Pope Hilarius was Pope from 19 November 461 to his death on 29 February 468. In 449, Hilarius served as a legate for Pope Leo I at the Second Council of Ephesus, his opposition to the condemnation of Flavian of Constantinople incurred the enmity of Dioscurus of Alexandria, who attempted to prevent him from leaving the city. Hilarius returned to Rome by an indirect route, he erected an oratory at the Lateran in honor of John the Evangelist, to whom he attributed his safe passage. Much of his pontificate was spent in maintaining ecclesiastical discipline in conformity with canon law, in settling jurisdictional disputes among the bishops of both Gaul and Spain. Hilarius was born in Sardinia; as archdeacon under Pope Leo I, he fought vigorously for the rights of the Roman See. In 449, he and Julius, Bishop of Puteoli, served as legates to the Second Council of Ephesus. Leo had sent a letter with the legates to be read at the council. However, the head notary declared that the emperor's letter should be read first and as the Council proceeded, Leo's letter ended up not being read at all.
Hilarius vigorously opposed the condemnation of Flavian of Constantinople, pronouncing the single word in Latin, "Contradicitur", annulling the sentence in Leo's name. For this he incurred the displeasure of Dioscurus of Alexandria. Flavian died shortly afterwards, on August 11, 449, from injuries incurred from a physical assault by the followers of Dioscurus. According to a letter to the Empress Pulcheria collected among the letters of Leo I, Hilarius apologized for not delivering to her the pope's letter after the synod, but owing to Dioscurus of Alexandria, who tried to hinder his going either to Rome or to Constantinople, he had great difficulty in making his escape in order to bring to the pontiff the news of the result of the council. Flavian and Eusebius of Dorylaeum appealed to the pope, their letters were taken by Hilarus to Rome; as Pope, he built two oratories in the baptistery of the Lateran, one in honor of John the Baptist, the other of John the Apostle, to whom he attributed his safe escape from the Council of Ephesus, thus satisfying the question as to which saints the Lateran had been dedicated.
As pope, he continued the policy of his predecessor Leo who, in his contest with Hilary of Arles, had obtained from Valentinian III a famous rescript of 445 confirming the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome. Hilarius continued to strengthen ecclesiastical government in Spain. Hermes, a former archdeacon of Narbonne, had illegally acquired the bishopric of that town. Two Gallican prelates were dispatched to Rome to lay before the pope this and other matters concerning the Church in Gaul. A Roman synod held on 19 November, 462, passed judgment upon these matters. Hilarius sent an Encyclical advising the provincial bishops of Vienne, Lyons and the Alps that Hermes was to remain Titular Bishop of Narbonne, but his episcopal faculties were withheld. Other decisions expressed in an encyclical were in the interests of increased discipline. A synod was to be convened yearly by the Bishop of Arles, but all important matters were to be submitted to the Apostolic See. No bishop could leave his diocese without a written permission from his metropolitan, with a right of appeal to the Bishop of Arles.
Respecting the parishes claimed by Leontius, Bishop of Arles, as belonging to his jurisdiction, the Gallican bishops could decide, after an investigation. Church property could not be alienated. Shortly after this, the pope found. In 463, Mamertus of Vienne had consecrated a Bishop of Die, although this Church, by a decree of Leo I, belonged to the metropolitan Diocese of Arles; when Hilarius heard of it, he deputed Leontius of Arles to summon a great synod of the bishops of several provinces to investigate the matter. The synod took place and, on the strength of the report given him by Bishop Antonius, he issued an edict dated 25 February 464 in which Bishop Veranus was commissioned to warn Mamertus that, if in the future he did not refrain from irregular ordinations, his faculties would be withdrawn; the consecration of the Bishop of Die would be sanctioned by Leontius of Arles. Thus the primatial privileges of the See of Arles were upheld as Leo. At the same time, the bishops were admonished not to overstep their boundaries and to assemble in a yearly synod presided over by the Bishop of Arles.
