click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pope Innocent XI

Pope Innocent XI, born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope from 21 September 1676 to his death on August 12, 1689. He is known in Budapest as the "Saviour of Hungary". Much of his reign was concerned with tension with Louis XIV of France. A conservative, he lowered taxes in the Papal States during his pontificate and he produced a surplus in the papal budget; because of this surplus he repudiated excessive nepotism within the Church. Innocent XI was frugal in matters of governing the Papal States, from dress to leading a life with Christian values. Once he was elected to the Papacy, he applied himself to moral and administrative reform of the Roman Curia, he abolished sinecures and pushed for greater simplicity in preaching as well as greater reverence in worship—requesting this of both the clergy and faithful. After a difficult cause for canonization, starting in 1791, which caused considerable controversy over the years and, stopped on several occasions, he was beatified with no opposition in 1956 by Pope Pius XII.

Benedetto Odescalchi was born in Como on 16 May 1611, the son of a Como nobleman, Livio Odescalchi, Paola Castelli Giovanelli from Gandino. His siblings were Carlo, Giulio Maria, Constantino and Paolo, he had several collateral descendants of note through his sister: her grandson Cardinal Baldassare Erba-Odescalchi, Cardinal Benedetto Erba Odescalchi, Cardinal Carlo Odescalchi. The Odescalchi, a family of minor nobility, were determined entrepreneurs. In 1619, Benedetto's brother founded a bank with his three uncles in Genoa which grew into a successful money-lending business. After completing his studies in grammar and letters, the 15-year-old Benedetto moved to Genoa to take part in the family business as an apprentice. Lucrative economic transactions were established with clients in the major Italian and European cities, such as Nuremberg, Kraków, Rome. In 1626 Benedetto's father died, he began schooling in the humane sciences taught by the Jesuits at his local college, before transferring to Genoa.

In 1630 he narrowly survived an outbreak of plague. Some time between 1632 and 1636, Benedetto decided to move to Rome and Naples in order to study civil law; this led to his securing the offices of protonotary apostolic, president of the apostolic chamber, commissary of the Marco di Roma, governor of Macerata. He subsequently became legate to Ferrara; when he was sent to Ferrara in order to assist the people stricken with a severe famine, the Pope introduced him to the people of Ferrara as the "father of the poor." In 1650, Odescalchi became bishop of Novara, in which capacity he spent all the revenues of his see to relieve the poor and sick in his diocese. He participated in the 1655 conclave. With the permission of the pope he resigned as bishop of Novara in favor of his brother Giulio in 1656 and went to Rome. While there he took a prominent part in the consultations of the various congregations of which he was a member, he participated in the 1669-70 conclave. Odescalchi was a strong papal candidate after the death of Pope Clement IX in 1669, but the French government rejected him.

After Pope Clement X died, Louis XIV of France again intended to use his royal influence against Odescalchi's election. Instead, believing that the cardinals as well as the Roman people were of one mind in their desire to have Odescalchi as their Pope, Louis reluctantly instructed the French party cardinals to acquiesce in his candidacy. On 21 September 1676, Odescalchi was chosen to be Clement X's successor and took the name of Innocent XI, he chose this name in honour of Pope Innocent X, who made him a cardinal in 1645. He was formally crowned as pontiff on 4 October 1676 by the protodeacon, Cardinal Francesco Maidalchini. Upon his accession, Innocent XI turned all his efforts towards reducing the expenses of the Curia, he passed strict ordinances against nepotism among the cardinals. He lived parsimoniously and exhorted the cardinals to do the same. In this manner he not only squared the annual deficit which at his accession had reached the sum of 170,000 scudi, but within a few years the papal income was in excess of the expenditures.

