Andrew the Apostle
Andrew the Apostle known as Saint Andrew, was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter. He is referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called. According to Orthodox tradition, the apostolic successor to Saint Andrew is the Patriarch of Constantinople; the name "Andrew", like other Greek names, appears to have been common among the Jews and other Hellenized people of Judea. No Hebrew or Aramaic name is recorded for him. Saint Andrew was born, in 6 BC in Galilee; the New Testament states that Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter, a son of John, or Jonah. He was born in the village of Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee. "The first striking characteristic of Andrew is his name: it is not Hebrew, as might have been expected, but Greek, indicative of a certain cultural openness in his family that cannot be ignored. We are in Galilee, where the Greek language and culture are quite present."Both he and his brother Peter were fishermen by trade, hence the tradition that Jesus called them to be his disciples by saying that he will make them "fishers of men".
At the beginning of Jesus' public life, they were said to have occupied the same house at Capernaum. In the Gospel of Matthew and in the Gospel of Mark Simon Peter and Andrew were both called together to become disciples of Jesus and "fishers of men"; these narratives record that Jesus was walking along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, observed Simon and Andrew fishing, called them to discipleship. In the parallel incident in the Gospel of Luke Andrew is not named, nor is reference made to Simon having a brother. In this narrative, Jesus used a boat described as being Simon's, as a platform for preaching to the multitudes on the shore and as a means to achieving a huge trawl of fish on a night which had hitherto proved fruitless; the narrative indicates that Simon was not the only fisherman in the boat but it is not until the next chapter that Andrew is named as Simon's brother. However, it is understood that Andrew was fishing with Simon on the night in question. Matthew Poole, in his Annotations on the Holy Bible, stressed that'Luke denies not that Andrew was there'.
In contrast, the Gospel of John states that Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist, whose testimony first led him, another unnamed disciple of John the Baptist, to follow Jesus. Andrew at once recognized Jesus as the Messiah, hastened to introduce him to his brother; the Byzantine Church honours him with the name Protokletos, which means "the first called". Thenceforth, the two brothers were disciples of Christ. On a subsequent occasion, prior to the final call to the apostolate, they were called to a closer companionship, they left all things to follow Jesus. Subsequently, in the gospels, Andrew is referred to as being present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more attached to Jesus. Andrew told Jesus about the boy with the loaves and fishes, when Philip wanted to tell Jesus about certain Greeks seeking Him, he told Andrew first. Andrew was present at the Last Supper. Andrew was one of the four disciples who came to Jesus on the Mount of Olives to ask about the signs of Jesus' return at the "end of the age".
Eusebius in his Church History 3.1 quoted Origen as saying. The Chronicle of Nestor adds that he preached along the Black Sea and the Dnieper river as far as Kiev, from there he traveled to Novgorod. Hence, he became a patron saint of Ukraine and Russia. According to tradition, he founded the See of Byzantium in AD 38. According to Hippolytus of Rome, Andrew preached in Thrace, his presence in Byzantium is mentioned in the apocryphal Acts of Andrew. Basil of Seleucia knew of Apostle Andrew's missions in Thrace and Achaea; this diocese would develop into the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Andrew, along with Saint Stachys, is recognized as the patron saint of the Patriarchate. Andrew is said to have been martyred by crucifixion at the city of Patras in Achaea. Early texts, such as the Acts of Andrew known to Gregory of Tours, describe Andrew as bound, not nailed, to a Latin cross of the kind on which Jesus is said to have been crucified; the iconography of the martyrdom of Andrew — showing him bound to an X-shaped cross — does not appear to have been standardized until the Middle Ages.
The apocryphal Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius and others, is among a disparate group of Acts of the Apostles that were traditionally attributed to Leucius Charinus. "These Acts belong to the third century: ca. A. D. 260," in the opinion of M. R. James, who edited them in 1924; the Acts, as well as a Gospel of St Andrew, appear among rejected books in the Decretum Gelasianum connected with the name of Pope Gelasius I. The Acts of Andrew was edited and published by Constantin von Tischendorf in the Acta Apostolorum apocrypha, putting it for the first time into the hands of a critical professional readership. Another version of the Andrew legend is found in the Passio Andreae, published by Max Bonnet (Supplement
Pope Clement I
Pope Clement I known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99. He is considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church, one of the three chief ones together with Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch. Few details are known about Clement's life. Clement was said to have been consecrated by Saint Peter, he is known to have been a leading member of the church in Rome in the late 1st century. Early church lists place him as the third bishop of Rome after Saint Peter; the Liber Pontificalis states that Clement died in Greece in the third year of Emperor Trajan's reign, or 101 AD. Clement's only genuine extant writing is his letter to the church at Corinth in response to a dispute in which certain presbyters of the Corinthian church had been deposed, he asserted the authority of the presbyters as rulers of the church on the ground that the Apostles had appointed such. His letter, one of the oldest extant Christian documents outside the New Testament, was read in church, along with other epistles, some of which became part of the Christian canon.
These works were the first to affirm the apostolic authority of the clergy. A second epistle, 2 Clement, was attributed to Clement, although recent scholarship suggests it to be a homily by another author. In the legendary Clementine Literature, Clement is the intermediary through whom the apostles teach the church. According to tradition, Clement was imprisoned under the Emperor Trajan. Thereafter he was executed by being thrown into the sea. Clement is recognized as a saint in many Christian churches and is considered a patron saint of mariners, he is commemorated on 23 November in the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Church. In Eastern Orthodox Christianity his feast is kept on 25 November; the Liber Pontificalis presents a list that makes Pope Linus the second in the line of bishops of Rome, with Peter as first. Tertullian considered Clement to be the immediate successor of Peter. In one of his works, Jerome listed Clement as "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter", added that "most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the apostle".
