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Pope Innocent XIII

Pope Innocent XIII, born as Michelangelo dei Conti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 May 1721 to his death in 1724. He is the last pope to date to take the pontifical name of "Innocent" upon his election. Pope Innocent XIII was reform-oriented, he imposed new standards of frugality, abolishing excessive spending, he took steps to end the practice of nepotism by issuing a decree which forbade his successors from granting land, offices or income to any relatives - something opposed by many cardinals who hoped that they might become pope and benefit their families. Michelangelo dei Conti was born on 13 May 1655 in Poli, near Rome as the son of Carlo II, Duke of Poli, Isabella d'Monti. Like Pope Innocent III, Pope Gregory IX and Pope Alexander IV, he was a member of the land-owning family of the Conti, who held the titles of counts and dukes of Segni, he included the family crest in his pontifical coats of arms. Conti commenced his studies in Ancona and with the Jesuits in Rome at the Collegio Romano and later at La Sapienza University.

After he received his doctorate in canon law and civil law, he was ordained to the priesthood. Conti served as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura in 1691 to be appointed as the Governor of Ascoli until 1692. Conti was the Governor of Campagna and Marittima from 1692 to 1693 and the Governor of Viterbo from 1693 to 1695. Pope Innocent XII selected Conti as the Titular Archbishop of Tarso on 13 June 1695 and he received his episcopal consecration on 16 June 1695 in Rome. Conti was the nuncio to both Switzerland and Portugal. On 7 June 1706, Conti was elevated to the cardinalate and was made the Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quirico e Giulitta under Pope Clement XI, his appointment came about as the replacement of Gabriele Filippucci. He would receive his titular church on 23 February 1711. From 1697 to 1710 he acted as papal nuncio to the Kingdom of Portugal, where he is believed to have formed those unfavourable impressions of the Jesuits which afterwards influenced his conduct towards them.

While in Portugal, he was witness to Father Bartolomeu de Gusmão's early aerostat experiments. He was transferred to Osimo as its archbishop in 1709 and was translated one last time to Viterbo e Toscanella in 1712, he served as Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from 1716 to 1717 and resigned his position in his diocese due to illness in 1719. After the death of Pope Clement XI in 1721, a conclave was called to choose a new pope, it took 75 ballots just to reach a decision and choose Conti as the successor of Clement XI. After all candidates seemed to slip, support turned to Conti; the curial factions turned their attention to him. In the morning of 8 May 1721, he was elected, he chose the name of Innocent XIII in honour of Pope Innocent III. On the following 18 May, he was solemnly crowned by Cardinal Benedetto Pamphili. In 1721 his high reputation for ability, purity, a kindly disposition secured his election to succeed Clement XI as Pope Innocent XIII, his pontificate was comparatively uneventful.

He held two consistories that saw three new cardinals elevated on 16 June 1721 and 16 July 1721. The Chinese Rites controversy that started under his predecessor continued during his reign. Innocent XIII prohibited the Jesuits from prosecuting their mission in China, ordered that no new members should be received into the order; this indication of his sympathies encouraged some French bishops to approach him with a petition for the recall of the bull Unigenitus by which Jansenism had been condemned. The pope assisted the Venetians in their struggles and assisted Malta in its struggles against the Turks. Innocent XIII, like his predecessor, showed much favour to James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender" to the British throne and liberally supported him; the pope's cousin, Francesco Maria Conti, from Siena, became chamberlain of James' little court in the Roman Muti Palace. Innocent XIII held two consistories. One of those new cardinals was Bernardo Maria. Innocent XIII beatified three individuals during his pontificate: John of Nepomuk, Dalmazio Moner, Andrea dei Conti.

