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Pope Innocent VIII

Pope Innocent VIII, born Giovanni Battista Cybo, was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Born into a prominent Genovese family, he entered the church and was made bishop in 1467, before being elevated to the rank of cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, he was elected Pope in 1484, after a stormy conclave. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court, he became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V, Bishop of Savona under Pope Paul II, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, a cardinal. After intense politicking by Della Rovere, Cibo was elected pope in 1484. King Ferrante of Naples had supported Rodrigo Borgia; the following year, Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt. In March 1489, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope not to set him free. Any time the Sultan threatened war against the Christian Balkans, Innocent threatened to release this brother, who died in a military expedition, fighting for King Charles VIII of France against Naples.

Giovanni Battista Cybo was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry, the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo and his wife Teodorina de Mari, of an old Genoese family. Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III. Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. After the death of King Alfonso, friction between Giovanni Battista and the Archbishop of Genoa decided him to resign his Canonry, to go to Padua and to Rome for his education. In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V. In 1467, he was made Bishop of Savona by Pope Paul II, but exchanged this see in 1472 for that of Molfetta in south-eastern Italy. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII; the papal conclave of 1484 was rife with factions.

In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. Cardinal della Rovere met with Borgia, who disliked Barbo and wished to block his election, with an offer to turn their votes over to Cibò, promising them benefits for doing so. Shortly after his coronation Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the Turks. A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle.

Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. Innocent excommunicated him in 1489 and invited King Charles VIII of France to come to Italy with an army and take possession of the Kingdom of Naples, a disastrous political event for the Italian peninsula as a whole; the immediate conflict was not ended after Innocent VIII's death. Bayezid II ruled as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512, his rule was contested by his brother Cem. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between Christendom. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. Cem was sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. Sultan Bayezid requested Cem to be kept there. In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII.

Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. In exchange for maintaining the custody of Cem, Bayezid paid Innocent VIII 120,000 crowns, a relic of the Holy Lance and an annual fee of 45,000 ducats. Cem died in Capua on 25 February 1495 on a military expedition under the command of King Charles VIII of France to conquer Naples. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes, which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches: "It has come to our ears, not without great pain to us, that in some parts of upper Germany, Mainz, Köln, Trier and Bremen, many persons of both sexes, heedless of their own salvation and forsaking the catholic faith, give themselves over to devils male and female, by their incantations and conjurings, by other abominable superstitions and sortileges, offences and misdeeds, ruin and cause to perish the offspring of women, the foal of animals, the products of the earth, the grapes of vines, the fruits of trees, as well as

Tzu-Wei Lin

Tzu-Wei Lin, is a Taiwanese baseball infielder for the Boston Red Sox of Major League Baseball. He made his MLB debut in 2017. Nicknamed Tzunami in Taiwan, Lin has been touted as the next "Linsanity" after Jeremy Lin. Listed at 5 feet 9 inches and 155 pounds, Lin bats throws right-handed. Scouts view Lin as a capable fielder with an average throwing arm, he is seen as good hitter who could bat.300, though not with much power. He is known as a patient hitter, foul-tipping pitches to extend his at bats. Lin led Taiwan's team to victory in the Junior League World Series in 2010, he played in which Taiwan won the championship. He led all players in the tournament in batting average, on-base percentage, slugging percentage. For his efforts, Lin was named the tournament's Most Valuable Player, best hitter, to the All-Tournament Team as a third baseman. In the 2011 Asian Youth Baseball Championship, Lin was named best outfielder of the tournament as he played in left field, he had a catchy nickname, "The Tzunami", because he would destroy opponents like a tsunami does to objects.

Lin played for the Chinese Taipei national baseball team in the 2019 Asian Baseball Championship, appearing at second base and left field, as the team won its first title in 18 years. Lin agreed to sign a contract with the New York Yankees in 2010, when he was 16 years old, for a signing bonus of $350,000. Though Lin was eligible to sign at the time, the Chinese Taipei Baseball Association threatened to ban Lin from playing or coaching in Taiwan if he signed before completing high school, leading Lin not to complete the deal. In 2012, Lin agreed to sign a contract with the Boston Red Sox, the Yankees' rivals, receiving a $2.05 million signing bonus, the largest bonus for a Taiwanese position player, the second largest bonus for a Taiwanese player behind Chin-hui Tsao, the third largest bonus for an Asian amateur after Tsao and Byung-hyun Kim. Lin spent the 2012 season with the rookie-level Gulf Coast League Red Sox, batting.255 with no home runs and 16 RBIs in 29 games. With the Class A Short-Season Lowell Spinners in 2013, he batted.226 with one home run and 20 RBIs in 60 games.

