Pope Gregory XIV, born Niccolò Sfondrato or Sfondrati, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591. Niccolò Sfondrati was born at Somma Lombardo part of the Duchy of Milan, in the highest stratum of Milanese society, his mother, of the house of Visconti, died in childbirth. His father Francesco Sfondrati, a senator of the ancient comune of Milan, was created Cardinal-Priest by Pope Paul III in 1544. In his youth he was known for stringent piety, he studied law at Perugia and Padua, was ordained a priest and swiftly appointed Bishop of Cremona, in 1560, in time to participate in the sessions of the Council of Trent from 1561 to 1563. Pope Gregory XIII made him a Cardinal-Priest of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere on 12 December 1583. Sfondrati was a close follower of Carlo Cardinal Borromeo, when the cardinal died, he celebrated the Requiem Mass for Borromeo on 7 November 1584. Sfondrati was an intimate friend and a great admirer of Philip Neri, an Italian priest who died in 1595 and was canonised in 1622.
After the death of Pope Urban VII on 27 September 1590, the Spanish ambassador Olivares presented the conclave a list of the seven cardinals who would be acceptable to his master Philip II of Spain. On 5 December 1590, after two months of deadlock, one of Philip II's seven candidates but who had not aspired to the office, was elected pope. Alessandro Cardinal Montalto came to Sfondrati's cell to inform him that the Sacred College had agreed on his election and found him kneeling in prayer before a crucifix. On the day after he was elected Pope, Gregory XIV burst into tears and said to the cardinals: "God forgive you! What have you done?" In his bull of 21 March 1591, Cogit nos, he forbade under pain of excommunication all betting concerning the election of a Pope, the duration of a pontificate, or the creation of new cardinals. Gregory XIV's brief pontificate was marked by vigorous intervention in favour of the Catholic party in the French Wars of Religion. Instigated by the king of Spain and the duke of Mayenne, he excommunicated Henry IV of France on 1 March 1591, reiterating the 1585 declaration of Pope Sixtus V that as a heretic Henry of Navarre was ineligible to succeed to the throne of Catholic France and ordered the clergy, judicial functionaries, the Third Estate of France to renounce him.
Gregory XIV levied an army for the invasion of France, dispatched his nephew Ercole Sfondrati to France at its head. He sent a monthly subsidy of 15,000 scudi to Paris to reinforce the Catholic League. By coming down solidly on the side of Spanish interests, in part because Gregory XIV was elected due to the influence of the Spanish cardinals, the recent papal policy of trying to maintain a balance between Spain and France was abandoned. Gregory XIV created five cardinals, among whom was his nephew Paolo Emilio Sfondrati, his Secretary of State, he attempted to convince Philip Neri, a long-time friend, to accept the post of Cardinal, but Neri refused, saying that there were many more deserving of the honour than him. In a decree dated 18 April 1591, Gregory XIV ordered reparations to be made by Catholics in the Philippines to the natives, forced into slavery by Europeans, he commanded under pain of excommunication of the owners that all native slaves in the islands be set free. In 1591, Gregory XIV modified the Apostolic Constitution Effraenatam of Pope Sixtus V so that the penalty for abortion did not apply until the foetus became animated.
The biographers mention that Pope Gregory XIV had a nervous tendency to laughter, which became irresistible and manifested itself at his coronation. Gregory XIV, in poor health before his election to the papacy, died due to a large gallstone and was succeeded by Innocent IX. Cardinals created by Gregory XIV This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ott, Michael. "Pope Gregory XIV". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 7. New York: Robert Appleton. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gregory /Gregory XIV". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Biography on St. Michael's Call Papal Library Defending the Faith website: Gregory XIV "Pope Gregory XIV". Germania Sacra people index. Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Houston Wire & Cable Company is one of the largest wire and cable providers in America. The company was based in Houston, Texas; as of year 2011, the company provides service to about 6,000 customers with a customer base covering the industries of communications, engineering and transportation. It was ranked in list of Top 200 Best Small Companies in America in 2009 by Forbes The market capitalization of company is $240.05 million with an enterprise value of $278.93 million. In February, 2014, the company joined Affiliated Distributors, a dynamic community of independent distributors and manufacturers of construction and industrial products; the company was founded in 1975. In 1987, it completed its first initial public offering and was subsequently purchased in 1989 by ALLTEL Corporation. In 1997, the company was purchased by investment funds affiliated with Code, Hennessy & Simmons LLC, conducted a second public offering in 2006. In 2010, the company acquired Southwest Wire Rope, LLP and Southern Wire, LLC to broaden its product line.
In February, 2014, it opened its newest distribution center in Texas. The center can provide will-call pickup in Odessa. Notes // Official website
Professional Identification is a type of social identification and is the sense of oneness individuals have with a profession and the degree to which individuals define themselves as profession members. Professional identity consists of the individual's alignment of roles, responsibilities and ethical standards to be consistent with practices accepted by their specific profession. Researchers have found. Organizations tend to be concerned with efficiency and profitability, whereas professions care about providing the highest-quality service regardless of cost or revenue considerations. Administrators are seen as promoting profitability at the expense of profession-defined quality. In one notable study, practicing physicians viewed administrators with medical degrees as “outsiders” to the medical profession because of what the physicians believed to be the administrators’ undue emphasis on organizational goals. Practicing physicians viewed administrators with MDs more negatively than those without MDs because the former were thought to have “betrayed” the medical profession by assuming administrative roles.
