Pope John Paul II was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He was elected pope by the second papal conclave of 1978, called after Pope John Paul I, elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted the name of his predecessor in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and all of Europe. John Paul II improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism and the Eastern Orthodox Church, he upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as the right to life, artificial contraception, the ordination of women, a celibate clergy, although he supported the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, he was seen as conservative in their interpretation. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate; as part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 and canonised 483 people, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries.
By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, ordained many priests. John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the 16th-century Pope Adrian VI. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed venerable by his successor, Benedict XVI, was beatified on 1 May 2011 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease. A second miracle was approved on 2 July 2013, confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints.
It is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. Posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as "St. John Paul the Great", although the title has no official recognition. Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, he was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, Emilia Kaczorowska, of Lithuanian descent. Emilia, a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old, his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, 13 years his senior. Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply; as a boy, Wojtyła was athletic playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, Wojtyła played on the Jewish side.
"I remember. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on friendly terms, and what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism." It was around this time. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon, he worked as a playwright. During this time, his talent for language blossomed, he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Esperanto, nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, the German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland. Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany.
In February 1940, he met Jan Tyranowski who introduced him to Carmelite mysticism and the “Living Rosary” youth groups. In 1940 he was struck by a tram, suffering a fractured skull; the same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop. His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member. "I was not at my mother's death, I was not at my brother's death, I was not at my father's death," he said, reflecting on these times of his life, nearly forty years "At twenty, I had lost all the people I loved." After his father's death, he started thinking about the priesthood. In October 1942, while the war continued, he knocked on the door of the Bis
David Blacker is a Sri Lankan author. In the early 1990s, as a 19-year-old, Blacker served in the 6th Sri Lanka Sinha Regiment of the Sri Lanka Army at Elephant Pass, seeing action in the regiment's heroic defense of the base. In 2001, after being wounded in battle, he took a part-time designing job. Blacker began to write in his spare time, soon produced A Cause Untrue, a tale of Sri Lankan war. Blacker said that while personal experience formed the basis of the novel, the plot was fabricated. In 2004 the novel in manuscript form was short-listed for the Gratiaen Prize, which led to its publication in 2005. Subsequently, the book won Best Novel at the 2006 State Literary Awards and was on the 2007 long list for the International Dublin Literary Award. Blacker's blog, the Blacklight Arrow, was one of the most popular Sri Lankan websites during the war, Dr Dayan Jayatillake, Sri Lanka's former permanent representative to the UN in Geneva is quoted as saying “The Blacklight Arrow was way ahead in analysing and projecting the war as it unfurled this time.
I have read and met commentators on military and strategic/security affairs from the UK, US, India and Israel and this guy Blacker is world class, would be recognised as such except he’s too damn lazy to write. His knowledge of world military history is enormous; as a member of the International Expert Panel of Security Index, the top journal of security studies out of Moscow, I can safely say I know of no Sri Lankan or Sri Lankan-born analyst of military affairs, better.”Articles from Blacker's blog have been reproduced in the Times of India and Sri Lanka's Sunday Island. Blacker lives in Sri Lanka and is a creative director and works in advertising
The Shadow Cabinet of Lindiwe Mazibuko succeeded the Shadow Cabinet of Athol Trollip as the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet. Not long after Lindiwe Mazibuko was elected as the parliamentary leader by the Democratic Alliance's caucus on 27 October 2011, she announced a new shadow cabinet, on 1 February 2012. In her capacity of parliamentary leader, Mazibuko leads the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet and represents party leader Helen Zille in parliament, at present Premier of the Western Cape. Elected alongside Mazibuko was Watty Watson, as Chief Whip, former Fulbright Scholar Wilmot James as Chairman of the Caucus; the latest Shadow Cabinet includes the Democratic Alliance's Federal Executive Chairperson James Selfe, CODESA negotiator Dene Smuts, along with former Fulbright Scholar Sej Motau and Harvard Mason Fellow David Maynier. Democratic Alliance parliamentary leader Lindiwe Mazibuko introduced new Shadow Cabinet on 1 February 2012, she reshuffled her Shadow Cabinet on 12 November 2013.
