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Pope John I

Pope John I can refer to Pope John I of Alexandria. Pope John I can refer to Pope John I of Alexandria. Pope John I was Pope from 13 August 523 to his death in 526, he was a native of Siena, in Italy. He was sent on a diplomatic mission to Constantinople by the Ostrogoth King Theoderic to negotiate better treatment for Arians. Although successful, upon his return to Ravenna, Theoderic had the Pope imprisoned for conspiring with Constantinople; the frail pope died of ill-treatment. While a deacon in Rome, he is known to have been a partisan of the Antipope Laurentius, for in a libellus written to Pope Symmachus in 506, John confessed his error in opposing him, condemned Peter of Altinum and Laurentius, begged pardon of Symmachus, he would be the "Deacon John" who signed the acta of the Roman synod of 499 and 502. He may be the "Deacon John" to whom Boethius, the 6th-Century philosopher, dedicated three of his five religious tractates, or treatises, written between 512 and 520. John was frail when he was elected to the papacy as Pope John I.

Despite his protests, Pope John was sent by the Arian King Theoderic the Great—ruler of the Ostrogoths, a kingdom in present-day Italy—to Constantinople to secure the moderation of a decree, issued in 523, of Emperor Justin, ruler of the Byzantine, or East Roman Empire, against the Arians. King Theoderic threatened that if John should fail in his mission, there would be reprisals against the orthodox, or non-Arian, Catholics in the West. John proceeded to Constantinople with a considerable entourage: his religious companions included Bishop Ecclesius of Ravenna, Bishop Eusebius of Fanum Fortunae, Sabinus of Campania, his secular companions were the senators Flavius Theodorus and the Patrician Agapitus. Emperor Justin is recorded as receiving John honorably and promised to do everything the embassy asked of him, with the exception that those converting from Arianism to Catholicism would not be "restored". Although John was successful in his mission, when he returned to Ravenna, Theoderic's capital in Italy, Theoderic had John arrested on the suspicion of having conspired with Emperor Justin.

John was imprisoned at Ravenna, where he died of ill treatment. His body was buried in the Basilica of St. Peter; the Liber Pontificalis credits John with making repairs to the cemetery of the martyrs Nereus and Achilleus on the Via Ardeatina, that of Felix and Adauctus, the cemetery of Priscilla. Pope John I is depicted in art as looking through the bars of a prison or imprisoned with a deacon and a subdeacon, he is venerated in Tuscany. His feast day is the anniversary of the day of his death. List of Catholic saints List of popes Media related to Ioannes I at Wikimedia Commons Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope St. John I". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. *"GIOVANNI". Retrieved 7 February 2019

TV Guide Award

The TV Guide Award was an annual award created by the editors of TV Guide magazine, as a readers poll to honor outstanding programs and performers in the American television industry. The awards were presented until 1964; the TV Guide Award was revived 1999–2001. Ellery Queen won a TV Guide Award in 1950 for Best Mystery Show on Television; the Lucky Strike ads of the early 1950s won the first TV Guide award as commercial of the year. The trophy was a bronze statuette of a heroic figure holding a filigree globe; the 1952 TV Guide Magazine award was given to Zoo Parade, which won the 1950 George Foster Peabody Award and the 1951 Look TV Award. American Bandstand was featured on its second anniversary in the Philadelphia issue of TV Guide, which said it was "the people's choice" for a 1954 TV Guide award; the magazine had been founded the year before by owner of American Bandstand. In 1961 the TV Guide Award was cited by the Associated Press as one of the three important entertainment awards, together with the Academy Awards and the Emmy Awards.

