Pope Heraclas of Alexandria

Pope Heraclas, 13th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. Pope Heraclas of Alexandria, was born to pagan parents who believed and were baptized after his birth, they taught him the Greek philosophy the Christian wisdom. He studied the four gospels and the epistles. St. Demetrius, 12th Pope of Alexandria, ordained him deacon a priest over the church of Alexandria, he was successful in the ministry and was faithful in all, entrusted to him. He followed Origen as head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria; when Pope Demetrius departed, St. Heraclas was chosen as Patriarch, he baptized them. He devoted his efforts to teaching and instructing, he assigned to St. Dionysius the work of judging between the believers, taking care of their affairs. Pope Heraclas sat on the throne of St. Mark for 16 years until his death, he has been identified as the first Patriarch of Alexandria to carry the appellation of "Pope". The first known record of this designation being assigned to Heraclas is in a letter written by the bishop of Rome, Dionysius, to Philemon: τοῦτον ἐγὼ τὸν κανόνα καὶ τὸν τύπον παρὰ τοῦ μακαρίου πάπα ἡμῶν Ἡρακλᾶ παρέλαβον.

GeneralSt. Heraclas, 13th Pope of Alexandria. Meinardus, Otto F. A.. Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity. American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-424-757-6. Atiya, Aziz S; the Coptic Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. 1991. ISBN 0-02-897025-X The Official website of the Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy See of Saint Mark the Apostle Coptic Documents in French


Forkhead box protein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXL2 gene. FOXL2 is a forkhead transcription factor; the protein contains a fork-head DNA-binding domain and plays a role in ovarian development and function. FoxL2 is a marker for ovarian differentiation, is required for granulosa cell differentiation. In addition, the foxl2 protein will prevent the formation of testes by suppressing expression of SOX9. In postnatal ovaries FOXL2 regulates granulosa cell differentiation and supports the growth of the pre-ovulatory follicles during adult life. FOXL2 has several post-translational modifications that modulate its stability, subcellular localization and pro-apoptotic activity. By a yeast-two-hybrid screening, 10 novel protein partners of FOXL2 are discovered; the interactions were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments between FOXL2 and CXXC4, CXXC5, CREM, GMEB1, NR2C1, SP100, RPLP1, BAF, XRCC6 and SIRT1. This protein is involved in sex determination. Female missing the FOXL2 gene appear male.

FOXL2 knockout in mature mouse ovaries appears to cause the ovary's somatic cells to transdifferentiate to the equivalent cell types ordinarily found in the testes. A variant on FOXL2 is the single most significant in producing thicker than average eyebrows. In Europeans, East Asians, South Asians, the derived allele is above ~90% frequency, in Africans, it is above ~75%. Native Americans, particularity Peruvians, have a high frequency of the homozygous ancestral allele, which decreases eyebrow thickness. All primates and archaic humans share the ancestral allele. Mutations in this gene are a cause of blepharophimosis syndrome and/or premature ovarian failure 3. Predicting the occurrence of POF based on the nature of the missense mutations in FOXL2 was a medical challenge. However, a correlation between the transcriptional activity of FOXL2 variants and the type of BPES has been founded. Moreover by studying the effects of natural and artificial mutations in the forkhead domain of FOXL2, a clear correlation between the orientation of amino-acid side chains in the DNA-binding domain and transcriptional activity is founded, providing the first predictive tool of the effects of FOXL2 missense mutations.

A missense mutation in the FOXL2 gene C134W is found in adult granulosa cell tumors, but not in other ovarian cancers nor in juvenile granulosa cell tumors. In addition to ovarian expression of FOXL2, there has been recent studies to suggest that overexpression of FOXL2 has been implicated in endometriosis in addition to activin A. One study has found that FOXL2 is required for SF-1-induced ovarian AMH regulation by interactions between FOXL2 protein and SF-1, a mutated FOXL2 could not interact with SF-1 and thus could not regulate ovarian AMH as normal. In a knockout study in mice, the granulosa cells of the ovaries failed to undergo the squamous-to-cuboidal transition which led to the arrest of folliculogenesis FOX proteins FOXL2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Blepharophimosis and Epicanthus Inversus

The Block (Australian TV series)