Lin played for the Class A Greenville Drive in 2014, batting.229 with one home run and 42 RBIs in 102 games. During 2015, Lin split time between the Class A-Advanced Salem Red Sox and the Double-A Portland Sea Dogs, playing in a total of 119 games while batting.251 with two home runs and 48 RBIs. He spent the 2016 season with Double-A Portland, batting.223 with two home runs and 27 RBIs in 108 games. Early in the 2017 season, Lin appeared in 48 games with Double-A Portland, batting.302 with five home runs and 19 RBIs in 48 games. The Red Sox promoted Lin to the major leagues on June 24, 2017, directly calling him up from Double-A, he made his MLB debut that day, as a pinch runner. He recorded his first major league hit during his first major league at bat on June 26, in a 4–1 victory against the Minnesota Twins. After wearing uniform number 73 for Boston, he switched to number 5 on July 14. On July 20, Lin was optioned to the Triple-A Pawtucket Red Sox after Brock Holt returned from injury. During his time in Pawtucket, Lin appeared in 35 games, batting.227 with two home runs and nine RBIs.

He was recalled to Boston in September. Overall with the 2017 Red Sox, Lin appeared in 25 MLB games, batting 15-for-56 with no home runs and two RBIs. Lin was not included on Boston's postseason roster for the 2017 American League Division Series. Lin started the 2018 season with Triple-A Pawtucket, he was called up to Boston on April 10, made 14 appearances while batting 6-for-32, was optioned back to Pawtucket on May 8. After being sent back to Pawtucket, he had a 16-game hitting streak and raised his Triple-A average to.299 for the season. Lin was recalled to Boston on June 23, sent back to Pawtucket on June 29, he was recalled again on July 12, appeared in three games, was optioned back to Triple-A on July 24. He was recalled by the Red Sox on July 29, made one defensive appearance, was returned to Pawtucket on July 31. Lin was called up to Boston on September 1, he hit his first major league home run on September 21, against right-handed reliever Dan Otero of the Cleveland Indians, he became the third Taiwanese player homered in MLB history.

Overall with the 2018 Red Sox, Lin appeared in 37 games, batting 16-for-65 with one home run and six RBIs. Lin was not included on Boston's postseason roster, as the team went on to win the World Series over the Los Angeles Dodgers. In 2019, Lin was optioned to Triple-A Pawtucket prior to Opening Day, he was called up on April 6, when Brock Holt went on the injured list, optioned back to Pawtucket on April 9, when Dustin Pedroia was activated. Lin was recalled to Boston on April 19 along with Michael Chavis, as both Pedroia and Eduardo Núñez were placed on the injured list. With the 2019 Red Sox only carrying two catchers, manager Alex Cora stated that Lin would be the team's emergency catcher. On May 1, against Oakland Athletics, Lin recorded his 35th MLB hit, passing Chin-lung Hu for most MLB career hits by a Taiwanese player. On May 3, Lin was removed from a game against the Chicago White Sox after spraining his left knee while sliding into second base. On June 17, his rehabilitation assignment with Pawt

Oscar Whitbread

Oscar Ralph Whitbread was an English-Australian producer who worked extensively in television. He moved to Australia in the late 1940s. Whitbread was married to Corinne Kerby, he died on 16 May 2016 after a long illness. Ice Circus Beauty and the Beast On Approval – producer Corruption in the Palace of Justice – producer The Winds of Green Monday – producer, director Otherwise Engaged – producer Duet on Wednesday – producer Photo Finish – producer Plain Jane – producer Slow Poison – producer Love and War – producer The Shifting Heart – producer Delta – director Dynasty – director Bellbird – producer A Family at War – director The Man Who Shot the Albatross Frank and Francesca Marion – producer, director And the Big Men Fly – producer Rush – producer, director The Professional Touch Trial of Ned Kelly Power Without Glory – producer Catspaw The Truckies Burn the Butterflies A Wild Ass of a Man Lucinda Brayford I Can Jump Puddles Locusts and Wild Honey (TV series( All the Green Year Outbreak of Love – producer, director The Young Wife – producer, director Golden Pennies – produce, director The Flying Doctors – producer The Flying Doctors – producer, director Studio 86 – producer, director Acropolis Now – producer The Power, The Passion – producer Ratbag Hero – producer, director Cluedo – producer, director Bush Patrol – producer The Balanced Particle Freeway – producer Oscar Whitbread on IMDb Oscar Whitbread at AustLit