Ballots were printed in a single issue of the magazine. Completed ballots were submitted by U. S. Mail and tabulated by direct-mail specialists Cassidy-Richlar, Inc; the TV Guide Award Show was broadcast in color on March 25, 1960, on NBC. Robert Young hosted a series of skits featuring Nanette Fabray. Seven awards were presented in the final ten minutes of the show. Recipients were chosen based on 289,000 ballots submitted by readers of TV Guide. Broadcast on NBC, the second annual TV Guide Award Show was presented June 13, 1961; the hour-long program was hosted by Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. with comedy sketches featuring Jackie Cooper and Nanette Fabray. NBC-TV was recognized for its 1960 election night coverage, the following awards were presented; the third annual TV Guide Award Show was broadcast June 24, 1962, on NBC. Hosted by Dave Garroway, the program included sketches featuring Art Carney and special guest Judy Holliday. In a brief concluding segment, awards in eight categories were presented; the fourth TV Guide Award presentation was made during the NBC special, The Bob Hope Show Presenting the TV Guide Awards, broadcast April 14, 1963.

The 45-minute comedy and variety portion of the show featured Martha Raye. Eight awards were presented in the concluding segment of the show, with live pickups in New York and Hollywood; the fifth TV Guide Award presentation was made on a special presentation of Bob Hope's NBC-TV show on April 17, 1964. The TV Guide Award was revived in 1999. Categories included traditional awards like Favorite Actor in a Comedy, Favorite Actor in a Drama Series, Favorite Star in a New Series, Favorite Drama Series, Favorite Comedy Series, to more off-beat categories which differed by year and are listed below; the winners were voted on by readers via on-line voting. The first award ceremony was televised on February 1999 with 1.2 million fans voting. The second ceremony was aired on March 2000, with 1.6 million fans voting. The third and final ceremony was aired on February 24, 2001, with 1.5 million fans voting, at which point the award was discontinued. Among the winners were David Duchovny, Tim Allen, Roma Downey, Jenna Elfman, David James Elliott, Martin Sheen, Bette Midler, Regis Philbin, Sean Hayes, Noah Wyle.

Favorite Sportscaster Favorite Sci-Fi/Fantasy Show Favorite TV Pet Favorite Teen Character Scariest Villain Best Kiss Sexiest Male Sexiest Female Best Dressed Male Best Dressed Female Favorite Teen Show Favorite Comeback Favorie Music Show Favorite Men's Hair-Do Favorite Women's Hair-Do Favorite TV Theme Song 1st Annual TV Guide Awards on IMDb 2nd Annual TV Guide Awards on IMDb 3rd Annual TV Guide Awards on IMDb

Turing machine

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine capable of simulating that algorithm's logic can be constructed; the machine operates on an infinite memory tape divided into discrete "cells". The machine positions its "head" over a cell and "reads" or "scans" the symbol there; as per the symbol and its present place in a "finite table" of user-specified instructions, the machine writes a symbol in the cell either moves the tape one cell left or right either proceeds to a subsequent instruction or halts the computation. The Turing machine was invented in 1936 by Alan Turing, who called it an "a-machine". With this model, Turing was able to answer two questions in the negative: does a machine exist that can determine whether any arbitrary machine on its tape is "circular", thus by providing a mathematical description of a simple device capable of arbitrary computations, he was able to prove properties of computation in general—and in particular, the uncomputability of the Entscheidungsproblem.

Thus, Turing machines prove fundamental limitations on the power of mechanical computation. While they can express arbitrary computations, their minimalist design makes them unsuitable for computation in practice: real-world computers are based on different designs that, unlike Turing machines, use random-access memory. Turing completeness is the ability for a system of instructions to simulate a Turing machine. A programming language, Turing complete is theoretically capable of expressing all tasks accomplishable by computers. A Turing machine is a general example of a central processing unit that controls all data manipulation done by a computer, with the canonical machine using sequential memory to store data. More it is a machine capable of enumerating some arbitrary subset of valid strings of an alphabet. A Turing machine has a tape of infinite length on which it can perform write operations. Assuming a black box, the Turing machine cannot know whether it will enumerate any one specific string of the subset with a given program.