He lost no time in declaring and manifesting his zeal as a reformer of manners and a corrector of administrative abuses. Beginning with the clergy, he sought to raise the laity to a higher moral standard of living, he closed all of the theaters in Rome and famously brought a temporary halt to the flourishing traditions of Roman opera. In 1679 he publicly condemned sixty-five propositions, taken chiefly from the writings of Escobar and other casuists as propositiones laxorum moralistarum and forbade anyone to teach them under penalty of excommunication, he condemned in particular the most radical form of mental reservation which authorised deception without an outright lie. Not unfriendly to Miguel de Molinos, Innocent XI yielded to the enormous pressure brought to bear upon him to confirm in 1687 the judgement of the inquisitors by which sixty-eight quietist propositions of Molinos were condemned as blasphemous and heretical. Innocent XI showed a degree of sensitivity in his dealings with the Jews within the Italian States.

He compelled the city of Venice to release the Jewish prisoners taken by Francesco Morosini in 1685. He discouraged compulsory baptisms which accordingly became less frequent unde

Bolivian literature

The constant political turmoil that Bolivia has experienced throughout its history has slowed the development of Bolivian literature. Many talents were silenced by the internal conflict. In recent years the literature of Bolivia has been in a process of growth, with the appearance of new writers. Older writers such as Adela Zamudio, Oscar Alfaro, Franz Tamayo continue to be important. Nearly half of Bolivia's population speaks indigenous languages such as Aymara or Guarani; the indigenous peoples of Bolivia have a rich oral tradition, as expressed in myths and stories. Notable Bolivian writers include: Elizabeth Monasterios: "Chapter 42 La Paz- Chukiyawu Marka" in: Literary Cultures of Latin America. A comparative History, ed. by Mario J. Valdés and Djelal Kadir, Volume II: Institutional Modes and Cultural Modalities, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 474–497 Media related to Literature of Bolivia at Wikimedia Commons

The Third Bardo

The Third Bardo was an American psychedelic and garage rock band from New York City, New York. Their name is a reference to the book The Tibetan Book of the Dead; the group existed for a brief time in the late 1960s. In 1967 they released their only single, "I'm Five Years Ahead of My Time", a song co-written by Rusty Evans, a former folk singer and leader of the psychedelic proto-punk band The Deep, Vicky Pike, the wife of the record's arranger and producer Teddy Randazzo. "Five Years Ahead of My Time" received some radio exposure until it was pulled for its perceived drug references, only years was recognized as a 1960s garage rock classic due to its inclusion in compilations such as the critically acclaimed Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965-1968 box set. Though short-lived, the band still performed in local Manhattan venues during their existence, including Arthur's Tavern and Ondine, they appeared on the Cleveland-based television show Upbeat. The Third Bardo only had one recording session, which yielded six tracks in all including "Rainbow Life", released as the b-side to "I'm Five Years Ahead of My Time".

Their technique of Eastern melody and distorted guitar made the single distinctive to the rock scene. The band broke up in 1967, soon after recording, Jeff Monn began a solo career as Chris Moon, he released an album named The Chris Moon Group in 1970. "I'm Five Years Ahead of My Time" b/w "Rainbow Life" 1967 Lose Your Mind 1993 The Third Bardo 2000 "I'm Five Years Ahead of My Time" "Rainbow Life" "Lose Your Mind" "I Can Understand Your Problem" "Dawn of Tomorrow" Unterberger, Richie: The Third Bardo at AllMusic

St. Charles Convention Center

The St. Charles Convention Center is a convention center in St. Charles, Missouri, it is managed by Spectra. The facility has a 16,200 sq ft. Grand Ballroom, 27,600 sq ft. of Exhibit Hall space expandable to 35,700 sq ft. through the adjacent Junior Ballroom. The facility features additional meeting rooms, Executive Board Room, the Compass Café. Other major partners include Coca-Cola, MillerCoors, Yellow Pages, New Frontier Bank, Women's Journals, Goellner Printing; the St. Charles Convention Center hosts a variety of events throughout the year, from large consumer shows to dance competitions, conventions to small corporate meetings. Notable annual events include: St. Louis Best Bridal St. Louis Golf Show St. Charles Boat Show Working Women's Survival Show St. Charles Home & Garden Show St. Charles County Annual Mayors Ball St. Louis Weapon Collectors Gun & Knife Show St. Louis Comicon St. Louis Pet Expo Anime St. Louis St. Charles Convention Center Official website