New elected parliamentary leadership post mid-term caucus elections on 27 October 2011
"Drunk on Love" is a song by Barbadian recording artist Rihanna, from her sixth studio album Talk That Talk. The song was written by Ester Dean, Traci Hale, Mikkel S. Eriksen and Tor Erik Hermansen of StarGate and Baria Qureshi, Romy Croft, Oliver Sim and Jamie Smith of The xx, with production helmed by StarGate. A power ballad, "Drunk on Love" samples the melody of The xx's song "Intro", included on their debut album xx. Instrumentation consists of "a storm of drums" and "clattering synths." The song garnered mixed reviews from music critics, as they were divided on the song's composition as well as Rihanna's vocal performance. Upon the release of Talk That Talk, the song charted at number 55 on the South Korea Gaon International Chart and number 153 on the UK Singles Chart. "Drunk on Love" was written by Ester Dean, Traci Hale, Mikkel S. Eriksen and Tor Erik Hermansen of StarGate and Baria Qureshi, Romy Croft, Oliver Sim and Jamie Smith of The xx. Production of the song was helmed by StarGate.
Rihanna recorded the song at several recording studios around the world during her Loud Tour, including Roc the Mic Studios, New York City, New York. It was recorded by Miles Walker and Mike Anderson. Vocal producer Kuk Harrell carried out vocal recording. Alejandro Barajas served as the assistant vocal producer. "Drunk on Love" was mixed by Phil Tan and assisted by Daniella Rivera, while Eriksen and Hermansen provided instrumentation. "Drunk on Love" has been described as "trancey" and Europop-influenced power ballad. The song last for a duration of 32 seconds. Instrumentation consists of "a storm of drums" and "clattering synths." Katherine St. Asaph for Popdust described the song's percussion as "huge." The song samples the melody of The xx's song "Intro", included on their debut album xx. Robert Copsey for Digital Spy noted that Rihanna describes herself as someone who wants to be loved in the lyric "I just wanna be in love" as she sings about being a "hopeless romantic", he described the lyric "I wear my heart on my sleeve/ Always let love take the lead" as Talk That Talk's "most thoughtful" line.
St. Asaph described the lyric "I love the way you taste on my lips when we kiss" as "PG-13 at best," and wrote that it is not possible to be "lovelorn" as well as filthy at the same time. According to the sheet music published at Musicnotes.com, "Drunk on Love" is written in the key of A minor with a moderate pop tempo of 100 beats per minute. The song follows a progression Am−F−Am−F, Rihanna's vocals span from A3 to E5. "Drunk on Love" garnered mixed reviews from music critics. Sam Lansky for MTV Buzzworthy was complimentary of song, writing that only Rihanna is able to include an xx sample and sing love metaphors and make it sound "fresh." He praised Rihanna's vocal performance. Lansky noted that Rihanna is "emotionally charged" when she sings the chorus. A reviewer for Sputnikmusic compared the song to one of Rihanna's previous songs from her fifth studio album, Loud, "What's My Name?", writing "'Drunk On Love' is reminiscent of Loud's best song,'What's My Name,' with Rihanna singing'I love it, I crave it' with serious conviction and confident, powerful vocals."
Jason Lipshutz for Billboard described the song's production as "dynamic" and that Rihanna displays her "full range." He continued to write. Meena Rupani of DesiHits was complimentary of the song's club appeal, but did not feel that the song was a standout or memorable track. Katherine St. Asaph for Popdust had mixed opinions of the song; as part of her introduction, she praised its composition and inclusion of The xx's sample of "Intro" and described the song as being "heavy" and "slightly emo." St. Asaph was complimentary of its melodramatic style, added that "The xx sample does most of the heavy drifting here, but it's well-used–notice how the vocals of the original become backing vocals for Rihanna with no adulteration." However, she was critical of how the song's composition builds, writing that instead of starting and building to its "bombast", it starts somewhere between quiet and loud and ends past its "bombast". As a sidenote, St. Asaph noted that Rihanna does not in fact sound drunk on the song, but wrote that it does not affect the outcome.