This is due to the fact that the halting problem is unsolvable, which has major implications for the theoretical limits of computing. The Turing machine is capable of processing an unrestricted grammar, which further implies that it is capable of robustly evaluating first-order logic in an infinite number of ways; this is famously demonstrated through lambda calculus. A Turing machine, able to simulate any other Turing machine is called a universal Turing machine. A more mathematically oriented definition with a similar "universal" nature was introduced by Alonzo Church, whose work on lambda calculus intertwined with Turing's in a formal theory of computation known as the Church–Turing thesis; the thesis states that Turing machines indeed capture the informal notion of effective methods in logic and mathematics, provide a precise definition of an algorithm or "mechanical procedure". Studying their abstract properties yields many insights into computer science and complexity theory. In his 1948 essay, "Intelligent Machinery", Turing wrote that his machine consisted unlimited memory capacity obtained in the form of an infinite tape marked out into squares, on each of which a symbol could be printed.

At any moment there is one symbol in the machine. The machine can alter the scanned symbol, its behavior is in part determined by that symbol, but the symbols on the tape elsewhere do not affect the behavior of the machine. However, the tape can be moved back and forth through the machine, this being one of the elementary operations of the machine. Any symbol on the tape may therefore have an innings; the Turing machine mathematically models a machine. On this tape are symbols, which the machine can read and write, one at a time, using a tape head. Operation is determined by a finite set of elementary instructions such as "in state 42, if the symbol seen is 0, write a 1. In the original article, Turing imagines not a mechanism, but a person whom he calls the "computer", who executes these deterministic mechanical rules slavishly. A Turing machine consists of: A tape divided into cells, one next to the other; each cell contains a symbol from some finite alphabet. The alphabet contains one or more other symbols.

The tape is assumed to be arbitrarily extendable to the left and to the right, so that the Turing machine is always supplied with as much tape as it needs for its computation. Cells that have not been written before are assumed to be filled with the blank symbol. In some models the tape has a

Marburg's Bloody Sunday

Marburg's Bloody Sunday was a massacre that took place on Monday, 27 January 1919 in the city of Maribor in Slovenia. Soldiers from the army of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, under the command of Slovene officer Rudolf Maister, killed between 9 and 13 civilians of German ethnic origin, wounding a further 60, during a protest in a city centre square. Estimates of casualties differ between Austrian sources. In November 1918, after the First World War ended, the territories of southern Carinthia and southern Styria, claimed by the Republic of German Austria, were captured by military units under Maister's command. Maribor was the largest city of southern Styria, had a predominately German population. A US delegation led by Sherman Miles visited Maribor on 27 January 1919 as part of a wider mission to resolve territorial disputes. On the same day, German citizens organised a protest proclaiming their desire for Maribor to be incorporated into the Republic of German Austria; the protest was interrupted by Meister's soldiers firing at the people and causing numerous casualties.

In response, German Austria launched a military offensive which expelled the Yugoslavs from several small towns in Upper Styria along the Mur River. A ceasefire was agreed under the mediation of France in February 1919. According to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, signed on 10 September 1919, Maribor and the rest of Lower Styria became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. No one was charged over the Maribor massacre; the Republic of German Austria was created following the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the First World War and claimed areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within the bounds of the former empire. In addition to the current area of the Republic of Austria, these included parts of South Tyrol and the town of Tarvisio, both now in Italy; the victorious Allied Powers divided the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian empire between German Austria and several other countries. Though the division of territories was conducted through a proclaimed principle of national self-determination, populations of ethnic Germans and Hungarians remained resident in many of these territories, including Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Control of the city of Maribor was disputed by German Austria. A Federal Act of German Austria, concerning "the Extent, the Borders and the Relations of the State Territories of November 22, 1918", asserted a claim to the region of Lower Styria within which Marburg/Maribor was located, but excluded from its claim the predominantly Slav-populated regions. To resolve the question of the ownership of Carinthia, the greater region of which Lower Styria formed a part, the U. S.-administered Coolidge Mission in Vienna proposed a demographic investigation of the territory. The mission was led by Archibald Cary Coolidge, professor of history at Harvard College, operated under the American Commission to Negotiate Peace; the mission appointed a delegation to be led by Colonel Sherman Miles and including Lieutenant LeRoy King, professor of Slavic languages at the University of Missouri, professors Robert Kerner and Lawrence Martin. On the way to Carinthia, the delegation visited Maribor which, prior to the First World War, had a population comprising 80% Austrian Germans and 20% Slovenes.