The Block is an Australian reality television series broadcast on the Nine Network. The series follows four or five couples as they compete against each other to renovate and style houses/apartments and sell them at auction for the highest price; the original series first ran for two consecutive seasons in 2003 and 2004, was hosted by Jamie Durie. The Nine Network revived The Block after a six-year absence, with a third season commenced airing on 22 September 2010, this time hosted by television personality and builder Scott Cam. Shelley Craft joined as co-host from the fourth season; the Block has a large number of commercial sponsors and prominently features brand sponsorships throughout episodes. The original format of the series featured four couples with a prior relationship renovating a derelict apartment block in the Sydney suburb of Bondi, with each couple renovating a separate apartment over a period of 12 weeks and with a budget of A$40,000; the apartments were sold at auction, with each couple keeping any profit made above a set reserve price and the couple with the highest profit winning a A$100,000 prize.

The current format is the same except the series features five couples, it is based in Melbourne suburbs and the budget is $100,000+. The first season was filmed at the second at Manly; the third season again took place in the suburb of Vaucluse. Moving to Victoria, the fourth season was filmed in the Melbourne suburb of Richmond, Victoria on Cameron Street. Breaking with tradition, season four was filmed in four side-by-side houses as opposed to an apartment block of four. Season four saw television personality Shelley Craft join Scott Cam in hosting the show. Season five began airing in April 2012; as with season four, season five has retained the four separate houses format, as opposed to four apartments in a single apartment block as in earlier seasons. Season five is again set in Melbourne, on Dorcas Street, is set in four adjacent multi-storey town houses. Season six returned in Bondi, for the tenth anniversary; the program has remained in Melbourne since season seven. The first three seasons of The Block aired once weekly for 26 and 9 weeks respectively.

Since season four, the program has aired across multiple nights per week. ^ 1 The combined auction profit excludes the winning prize money. ^ 2 Brad & Dale were both contestants on Season 5. In Season 8, they returned to the show as a team. ^3 This amount of money is split between the two contestants in the team. The first season of The Block began airing on 1 June 2003 on the Nine Network, replacing Backyard Blitz and Location Location in the network's flagship time slot of Sunday at 6:30 to 7:30 pm; the season was presented by Backyard Blitz host Jamie Durie and filmed in Bondi, New South Wales, with the majority of filming being completed prior to the series airing for editing purposes. Selected from 2,000 applicants, the four couples in the season were: Adam Thorn and Fiona Mills, a married couple from Banksia. A data analyst and former sales representative, the couple had renovated three properties prior to competing on The Block, they renovated the first ground floor apartment and were considered the "show favourites" throughout the course of the season.

Their apartment—which was the last to be auctioned—sold for $751,000 earning them the highest profit of $156,000 as well as the winning prize of $100,000. Mills appeared on the cover of Ralph while the season was airing in July 2003. Warren Sonin and Gavin Atkins, a sales manager and public relations manager from Elizabeth Bay, New South Wales, they are the first male same-sex couple. Paul and Kylie Ingram Phil Rankine and Amity DryThe auction profits had a combined result of $443,000. Following the success of the first season, an expanded second season of 26 episodes, airing twice weekly, premiered on 18 April 2004; the season was again set in Sydney, although in the suburb of Manly rather than Bondi where the first season was located. The auction profits had a combined result of $155,000 with two properties not selling at auction. Selected from over 18,000 applicants, the four couples in the season were: Two original contestants and Monique Bacha, left the program in January 2004, two weeks into the second season, when it was reported that Dani had spent six months in jail in 2002 following his conviction for a drug-related offence.

Andrew Rochford and Jamie Nicholson replaced Monique Bacha. After a long break, the series was revived in 2010 with a set of four apartments in the upmarket suburb of Vaucluse in Sydney being renovated and Scott Cam replacing Jamie Durie as host; the auction profits had a combined result of $339,500 with only one property not selling at auction. Season four saw six major changes to the format of The Block; the location has changed to Melbourne instead of Sydney. An initial elimination week sees eight couples reduced to four. Instead of a block of flats with four apartments, there are four separate houses next to one another. Contestants now have to renovate the exterior of their home, in addition to the interior. Instead of two one-hour-long episodes airing per week, six episodes now air per week with a mix of one-hour- and half-hour-length episodes. Shelley Craft has been introduced to help host special challenges where contestants can win extra cash and prizes for their houses. A weekly episode named.

Hosted by Shelley Craft, the episode shares a personal insight into The Block transformations as the couples guide viewers through their completed rooms. It includes behind the scenes footage