Pope Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585. He is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally accepted civil calendar to this day. Ugo Boncompagni was born the son of Cristoforo Boncompagni and of his wife Angela Marescalchi in Bologna, where he studied law and graduated in 1530, he taught jurisprudence for some years, his students included notable figures such as Cardinals Alexander Farnese, Reginald Pole and Charles Borromeo. He had an illegitimate son after an affair with Maddalena Fulchini, Giacomo Boncompagni, but before he took holy orders. At the age of thirty-six he was summoned to Rome by Pope Paul III, under whom he held successive appointments as first judge of the capital and vice-chancellor of the Campagna e Marittima. Pope Paul IV attached him as datarius to the suite of Cardinal Carlo Carafa, Pope Pius IV made him Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto Vecchio and sent him to the Council of Trent.
He served as a legate to Philip II of Spain, being sent by the Pope to investigate the Cardinal of Toledo. It was there that he formed a lasting and close relationship with the Spanish King, to become important in his foreign policy as Pope. Upon the death of Pope Pius V, the conclave chose Cardinal Boncompagni, who assumed the name of Gregory XIII in homage to the great reforming Pope, Gregory I, surnamed the Great, it was a brief conclave, lasting less than 24 hours. Many historians have attributed this to the backing of the Spanish King. Cardinal Borromeo and the cardinals wishing reform accepted Boncompagni's candidature and so supported him in the conclave while the Spanish faction deemed him acceptable due to his success as a nuncio in Spain. Gregory XIII's character seemed to be perfect for the needs of the church at the time. Unlike some of his predecessors, he was to lead a faultless personal life, becoming a model for his simplicity of life. Additionally, his legal brilliance and management abilities meant that he was able to respond and deal with major problems and decisively, although not always successfully.
Once in the chair of Saint Peter, Gregory XIII's rather worldly concerns became secondary and he dedicated himself to reform of the Catholic Church. He committed himself to putting into practice the recommendations of the Council of Trent, he allowed no exceptions for cardinals to the rule that bishops must take up residence in their sees, designated a committee to update the Index of Forbidden Books. He was the patron of a new and improved edition of the Corpus juris canonici. In a time of considerable centralisation of power, Gregory XIII abolished the Cardinals Consistories, replacing them with Colleges, appointing specific tasks for these colleges to work on, he was renowned for having a fierce independence. The power of the papacy increased under him, whereas the influence and power of the cardinals decreased. Noteworthy is his establishment of the Discalced Carmelites, an offshoot of the Carmelite Order, as a distinct unit or "province" within the former by the decree "Pia consideratione" dated 22 June 1580, ending a period of great difficulty between them and enabling the former to become a significant religious order in the Catholic Church.
A central part of the strategy of Gregory XIII's reform was to apply the recommendations of Trent. He was a liberal patron of the formed Society of Jesus throughout Europe, for which he founded many new colleges; the Roman College of the Jesuits grew under his patronage, became the most important centre of learning in Europe for a time. It is now named the Pontifical Gregorian University. Pope Gregory XIII founded numerous seminaries for training priests, beginning with the German College at Rome, put them in the charge of the Jesuits. In 1575 he gave official status to the Congregation of the Oratory, a community of priests without vows, dedicated to prayer and preaching. In 1580 he commissioned artists, including Ignazio Danti, to complete works to decorate the Vatican and commissioned The Gallery of Maps. Noteworthy during his pontificate as a further means of putting into practice the recommendations of the Council of Trent is the transformation in 1580 of the Dominican studium founded in the 13th century at Rome into the College of St. Thomas, the precursor of the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
Pope Gregory XIII is best known for his commissioning of the calendar after being authored by the doctor/astronomer Aloysius Lilius and with the aid of Jesuit priest/astronomer Christopher Clavius who made the final modifications. The reason for the reform was that the average length of the year in the Julian calendar was too long – as it treated each year as 365 days, 6 hours in length, whereas calculations showed that the actual mean length of a year is less; as a result, the date of the vernal equinox had slipped to 10 March, while the computus of the date of Easter still followed the traditional date of 21 March. That was verified by the observations of Clavius, the new calendar was instituted when Gregory decreed, by the papal bull Inter gravissimas of 24 February 1582, that the day after Thursday, 4 October 1582 would be not Friday, 5 October, but Friday, 15 October 1582; the new calendar duly replaced the Julian cale
Surbhi Puranik, known by her stage name Surbhi, is an Indian actress who predominantly appears in Kannada and Telugu films. She was made her Tamil film debut in 2013 film Ivan Veramathiri. While undertaking a bachelor's degree in Fine Arts from the College of Art, Surbhi became interested in a career in films and took up modelling assignments as well as signing up to an acting course at Imago Acting School, where she was taught by Barry John and Manoj Bajpai, she made her first film appearance in Saravanan's second film Ivan Veramathiri featuring Vikram Prabhu. After being recommended to seek acting opportunities in the South Indian film industry, Surbhi auditioned for Ivan Veramathiri and was selected to play the leading female role of Malini, a cute and timid girl. During the making of the film, the director gave particular praise to Surbhi for her dedication in learning the dialogues in Tamil and putting in extra effort to ensure her diction was correct; the film performed well at the box office.
Surbhi's performance was praised by critics, who noted that "her smile is arresting" and that "she is cast and brightens up all the scenes she appears in with her bubbly, innocent character and seems natural and fresh." She was subsequently nominated in the Best Female Debutant category at the Vijay Awards and South Indian International Movie Awards. Surbhi was next seen in a supporting role in Velraj's directorial debut Velaiyilla Pattathari, portrayed the role of an ex-smoker, saved by the lung donation of the lead character Dhanush's mother, she shot for the film in early 2014 and noted that it was a "special cameo appearance". The film opened in July 2014 to positive reviews and was one of the most successful Tamil films of the year, she briefly shot for a role in Suseenthiran's sports drama film Jeeva but pulled out due to exam commitments, thus was only seen in one scene in the film. She appeared with Sundeep Kishan in Beeruva directed by Kanmani. In June 2015 she signed to appear in a Telugu film Express Raja starring opposite Sharwanand and directed by Merlapaka Gandhi.
Crab on its Back is an oil painting by Vincent van Gogh. It is a still life of a crab lying on its back with a green background; the Van Gogh Museum dates the work to August-September 1887, while other sources date it to early 1889. The painting is in the permanent collection of the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam in the Netherlands; the painting is inspired by a Japanese print of a crab by Hokusai that Van Gogh had seen in the magazine Le Japon Artistique, which his brother Theo van Gogh had sent him in September 1888. Van Gogh painted Two Crabs, a still life with two crabs one of, lying on its back, on display in the National Gallery in London. Media related to Crab on its Back at Wikimedia Commons