Professional identity formation is a complex process through which the sense of oneness with a profession is developed, with some of the difficulty arising out of balancing personal identity with professional identity. Professional identity begins to form while individuals gain their educational training for their profession. Drawing on community of practice theory, transitions between communities can lead to the individual experiencing tension or conflict in how the distinct communities' values and expectations differ, causing the individual to restructure the boundaries between their professional and private spheres of identity. For over 50 years, researchers have studied whether professional employees' social identities influence their work behaviors. David R. Hekman and colleagues found that professional identification may conflict with organizational identification. Organizational identification may lead employees to believe that administrators are “like them” and “on their side", whereas professional identification leads employees to believe that administrators are “not like them” and “not on their side”.
The.280 Remington known as the 7mm-06 Remington and 7mm Express Remington, was introduced in 1957 for the Remington model 740, 760, 721, 725 rifles. Having been released 32 years after the.270 Winchester, it had somewhat unspectacular sales. Remington renamed the cartridge in late 1978 to 7mm-06 Remington but just before the end of the year they renamed it again calling it the 7 mm Express in an attempt to increase sales; this resulted in people confusing it with the 7 mm Remington Magnum, Remington changed the name back to.280 in 1981. The.280 is based on the.30-03 necked down to accept 7 mm bullets, with the neck moved forward.050 in. The neck was deliberately moved forward to prevent chambering in a.270 Winchester rifle, as firing a.280 round in a.270 rifle could cause the projectile to get stuck in the barrel or rupture the barrel due to excessive pressure. Original loads were 150 and 165 grain bullet weights. The.280 Remington is capable of generating higher velocities in heavier bullet weights than the.270 Winchester due to a marginally greater case capacity.
However the ballistic coefficient of equal weight bullets favors.270 caliber bullets over 7mm bullets of similar design. In the heavier bullets of similar design the.280 Remington has a slight edge in muzzle energy. With equal weight bullets of similar design the.270 Winchester surpasses the.280 Remington's long range velocity and energy due to the 270's higher ballistic coefficient according to Federal's ammunition catalog. There's many more factory loads available for the.270 Winchester over the.280 Remington at a lower price point due to the.270's much greater popularity. The.280 Remington is capable of developing energy nearly equal to the.30-06 Springfield, but with lighter bullets having a better ballistic coefficient. The.30-06 produces more energy than the.280 with bullets heavier than 180 grains, though.284" 175 grain bullets have a high sectional density of.310, compared to the 30-06 180 grain bullet with a moderate sectional density of.271. The.280 is suitable for hunting any game in North America with good shot placement.
SAAMI pressure limit for the.280 Remington is set at 60,000 PSI, 50,000 CUP. Most American rifle and ammunition manufacturers catalogue the.280 Remington. In Europe the.280 Remington is not popular in bolt action rifles since it competes directly with the 7×64mm, of the exact same size as the.280 Remington but has more power, because of having a higher maximum allowed chamber pressure. The.280 Remington does, have a larger than expected number of European users in imported self-loading rifles such as those by Remington. The.30-06 is more popular and manufacturers thus offer a much greater selection of loads at a lower price point. One of P. O. Ackley's earliest wildcats was the 7mm-06 Improved, made by necking down the.30-06 Springfield case and fire-forming it to have less body taper and a 40-degree shoulder angle. Soon after the.280 Remington came out, Fred Huntington reformed its case to an improved configuration with minimum body taper, a 35-degree shoulder angle, called it the.280 RCBS. Since cases for the.280 RCBS could be formed by firing.280 Remington ammo in a rifle chambered for the former, Ackley abandoned the 7mm-06 Improved and started chambering rifles for the.280 RCBS.