Gord Brydson

David James Gordon Brydson was a Canadian professional ice hockey centre and golf professional. Brydson played professional ice hockey from 1926 through 1933, including eight games in the National Hockey League for the Toronto Maple Leafs. Brydson made his professional debut in 1926 for Eddie Livingstone's Chicago Cardinals, he scored the first goal of the franchise in its home opener. Like several of the AHA teams, the Cardinals folded without finishing the season; the NHL did not recognize the signing of Brydson by Chicago and awarded his pro-rights to Stratford of the Can-Pro League. Stratford moved him to the Hamilton Tigers; the following season he played for the Buffalo Bisons of the Can-Pro. The following season, 1929–30, Brydson made his NHL debut, playing in 14 games for the Maple Leafs, he was sent to the London Panthers for the rest of the season. He moved to the Chicago Shamrocks for two seasons and retired after the 1932–33 season which he played with the Detroit Olympics. After ending his hockey career, Brydson became an accomplished professional golfer, winning the Canadian PGA Championship in 1944 and 1948.

He was associated with the Mississauga Golf and Country Club of Toronto Township, Ontario. Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database Profile at Canadian Golf Hall of Fame Gord Brydson at Find a Grave

Vice President of Costa Rica

The 1949 Constitution of Costa Rica established two Vice-Presidencies of Costa Rica, which are directly elected through a popular vote on a ticket with the president for a period of four years, with no immediate re-election. There has been various incarnations of the office. Vice presidents replace the president in cases of permanent absence. Throughout the history of independent Costa Rica, there have been different systems to cover the temporary or permanent absence of a president. Several different names have been used for this position: From 1821 to 1824, the Governing Committee selected a vice-president. From 1824 to 1841 there was a Vice-Head-of-State, popularly elected. From 1841 to 1842 there was a Second-Head-of-State, elected for life by popular vote. From 1842 to 1844 there was a Vice-Head-of-State selected by the Constitutional Assembly. From 1846 to 1847 there was a popularly elected Vice-Head-of-State. From 1847 to 1848 there was a Vice-President of the State, elected by popular vote.

From 1848 to 1859 there was a Vice-President of the Republic, selected through popular election. From 1859 to 1949 there was a system of Designates to the Presidency selected by the Legislature. Since 1949 there have been two popularly elected vice presidents; the following tables contain a list of the officials elected to the vice-presidential position since 1821. Between 1821 and 1824 Costa Rica was governed through a system of Governing Committees who chose from among their members a president and a vice-president. Between 1824 and 1841, in accordance with the Basic Law of 21 January 1825 and 1844, a Vice-Head-of-State was elected by the people. In line with the Decree of Rules and Guarantees of 1841, a popularly elected Second-Head-of-State was created to replace the Head of State in case of temporary or permanent absence. From 1842 to 1844 and from 1846 to 1847 the country returned to the system of Vice-Heads-of-State. From 1847 to 1848 Costa Rica had a Vice-President of State, popularly elected.

From 1848 to 1849 the popularly elected Costa Rican Vice-President of the Republic presided over the Legislature. In the Costa Rican constitutions of 1859, 1869 and 1871, the role of popularly elected vice-president was replaced by two Designates to the Presidency, elected annually by the Legislature. In 1881 President Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez replaced the system of two Designates to the Presidency with one of seven Designates; this situation lasted until the constitutional government assumed power in 1882 In 1882, with the restoration of the 1871 Constitution, Costa Rica returned to the system of Designates to the Presidency, but with three designates, elected by the Legislature for same four-year period as the President of the Republic. In accordance with the Costa Rican constitution of 7 November 1949 there are two vice presidents, popularly elected at the same time as the president. List of current vice presidents