The metropolitan rights of the See of Embrun over the dioceses of the Maritime Alps were protected against the encroachments of a certain Bishop Auxanius in connection with the two Churches of Nice and Cimiez. Hilarius gave decisions to the churches of Hispania, which tended to operate outside the papal orbit in the 5th century. Silvanus, Bishop of Calahorra, had violated the church laws by his episcopal ordinations, the pope was asked for his decision. Before an answer came to their petition, the same bishops had recourse to the Holy See for an different matter. Before his death, Bishop of Barcelona, expressed a wish that Irenaeus might be chosen his successor, he himself had made Irenaeus bishop of another See; the request was granted and the Synod of Tarragona confirmed the nomination of Irenaeus, after which the bishops sought the pope's approval. The Roman synod of 19 November 465, held in the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, which decided that Irenaeus, the nominated bishop, should quit the see of Barcelona and return to his former one, while the Spanish bishops were directed to condone the acts of Silvanus.
This is the oldest Roman synod. In Rome, Hilarius worked
Odisha Ikat is a kind of ikat, a resist dyeing technique, originating from Indian state of Odisha. Known as "Bandha of Odisha", it is a geographically tagged product of Odisha since 2007, it is made through a process of tie-dying the warp and weft threads to create the design on the loom prior to weaving. It is unlike any other ikat woven in the rest of the country because of its design process, called "poetry on the loom"; this design is in vogue only at the eastern regions of Odisha. The fabric gives a striking curvilinear appearance. Saris made out of this fabric feature bands of brocade in the borders and at the ends, called anchal or pallu, its forms are purposefully feathered, giving the edges a "fragile" appearance. Ikat's equivalent usage in Malay language is mengikat, which means "to tie or to bind"; this silk has been registered for protection under the Geographical indication of the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights agreement. In 2007, it was listed as "Odisha Ikat" under the GI Act 1999 of the Government of India, with registration confirmed by the Controller General of Patents Designs and Trademarks under Classes 23, 24 and 25 as Yarn and Threads Tied and Dyed for Textile use and Textile Goods, Clothing vide application number 22.
The villages where this art is practiced are Mankedia in Mayurbhanj district. In the Western Odisha, it is woven in Barpali, Jhiliminda, Singhapali, Patabhadi, Tarabha, Subalaya, Kendupali and Kamalapur of Bargarh district and Sonepur district. In the Cuttack district it is made in the villages of Badamba, Maniabadha, Tigiria; the history of this silk art is linked to the Lord Jagannath cult practice, a tradition in Odisha. Every colour used in the fabric reflects a symbolic concept of the Jagannath cult: the four primary colours used in keeping with this tradition are white, black and red, with green added at a date; these colours are said to denote the past and future, to the Vedas and the Gods. It is inferred that the Ikat silk art came into existence by copying the temple architecture which existed much earlier; the pattern on the silk fabric evolves through a process of dyeing the warp and weft threads prior to the weaving process. This differs from other methods in which yarns of various colours are woven, or in which patterns are printed on the fabric.
To create the coloured design, other cloth is affixed to the yarns at specific locations on the loom. The dye is absorbed by the cloth which, when it is removed from the loom, leaves the yarn dyed at the places where it touched the yarn. A single dyeing will leave the yarn spotty in colour. More detailed designs are produced through an eight-stage process of tying and dyeing the yarn, which requires a high degree of skill and time, it is the practice to tie the weft threads and the warp threads to transfer colour to the untied part. More colours are added by repeating the process of tying and dyeing on coloured parts. Another notable feature in this Ikat is that it depicts the same colourful design motif on both its front and back sides. No additional yarn is required to produce this effect; the designs evolve during the tying and dyeing process according to the imagination of the craftsman, who does not follow any predesigned pattern but creates the design as he works. The designs developed on the Ikat are of birds, various animals, rudraksh beads, geometric designs, temple towers, pinnacles.