He changed the 35-degree shoulder to 40-degrees and the.280 Ackley Improved was born. If barrel length and chamber pressure are equal, the.280 Ackley Improved is about 100 fps faster with all bullet weights than the standard.280 Remington. In 2007, ammunition manufacturer Nosler registered the.280 Ackley Improved with SAAMI and began providing factory loaded ammunition and rifles for it. 7mm JRS cannot safely be fire formed from 280 Ackley, user must form false shoulder first. 7mm Weatherby Magnum 7mm-08 Remington 7×57mm Mauser7 mm caliber List of rifle cartridges Table of handgun and rifle cartridges Delta L problem Sectional density Ballistic coefficient 7mm-06.280 British
The Stone of Morphie is a standing stone about 700 metres west of the Coast Highway bridge of the River North Esk and 400 metres east of the historic Mill of Morphie in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Alternatively and the monument is sometimes known as the Stone of Morphy; the stone is 3.5 metres high and is unshaped and uninscripted. The RCAHMS record number for the Stone of Morphie is NO76SW 6 7169 6273. According to RCAHMS, the stone is "Traditionally said to mark the grave of a son of Camus, killed in a battle between the Scots and the Danes". Local tradition claims the site as an alternative burial site for a leader of a Viking army, decimated by the Scots army at the apocryphal Battle of Barry in 1010 AD; the date and mention of this battle rests with Boece. The name Morphie may be of Brittonic origin, derived from an element consanguineous to Welsh morfa, meaning "a sea-plain". Eassie Stone Lunan Water Red Castle
The World Chess Championship 2013 was a match between reigning world champion Viswanathan Anand and challenger Magnus Carlsen, to determine the 2013 World Chess Champion. It was held from 9 to 22 November 2013 in Chennai, under the auspices of FIDE. Carlsen won the match 6½–3½ after ten of the twelve scheduled games, becoming the new world chess champion; this was heralded by Garry Kasparov and others as the start of a new era in chess, with Carlsen being the first champion to have developed his game in the age of super-strong chess computers. The challenger was determined in the 2013 Candidates Tournament, a double round-robin tournament.. It took place in the Institution of Engineering and Technology, Savoy Place, from 15 March to 1 April 2013; the participants were: The tournament had a prize fund of €510,000. Prize money was shared between players tied on points; the prizes for each place were as follows: Before the tournament Carlsen was considered the favourite, with Kramnik and Aronian being deemed his biggest rivals.
Ivanchuk was considered an uncertain variable, due to his instability, the other players were considered less to win the event. During the first half of the tournament and Carlsen were considered the main contestants for first place. At the halfway point they were tied for one-and-a-half points ahead of Kramnik and Svidler. In the second half Kramnik, who had drawn his first seven games, became a serious contender after scoring four wins, while Aronian lost three games, was thus left behind in the race. Carlsen started the second half by staying ahead of the field, but a loss to Ivanchuk allowed Kramnik to take the lead in round 12 by defeating Aronian. In the penultimate round Carlsen pulled level with Kramnik by defeating Radjabov, while Kramnik drew against Gelfand. Before the last round only Carlsen and Kramnik could win the tournament. Carlsen had the better tie break, this would not change if they both scored the same in the final round. Therefore, who had black against Ivanchuk, needed to outperform Carlsen, who had white against Svidler.
Carlsen played to win, since that would guarantee him the tournament victory regardless of Kramnik's result. This backfired and Ivanchuk obtained an early advantage, while Carlsen got a level position against Svidler. Carlsen got into serious time trouble and did not defend adequately against Svidler's attack, which gave Svidler a winning endgame. Meanwhile, Ivanchuk had outplayed Kramnik, thus the tournament was won by Carlsen on the second tiebreak. Carlsen's win earned him the right to challenge the reigning world champion, Vishy Anand for the world title; the Championship match between Viswanathan Anand and Magnus Carlsen was held from 9 to 22 November 2013 in Chennai, under the auspices of FIDE. Prior to the match, from 2005 to 18 June 2013, Anand and Carlsen played 29 games against each other at classical time controls, out of which Anand won six, Carlsen won three, twenty were drawn; the prize fund was 2,650,000 Euros, of which 60 percent would go to the winner and 40 percent to the loser if the match ended within the 12 regular games.
If the match went to tie-breaks, the winner would have received the loser 45 percent. Both Anand and Carlsen had a team of seconds to aid in their match preparation. Anand's seconds for the match were Surya Ganguly and Radosław Wojtaszek, who had helped him in four previous World Championship matches. During the opening press conference, Anand revealed his new seconds to be Krishnan Sasikiran, Sandipan Chanda and Peter Leko. Carlsen at first declined to reveal his seconds, but after the match revealed that Jon Ludvig Hammer had been doing opening preparation from Norway. Ian Nepomniachtchi and Laurent Fressinet have been supposed as seconds. Over a year after the match Carlsen revealed that Pavel Eljanov had been among his seconds in the Chennai match; the match between Anand and Carlsen took place at the Hyatt Regency Chennai hotel in Chennai, from 9 to 22 November 2013, under the auspices of FIDE. Twelve classical games were scheduled, each starting at 3 pm local time. Rest days were to take place after games 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 11.
Had the match been tied after the 12th game on 26 November tie-break games would have been played on 28 November. As the match was decided before the 12th game, the remaining scheduled games were cancelled; the time control for the games gave each player 120 minutes for the first 40 moves, 60 minutes for moves 41–60 and 15 minutes for the rest of the game, with an increment of 30 seconds per move starting after move 61. Tie-break games were meant to have limited time controls. Carlsen won $1.53 million. The player named first plays the white pieces. Carlsen chose a quiet line, but his play was inaccurate, he accepted a draw after 16 moves in lieu of a threefold repetition. Reti Opening, King's Indian Attack 1. Nf3 d5 2. G3 g6 3. Bg2 Bg7 4. D4 c6 5. 0