In 1722, he named Saint Isidore of Seville as a Doctor of the Church. Innocent XIII fell ill in 1724, he was tormented by a hernia. At one point, it caused inflammation and fever. Innocent XIII asked for the last rites, made his profession of faith, died on 7 March 1724, at the age of 68, his pontificate was unremarkable, given. He was interred in the grottoes at Saint Peter's Basilica. In 2005 upon the occasion of the 350 years since the birth of the late pontiff, the citizens in the late pope's village of birth asked the Holy See to introduce the cause of beatification for Innocent XIII. Cardinals created by Innocent XIII Apostolici Ministerii List of popes

Frank E. Wilson

Frank Eugene Wilson was a U. S. Representative from New York. Born in Roxbury, New York, Wilson attended the Poughkeepsie Military Academy, he was graduated from the Jefferson Medical College, Pennsylvania, in 1882. Practiced medicine in Pleasant Valley, New York, until April 1888, he continued the practice of medicine. Senior physician, a director, member of the board of governors of the Bushwick Hospital and visiting physician to the Swedish Hospital, both of Brooklyn. Wilson was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-sixth, Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth Congresses, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1904 to the Fifty-ninth Congress. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1900. Wilson was elected to the Sixty-third Congresses, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1914. He resumed the practice of medicine in Brooklyn, New York, until his death there July 12, 1935, his remains were cremated and the ashes deposited in Roxbury Cemetery, New York. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

United States Congress. "Frank E. Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

Nasty (The Young Ones)

"Nasty" is the ninth episode of British sitcom The Young Ones. It was written by Ben Elton, Rik Mayall and Lise Mayer, directed by Paul Jackson, it was first aired on BBC2 on 29 May 1984. The episode begins with a man playing chess against Death. After losing to the man, Death declares "Bollocks to this!" and attacks the man with his scythe. The horror movie-themed opening credits are followed by Mike, Rick and Neil carrying a coffin through a local cemetery; the coffin is brought to a freshly-dug grave where a passing woman asks a spade-holding Neil if he digs graves, to which Neil replies, "Yeah, they're all right." After encountering a drunken vicar and two gravediggers, the episode takes a flashback to events leading up to the burial. It is bath night, while Neil jumps into the muddy bathwater used in the three others' previous baths, Rick locks himself in his room and gets on his bed for a sneaky read of Cosmopolitan - only to nearly get cut in half by Vyvyan's cleverly placed circular saw.

Mike and Vyvyan spend the time trying to set up the new video recorder they have secured, in order to watch a video nasty. A scene-stealing postman arrives to deliver a human-shaped package from the Transvaal. After falling out of the bathroom window and having his bedroom boarded up, Neil arrives downstairs wearing a dress he found in Rick's room. Neil gets the video machine to work by plugging it - but suffers a sustained electric shock in the process - and the group is shown a commercial for a women's pain reliever set in Hell. After the video stops working once again, the package delivered earlier has opened; this turns out to be a vampire, who claims he is just a driving instructor from Johannesburg. The vampire stops to use the toilet. Locked in the toilet, the vampire's driving instructor ruse fails when he incorrectly answers Vyvyan's Highway Code question about what to do when crossing a humpback bridge; when the four realise that vampires only attack virgins, it leads to them all unconvincingly denying their sexual purity.

But when the vampire returns downstairs, he is hit by sunlight streaming through the window - and he is placed inside a dual-purpose sofa-coffin. The scene flash-forwards back to the graveyard; the vampire comes out from the coffin and reveals himself to be Harry the Bastard, an employee from Rumbelows from whom they rented the video machine. Harry announces that their deadline for returning the machine has just elapsed and they now owe him £500 in late fees; as the closing line of the episode, the entire gang at the grave site turn to the camera and say, "Well, what a complete bastard!" The closing credits play over Death and the man from the chess match arguing at a golf hole. As with all episodes of The Young Ones, the main four characters were student flatmates Mike. Alexei Sayle starred as the South African vampire-slash-driving instructor. Monty Python alumnus Terry Jones makes a cameo as a drunken vicar and comedy duo Hale & Pace appear as a pair of gravediggers that the lads tell their story to.