Most of Maribor's capital and public life was in Austrian German hands and it was known by its German-language name Marburg an der Drau. According to the last Austro-Hungarian census in 1910, the city and its suburbs Studenci, Pobrežje, Radvanje, Krčevina, Košaki housed 31,995 Austrian Germans, 6,151 ethnic Slovenes; the surrounding area however was populated entirely by Slovenes, although many Austrian Germans lived in smaller towns like Ptuj or Celje. In November 1918, the Slovene major Rudolf Maister seized the city of Maribor and surrounding areas of Lower Styria in the name of the newly formed State of Slovenes and Serbs, a forerunner of Yugoslavia. On 23 November 1918, Maister and his soldiers disarmed and disbanded the "Green Guard" security force maintained by the Maribor city council. Maister captured several villages and towns north of the Mur River, including Lichendorf, Bad Radkersburg and Marenberg. On 31 December 1918, Maister's units imprisoned 21 notable Maribor citizens of ethnic German origin.

Sources differ on the exact extent of the massacre in Maribor. All agree that on 27 January 1919, the Coolidge Mission's delegation, led by Sherman Miles, visited Maribor and found thousands of citizens of German ethnic origin gathered in the main city square and waving flags of German Austria, many of which decorated nearby buildings. German Austrian sources indicate that there were 10,000 protesters singing songs and wearing patriotic dress. Twenty soldiers under Maister's command were stationed in front of the city hall, armed with rifles mounted with bayonets. German-language sources assert that the soldiers began firing into the crowd without provocation, aiming for unarmed civilians. According to these sources the fatalities numbered 13, a further 60 protesters were wounded. A Slovene account of the same event asserts that the soldiers began to fire only when an Austrian citizen discharged a revolver in the direction of the Slo


Polonezköy or Adampol is a village, administratively a neighborhood, on the Asian side of Istanbul, about 30 km from the historic city centre, within the boundaries of the Beykoz district. It was inspired and funded by Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski and settled in 1842 by a small group of Polish emigrės, after the failed November Uprising; until today there is still a Polish community there with its own church and cemetery. Polonezköy, known in Polish as'Adampol', was founded in 1842, from an idea of Adam Czartoryski. At the time he was Chairman of the Polish National Uprising Government and the leader of a political émigré party; the settlement was first named Adam-koj in his honour. Prince Czartoryski wanted to create a second emigration centre in Turkey after the first in Paris, he sent his representative, Michał Czajkowski and purchased the forest area which encompasses present-day Adampol from the missionary order of Lazarists. Plans were made to establish a future settlement on this spot.

At the beginning, the village was inhabited by just 12 people. Over time, Adampol developed and was expanded by emigrants from the 1848 revolutions, the Crimean War in 1853, by runaways from Siberia and from captivity in Circassia; the first inhabitants busied themselves with agriculture, cattle raising and forestry. Michał Czajkowski converted to Islam in 1850 and became known as Mehmed Sadyk Pasza. After Polish independence in 1918, many returned to Poland and the remaining inhabitants took Turkish citizenship in 1938. Before World War II, the first tourists started arriving in the village. Adampol's village chronicles record the visits of famous people such as Franz Liszt, French writer, Gustave Flaubert, Czech writer, Karel Droz, the first President of the Turkish Republic Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Pope Nuncio Angelo Roncalli - the future Pope John XXIII. During his visit in 1941 he gave religious confirmation to local children; the first Polish politician to visit after the Second World War was Adam Rapacki the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Polish Republic, accompanied by Turkish dignitaries.