Lindsay Zoladz of Pitchfork Media was critical of the song, labeling the chorus as "weak" and Rihanna's vocal performance as too "bombast" for the xx's "laid-back" sample. RecordingRecorded at Roc the Mic Studios, New York City. Personnel Credits adapted from the liner notes of Talk That Talk, Def Jam Recordings, SRP Records. Upon the release of Talk That Talk, "Drunk on Love" debuted and peaked on the South Korea Gaon International Chart at number 55 on November 26, 2011, with sales of 7,727 digital downloads, it debuted on the UK Singles Chart at number 153 in the chart issue December 3, 2011. On August 12, 2012, "Drunk on Love" debuted on the UK R&B Chart at number 23. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The New York City Department of Investigation is a law enforcement agency of the government of New York City, referred to by some observers New York City's "secret police" because its investigations are confidential and its investigators are not uniformed. DOI serves as an nonpartisan watchdog for New York City government. Established in 1873, it is one of the oldest law enforcement agencies in the country. DOI has broad jurisdiction, is authorized to investigate fraud, misconduct, abuse of authority, unethical conduct in New York City. DOI may investigate any activity when directed by the Mayor or the City Council, or may investigate activities that the Commissioner of Investigation believes are in the best interest of the City. Major functions include investigating and referring for prosecution cases of fraud, corruption and unethical conduct by City employees and others who receive City money or do business with the City. DOI is charged with studying agency procedures to identify corruption hazards and recommending improvements in order to reduce the City's vulnerability to fraud and corruption.
DOI investigates the backgrounds of persons selected to work in decision-making or sensitive City jobs, conducts checks on companies and their principals to help agencies determine if they are companies that can be awarded City contracts. DOI is empowered to issue subpoenas, take testimony under oath, issue reports of its investigative findings. DOI can forward its findings to federal and state prosecutors, it can refer its findings to the City's Conflicts of Interest Board, other agencies who make disciplinary or other administrative decisions. Under the City Charter, DOI serves as the investigative arm of the City's Conflicts of Interest Board. DOI has oversight of about 300,000 City employees in 45 City agencies. Unlike most law enforcement agencies, DOI's jurisdiction is not geographically limited, but is instead limited by subject matter. DOI has jurisdiction over fraud, abuse of authority, criminal wrongdoing committed by City employees, benefit recipients, or business associates committed anywhere.
Though most of its investigations occur within New York City or the surrounding areas, DOI may inquire about activities that occurred outside of New York when such activity is related to DOI's subject matter jurisdiction. When arresting wrongdoers, DOI's investigators, who are sworn law enforcement officers, may make an arrest in any place within New York where their investigation legitimately takes them; the DOI Commissioner must be confirmed by the City Council. To remove the DOI Commissioner, the Mayor has to state the reasons in writing and provide an opportunity for the Commissioner to respond publicly. DOI "Special Investigators" conduct arrest criminals, they are non-uniformed, but do have badges and clothing to identify themselves as DOI special investigators. Special investigators are New York State peace officers, are authorized to make arrests, serve subpoenas and summonses, carry weapons; the DOI was founded in 1873 as the Office of the Commissioners of Accounts as a result of the Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall scandals.