Arnold Brown appears as the man in the opening scene playing chess against Death. Dawn French and Helen Atkinson-Wood appear in the pain reliever commercial set in Hell; the opening scene of a man playing chess with Death is a homage to the best known scene in Ingmar Bergman's film, The Seventh Seal. At the grave site when the vicar says ’Ashes to ashes’, Rick responds with ‘Funk to funky, we all know Major Tom's a junkie’, referencing lyrics from the David Bowie song "Ashes to Ashes". In the episode, Rick proclaims to Neil that the bathroom is free ‘unlike the country’ and refers to Britain as a ‘Thatcherite Junta’. Rick appears to gain sexual gratification from looking at a copy of Cosmopolitan. Alexei Sayle's character - in a monologue about being a Marxist comedian - complains that while his comrades are selling the Socialist Worker, he has to sell the TV Times. Sayle continues his monologue to reassure his comrades that he has not ‘sold out’ proceeds to do an advertisement for Pot Noodle.

The episode features punk band The Damned, performing Nasty, a song written for the episode. After being told to shut up by Vyvyan, the postman responds, "Little squirt! Does one advert, he thinks he's Dustin Hoffman!" This is a reference to Adrian Edmondson appearing as a Vyvyan-like character in a commercial for National Westminster Bank at about this time. The Young Ones: Nasty on IMDb


Flamets-Frétils is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A small farming village situated in the Pays de Bray, some 32 miles southeast of Dieppe, at the junction of the D36 and the D102 roads; the A29 autoroute passes through the commune’s territory. The chapel of Saint-Laurent at Frétils, dating from the eighteenth century; the eighteenth century church of Saint-Valéry at the hamlet of Sausseuzemare. The eleventh century chapel of Notre-Dame at the hamlet of Port-Mort; the church of St. Pierre at Flaments, dating from the twelfth century. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Flamets-Frétils on the Quid website

Sir Edward Seymour, 4th Baronet

Sir Edward Seymour, of Berry Pomeroy, 4th Baronet, MP was a British nobleman, a Royalist and Tory politician. Born at Berry Pomeroy Castle of a family influential in the Western counties, he was a son of Sir Edward Seymour, 3rd Baronet, his wife Anne Portman, a descendant of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, in the senior line. A skilled debater and politician, he was twice Speaker of the House of Commons during the Cavalier Parliament, the first non-lawyer to be chosen for that position for a considerable time, he was one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty from 1673 until 1679, when he was made a Privy Counsellor. He held office as Treasurer of the Navy from 1673 until 1681, Lord Commissioner of the Treasury from 15 November 1690 to 2 May 1696 and Comptroller of the Household from 1702 to 1704, he was responsible for the Habeas Corpus Act 1679. Though able, Seymour's character was marred by venality. However, his influence was much courted, he led a powerful faction of Western members in Parliament.

An opponent of the Exclusion Bill and a quintessential country gentleman, his Tory credentials were impeccable. Samuel Pepys in his Diary records the unpleasant impression Seymour's arrogance made on most people who met him. From the security of this position, Seymour moved that the Loyal Parliament investigate the irregularities surrounding the election of its members before it granted any revenues to James II, but as no other member dared to second it, it brought about no immediate consequence, he continued to oppose the arbitrary measures of James throughout his reign. During the Glorious Revolution, he was one of the first Tories to declare for the Prince of Orange; the remarks that passed between the two on the first meeting are indicative of his pride of birth: "I think, Sir Edward," said the Prince, "that you are of the family of the Duke of Somerset." "Pardon me, your highness," replied Seymour, "the Duke of Somerset is of my family." However, he adhered to the Tory party, acting as a sort of whip or manager, remained a vigorous rhetorical opponent of the Whig.