In 1985 the village was visited by Kenan Evren, the head of the temporary military dictatorship during that period in Turkey, in 1994 by Lech Wałęsa. The next President of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, came twice to Adampol in 1996 and 2000, when he visited the Memorial House of Zofia Ryży. In 2002 Adampol celebrated the 160th anniversary of its founding. Polish descendants of the founders of Adampol visit the settlement of their forebears. Today, there are about 1,000 people in Adampol of whom around 40 speak fluent Polish. There is an annual summer festival in Adampol/Polonezköy which invites folk bands from Poland to play and help maintain the cultural ties between it and Poland. Famous Turks with Polish ancestry include the poet and playwright Nazım Hikmet and the soprano opera singer Leyla Gencer. Memorial House of'Zofia Rizi', housing souvenirs, photographs and documents, historic interior decoration. Our Lady of Częstochowa Church; the Polish Cemetery, with graves of interest that of Ludwika Śniadecka, a lover of the poet Juliusz Słowacki.

There are 92 other graves, which have been renovated by the'Fight and Martyrdom Memory Protection Council'. Polonezköy is twinned with: Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Poland Zakopane, Poland Turks in Poland Memorial House of Zofia Ryży Towns Video by Easy Languages

Intermittent control

Intermittent control is a feedback control method which not only explains some human control systems but has applications to control engineering. In the context of control theory, intermittent control provides a spectrum of possibilities between the two extremes of continuous-time and discrete-time control: the control signal consists of a sequence of parameterised trajectories whose parameters are adjusted intermittently, it is different from discrete-time control. As a class of control theory, intermittent predictive control is more general than continuous control and provides a new paradigm incorporating continuous predictive and optimal control with intermittent, open loop control. There are at least three areas. Firstly, continuous-time model-based predictive control where the intermittency is associated with on-line optimisation. Secondly, event-driven control systems where the intersample interval is time varying and determined by the event times. Thirdly, explanation of physiological control systems which, in some cases, have an intermittent character.

This intermittency may be due to the “computation” in the central nervous system. Conventional sampled-data control uses a zero-order hold, which produces a piecewise-constant control signal and can be used to give a sampled-data implementation which approximates previously-designed continuous-time controller. In contrast to conventional sampled data control, intermittent control explicitly embeds the underlying continuous-time closed-loop system in a system-matched hold which generates an open-loop intersample control trajectory based on the underlying continuous-time closed-loop control system. Intermittent control evolved separately in the engineering and physiological literature; the concept of intermittent control appeared in a posthumous paper by Kenneth Craik which states “The human operator behaves as an intermittent correction servo”. A colleague of Kenneth Craik, Margaret Vince, related the concept of intermittency to the Psychological refractory period and provided experimental verification of intermittency.

Fernando Navas and James Stark showed experimentally that human hand movements were synchronised to input signals rather than to an internal clock: in other words the hand control system is event-driven not clock-driven. The first detailed mathematical model of intermittency was presented by Peter Neilson, Megan Neilson, Nicholas O’Dwyer. A more recent mathematical model of intermittency is given by PeterGawthrop, Ian Loram, Martin Lakie and Henrik Gollee. In the context of Control Engineering, the term intermittent control was used by Eric Ronco, Taner Arsan and Peter Gawthrop, they stated that “A conceptual, practical difficulty with the continuous-time generalised predictive controller is solved by replacing the continuously moving horizon by an intermittently moving horizon. This allows slow optimisation to occur concurrently with a fast control action.” The concept of intermittent model predictive control was refined by Peter Gawthrop working with Liuping Wang, who looked at event-driven intermittent control.

In a separate line of development Tomas Estrada, Hai Lin and Panos Antsaklis developed the concept of model-based control with intermittent feedback in the context of a networked control system