In 1938, as the result of a Charter revision, the agency's name was changed to the Department of Investigation. Inspector general Official site
The Triumph Spitfire is a small British two-seat sports car, introduced at the London Motor Show in 1962 and manufactured between 1962 and 1980. The vehicle was based on a design produced for Standard-Triumph in 1957 by Italian designer Giovanni Michelotti; the car was based upon the chassis of the Triumph Herald saloon, but shortened and without the Herald's outrigger sections. The Herald's running gear and Standard SC engine were carried over; the Spitfire was manufactured at the Standard-Triumph works in Coventry. The bodywork was fitted to a separate structural chassis, but for the open-top convertible Spitfire the backbone chassis' rigidity was augmented by the use of structural components within the bodywork, with the rear trailing arms being bolted to the body rather than the chassis; the Spitfire was provided with a manual soft-top for weather protection, the design improving to a folding hood for models. Factory-manufactured hard-tops were available. Five Spitfire models were sold during the production run: The Triumph Spitfire was devised by Standard-Triumph to compete in the small sports car market that had opened up with the introduction of the Austin-Healey Sprite.
The Sprite had used the basic drive train of the Austin A30/A35 in a light body to make up a budget sports car. Triumph had one advantage, however, it was Triumph's intention to cut that chassis down and give it a sporty body, saving the costs of developing a new chassis-body unit. Italian designer Michelotti—who had designed the Herald—was commissioned for the new project, came up with a traditional, swooping body. Wind-up windows were provided, as well as a single-piece front end which tilted forwards to offer easy access to the engine. In the early 1960s, Standard-Triumph was in deep financial trouble, unable to put the new car into production. Leyland officials, taking stock of their new acquisition, found Michelotti's prototype hiding under a dust sheet in a corner of the factory and approved it for production; the Spitfire was named to honour the World War II fighter plane of the same name. The production car changed little from the prototype, although the full-width rear bumper was dropped in favour of two part-bumpers curving around each corner, with overriders.
The mechanicals were from a stock Herald with the notable addition of front disc brakes. The engine was an 1,147 cc four-cylinder with a pushrod OHV cylinder head and two valves per cylinder, mildly tuned for the Spitfire, fed by twin SU carburettors. From the Herald came the rack and pinion steering and coil-and-wishbone front suspension, courtesy of the former Alford & Alder company, acquired by Standard-Triumph in 1959. At the rear was a single transverse-leaf swing axle arrangement; this ended up being the most controversial part of the car: it was known to "tuck in" and cause violent oversteer if driven too hard in the staid Herald. In the sportier Spitfire it led to severe criticism. Known fixes for this include things like camber compensators, or achieving more negative camber to the rear wheels can help the handling become more manageable; the body was bolted to a much-modified Herald chassis, the outer rails and the rear outriggers having been removed. The Spitfire was an inexpensive small sports car and as such had rather basic trim by today's standards, including rubber mats and a large plastic steering wheel.
It was nonetheless considered comfortable, as it had roll-down windows and exterior door locks, as well as full instrumentation. These early cars were referred to both as "Triumph Spitfire Mark Is" and "Spitfire 4s", different from the Spitfire Mark IV; the "Spitfire 4" name indicated the possibility of the appearance of a six-cylinder version. In UK specification the in-line four produced 63 bhp at 5,750 rpm, 67 lb⋅ft of torque at 3,500 rpm; this gave a top speed of 92 mph, a 0 to 60 mph acceleration in 16.4 seconds. Average fuel consumption was 31 mpg. For 1964 an overdrive option was added to the four-speed manual gearbox. Wire wheels and a hard top were available. An all-monocoque construction derivative of the Spitfire with pop-up headlamps, named the Triumph Fury, was proposed with a single prototype being built. In March 1965 the Spitfire Mark II was launched, it was similar to the Mark I but featured a more tuned engine with a revised camshaft profile, a water-heated intake manifold, a tubular exhaust manifold, increasing power to 67 bhp at 6,000 rpm.
The coil-spring design clutch of the Mark I was replaced with a Borg & Beck diaphragm spring clutch. The exterior trim was modified with badges; the interior trim was improved with redesigned seats and by covering most of the exposed surfaces with rubber cloth. The original moulded rubber floor coverings were replaced with moulded carpets, it was introduced at a base price of £550, compar