He attacked Lord Somers, the Chancellor, managed the several attempts made to remove him from office. In 1699, the death of his third son, Popham Seymour-Conway, from the effects of a wound incurred in a duel with Captain George Kirk, prompted him to make an attack upon the standing army, he seems to have suffered from diabetes in life, an exchange of wit between Seymour and his physician, Dr. Ratcliffe, being recorded in Joe Miller's Jests, he died at Maiden Bradley. On 7 September 1661, he married Margaret Wale, daughter of Sir William Wale, of North Lappenham, Alderman of London, wife, sister of Elizabeth Wale, married to the Hon. Henry Noel, of North Luffenham, Member of Parliament, by whom he had two children: Sir Edward Seymour, 5th Baronet Lt.-Gen. William Seymour In 1674, he married Laetitia Popham, daughter of Alexander Popham and wife Letitia Carre, by whom he had seven children: Col. Popham Seymour-Conway Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Baron Conway Charles Seymour, of Staston, Dorset and had a daughter: Jane Seymour, m.

August 1750 Adm. Thomas Lynn Anne Seymour, married 8 January 1707/1708 William Berkeley, of Pylle and Orchard Portman, son of Edward Berkeley, of Pylle and wife Elizabeth Ryves, by whom she had a son Henry Seymour, died without male issue Alexander Seymour, died without male issue John Seymour, died young Ducal House of Somerset

Cirrhibarbis capensis

Cirrhibarbis capensis, the barbelled klipfish, is a species of clinid found in subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean around South Africa. This species can reach a maximum length of 36 centimetres TL; this species preys on benthic crustaceans amphipods and isopods. It is the only known member of its genus. Fins: Dorsal fin spines 37 to 44, rays 5 to 9. Gill rakers +. Vertebrae +. Lateral line with about 30 vertical pairs of pores in front. Body depth 5 to 6 in Standard length. Head length 3.5 to 4.5 in Standard length. Eye 3.5 to 5.5 diameters in head length. Caudal peduncle 20 to depth 18 to 26 % head length. Shape: The body is elongate and compressed; the head profile is straight or concave, with a long and pointed snout. Pores on the head are visible; the mouth is wide, with thick lips. The jaws are pointed and the lower jaw projects beyond the upper jaw which has a row of 3 plain barbels at the front, which are joined at the base and spread once separated; the 8 barbels on the chin are arranged in a circular group of 6, but sometimes in 2 rows of 3 each, with 2 barbels a little to the rear and further apart individually.

The space between the eyes is convex. There is a prominent short palmate tentacle with from 4 to 12 cirri at the end at the upper rear of each eye, a large, tentacle at each forward nostril. With about four shallow, flat lobes at the tip; the dorsal fin is low, with no crest, with spines increasing in length towards the tail, the soft rays higher than the preceding spines. Each dorsal spine has a cluster of 3 to 5 little cirri at the tip; the pectoral fins are rounded. The Inner pelvic fins are reduced, with the free tip short or absent; the caudal peduncle is short. Colour: The colours are variable, but all reddish as a base, marbled brown, green or yellow; the belly may be pale or dark but is more uniform in colour, the tips of the anal and pectoral fins are red. In most specimens there is a roundish white blotch bisected by a narrower black blotch behind the head at the start of the lateral line, they may be pinkish, grey, or greenish mottled or milky. Fins and facial cirri are red. Juvenile specimens and occasional adult can be milky white with longitudinal black stripes and red fins and facial cirri.

The eyes are dark with a thin reddish or yellow, not prominent iris. The rest of eye is uniformly background colour. Small juveniles may have longitudinal bands of light and darker colours, may be translucent. Young specimens have much brighter colours than adults. Size: Up to 350mm. South African endemic. Rare west of Cape Point to Lamberts Bay, common from False Bay to East London. Seen in False Bay, from Fish Hoek to Batsata rock, all locations, but the wreck of the Clan Stuart and at Windmill and A-Frame. Rarer on Atlantic seaboard, but have been seen at the V&A waterfront off Oceana Powerboat club, along the Sea Point coast. Depth of these sighting were from close to the surface to about 15m depth. Juveniles were seen in shallow water at the Knysna Heads. Extreme juveniles and young specimens were seen in shallow water, under rocks, in rock pools. Adults are sublittoral. In deeper water most adult specimens were seen at night, when they are found in areas where there is plenty of shelter between and under boulders.

Younger specimens were found in rock pools Capensis: from Cape, referring to the region where caught