The silk fabric made at Nuapatna in the Cuttack district is woven with Ikat yarn as hymns from the Gitagovinda, this fabric adorns the idols at the Jagannath Temple daily. The Ikat produced by Bhullas from Western Odisha is considered superior in both the use of the fabric and pattern compared to the product from Eastern Odisha; the process of making a sari of Ikat by hand takes about seven months and involves two craftsmen, as the production goes through 14 stages of creation. In addition to saris, Odisha Ikat is used to produce bolts of fabric, bed linens and dupatta scarves. Bibliography Ghosh, G. K.. Ikat Textiles of India. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-167-0
In establishing Landsbanki, the Icelandic parliament hoped to boost monetary transactions and encourage the country's nascent industries. Following its opening on 1 July 1886, the bank's first decades of operation were restricted by its limited financial capacity. Following the turn of the 20th century, Icelandic society progressed and prospered as industrialisation made inroads, the bank grew and developed in parallel to the nation. In the 1920s Landsbanki became Iceland's largest bank, was made responsible for issuing its bank notes. After the issuing of bank notes was transferred to the newly established Central Bank of Iceland in 1961, Landsbanki continued to develop as a commercial bank, expanding its branch network in the ensuing decades. Liberalisation of financial services, beginning in 1986, opened up new opportunities, which the bank managed to take advantage of despite some economic adversity. In 1997, Landsbanki was incorporated as a limited-liability company, the ensuing privatisation concluded in 2003.
Landsbanki now operates as a owned bank, competing in a free market, with substantial international activities added to its traditional Icelandic operations. Created by an Act of the Icelandic parliament, Landsbanki Íslands commenced operation on 1 July 1886, when it opened on the street known as Baker's Hill called Bank Street in the centre of Reykjavík; the bank's establishment was intended to boost monetary transactions and the country's nascent industries. For most of the 19th century Iceland had financial services. Money could be sent to Denmark for e.g. by purchasing state savings bonds. Loans could only be obtained, if at all, from well-off individuals, while merchants could only be convinced to loan goods on credit; the heard complaint of a "money shortage" referred both to the lack of credit and a lack of currency to pay what could not be paid for in produce, such as stockfish, wool or butter. The establishment of savings societies alleviated the situation only as did loans made by the national treasury from its reserves.
But the country sorely needed a real bank, no Danish banks were tempted to open a branch in Iceland. Danish experts advised instead that an Icelandic bank be established, the re-established Icelandic parliament was quick to grasp the opportunity; the Act establishing Landsbanki Íslands entrusted the National Treasury to issue banknotes, which served as the bank's funding. Although this was the era of banknotes backed by gold, Icelandic treasury notes had no such backing and could not be redeemed, they could, however, be used to pay other levies. Limiting note issuance kept the currency on par with gold-backed Danish notes, managed to improve the country's shortage of cash. Lárus E. Sveinbjörnsson, a high court judge, worked part-time as the first managing director of the bank, as did its comptroller and cashier; the first spring after it opened, the Bank was augmented by the acquisition of the assets and goodwill of the Reykjavík Savings Bank, the largest in the country. By far the greatest share of the bank's operating capital was invested in long-term mortgages.
The bank was a profit-making venture. Soon it had managed to collect a sizeable reserve. Residents living outside of Reykjavík soon complained that there were no signs of the local branches promised in the parliamentary statute; the capital's own citizens were far from satisfied with having the bank open only for several hours, two days a week and in 1889 daily opening hours were introduced. Two years the wages of the bank's employees were raised to reflect their longer working hours, making them Iceland's first banking professionals. In 1893 Lárus Sveinbjörnsson returned to the High Court and a full-time managing director, Tryggvi Gunnarsson, was appointed. Tryggvi Gunnarsson put his many years of political and business experience to good use in expanding Landsbanki's operations, he developed contacts with foreign banks, so that the bank was able to offer inexpensive international money transfers, While the majority of lending was still real estate mortgages, some credit was provided for expansion in fisheries, where larger, decked fishing vessels were appearing.
Just prior to the dawn of the new century, the stately Landsbanki headquarters opened on the corner of Austurstræti and Pósthússtræti, where the Bank has remained to this day. The imposing Neo-Renaissance style of the structure made it "quite the equal of such premises in the world’s great cities". Landsbanki's operations grew – not least following the establishment of a mortgage department, which could grant credit secured by real estate other than farm property. Funding for these loans was obtained by issuing the bank's first bond series, sold both in Iceland and Denmark; this enabled Landsbanki to increase lending to industry, making its operations more like a real bank rather than a savings and loan society. A few years into the new century, the parent bank in Reykjavík was well enough established to expand, opening an Akureyri branch in North Iceland in 1902 and another in Ísafjörður, in the West Fjords, in 1904. During its six years of growth in the new century, its balance sheet increased sixfold.
Despite the advent of a new competitor: a owned bank, Íslandsbanki o