted into the Bahamas National Sports Hall of Fame in 2013


Dhokha is a Hindi romance thriler film starring Muzammil Ibrahim and Tulip Joshi in the lead roles. It is directed by Pooja Bhatt, produced by music by M. M. Keeravani; the film revolves around a moderate Indian Muslim cop, who wakes up and to his horror, discovers that his wife, killed in a bomb blast, is accused of being a suicide bomber and had killed 20 people in the club. This film is based on the novel The Attack by Yasmina Khadra. Inspector Zaid Ahmed is notified on duty. After investigation, it is found out that the suicide bomber responsible was Zaid's wife. Zaid finds it hard to believe in seeing his wife's dead body and claims to have dropped her at the bus stop. Zaid, inspected by the ATS, is called off duty temporarily by ATS Chief Raj Mehra but stands firm to his statement that his wife could not be the terrorist responsible. One day he receives a DVD, by post, at home, which consists of his wife's dying testimonial in which she accepts that she is the responsible terrorist. Not believing what he has seen, Zaid decides to visit Sara's grandfather Saeed Noor Bux.

On meeting him, Saeed reveals a rather shocking story. Sara's father had been arrested by the Local Police and had been beaten as he was suspected of terrorist activities. During the interrogation, he dies; the Police hide his body, claims that he has run to Pakistan and was found guilty of being a terrorist. When Saeed complains about this incident to higher authorities, her brother Daanish and he himself are arrested by the Inspector and are forced to sign a statement that they do not want to investigate this case. Upon refusal, they make nude videos of Sara. After Saeed is forced to sign the statement, the inspector asks Saeed and Daanish to go home, takes Sara to a cell, rapes her. Due to this incident and her brother start meeting a Molvi, who convinces them to lay down their lives by killing Non-Muslims. While Sara was first in the league, her brother, missing for a month, might follow her. Zaid, horrified by this tale, tries to find Sarah's brother Danish and finds him when he is being prepared to blast himself in a few days.

As a result of chasing him, he finds out the Molvi behind this, shares harsh words with him. He is shown a recording of Daanish accepting the responsibility of another bombing yet to take place. Molvi's men tell Zaid they will let him go after the bombing has happened the following day but he fights them and escapes to go after Daanish. Zaid finds Daanish at the station about to make a final call to his grandad and convinces him that he will get justice for Sara and their father. Daanish relents and hugs Zaid. Zaid's rank is restored and he resumes duty, he explains to the senior police officers how they force terrorists to be born just because of not being able to give them justice. It is shown that the corrupt Inspector is arrested and sentenced. Saeed and Daanish win the case with the help of Zaid. Muzammil Ibrahim as Inspector Zaid Ahmed Khan Tulip Joshi as Sarah Abhay Sachar as Danish Anupam Kher as Saeed Aushima Sawhney as Nandini Gulshan Grover as ATS Chief Raj Mehra Ashutosh Rana as Corrupt and guilty police officer Priyanka Sharma Anupam Shyam Bhanu Uday Raj Saluja Manish Makhija Sunil Kankekar Viineet Kumar as Police Inspector Dhokha on IMDb