Clement is put after Linus and Cletus/Anacletus in the earliest account, that of Irenaeus, followed by Eusebius of Caesarea. Early succession lists name Clement as the first, third successor of Saint Peter. However, the meaning of his inclusion in these lists has been controversial; some believe there were presbyter-bishops as early as the 1st century, but that there is no evidence for a monarchical episcopacy in Rome at such an early date. There is however, no evidence of a change occurring in ecclesiastical organization in the latter half of the 2nd century, which would indicate that a new or newly-monarchical episcopacy was establishing itself. Dionysius of Corinth and Irenaeus of Lyon both viewed Clement as a monarchial bishop who intervened in the dispute in the church of Corinth. Starting in the 3rd and 4th century, tradition has identified him as the Clement that Paul mentioned in Philippians 4:3, a fellow laborer in Christ. While in the mid-19th century it was customary to identify him as a freedman of Titus Flavius Clemens, consul with his cousin, the Emperor Domitian, this identification, which no ancient sources suggest, afterwards lost support.
The 2nd-century Shepherd of Hermas mentions a Clement whose office it was to communicate with other churches. A large congregation existed in Rome c. 58, when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans. Paul arrived in Rome c. 60. His Captivity Epistles, as well as Mark, Acts, 1 Peter were written here, according to many scholars. Paul and Peter were said to have been martyred there. Nero persecuted Roman Christians after Rome burned in 64, the congregation may have suffered further persecution under Domitian. Clement was the first of early Rome's most notable bishops; the Liber Pontificalis, which documents the reigns of popes, states that Clement had known Saint Peter. Clement is known for his epistle to the church in Corinth, in which he asserts the apostolic authority of the bishops/presbyters as rulers of the church; the epistle mentions episkopoi or presbyteroi as the upper class of minister, served by the deacons, since it does not mention himself, it gives no indication of the title or titles used for Clement in Rome.
According to apocryphal acta dating to the 4th century at earliest, Clement was banished from Rome to the Chersonesus during the reign of the Emperor Trajan and was set to work in a stone quarry. Finding on his arrival that the prisoners were suffering from lack of water, he knelt down in prayer. Looking up, he saw a lamb on a hill, went to where the lamb had stood and struck the ground with his pickaxe, releasing a gushing stream of clear water; this miracle resulted in the conversion of large numbers of the local pagans and his fellow prisoners to Christianity. As punishment, Saint Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown from a boat into the Black Sea; the legend recounts that every year a miraculous ebbing of the sea revealed a divinely built shrine containing his bones. However, the oldest sources on Clement's life and Jerome, note nothing
Pope Anacletus known as Cletus, was the third Bishop of Rome, following Saint Peter and Pope Linus. Anacletus served as pope between c. 79 and his death, c. 92. Cletus was a Roman, who during his tenure as Pope, is known to have ordained a number of priests and is traditionally credited with setting up about twenty-five parishes in Rome. Although the precise dates of his pontificate are uncertain, he "...died a martyr about 91". Cletus is mentioned in the Roman Canon of the mass; the name "Cletus" in Ancient Greek means "one, called," and "Anacletus" means "one, called back." "Anencletus" means "unimpeachable." The Roman Martyrology mentions the Pope in question only under the name of "Cletus." The Annuario Pontificio gives both forms as alternatives. Eusebius, Saint Irenaeus, Saint Augustine and Optatus all suggest that both names refer to the same individual. St. Cletus/Anacletus was traditionally understood to have been a Roman who served as pope for twelve years; the Annuario Pontificio states, "For the first two centuries, the dates of the start and the end of the pontificate are uncertain."
It gives the years 80 to 92 as the reign of Pope Cletus/Anacletus. Other sources give the years 77 to 88. According to tradition, Pope Anacletus divided Rome into twenty-five parishes. One of the few surviving records concerning his papacy mentions him as having ordained an uncertain number of priests, he died and was buried next to his predecessor, Saint Linus, near the grave of St. Peter's, in what is now Vatican City, his name is included in the Roman Canon of the Mass. The Tridentine Calendar reserved 26 April as the feast day of Saint Cletus, who the church honoured jointly with Saint Marcellinus, 13 July for Saint Anacletus. In 1960, Pope John XXIII, while keeping the 26 April feast, which mentions the saint under the name given to him in the Canon of the Mass, removed 13 July as a feast day for Saint Anacletus; the 14 February 1961 Instruction of the Congregation for Rites on the application to local calendars of Pope John XXIII's motu proprio Rubricarum instructum of 25 July 1960, decreed that "the feast of'Saint Anacletus,' on whatever ground and in whatever grade it is celebrated, is transferred to 26 April, under its right name,'Saint Cletus.'"
Use of this calendar, included in the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, continues to be authorized under the conditions indicated in the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum. Although the day of his death is unknown, Saint Cletus continues to be listed in the Roman Martyrology among the saints of 26 April. List of popes Donald Attwater and Catherine Rachel John, The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 3rd edition, New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4. Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book of Popes. Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8 (Reprint of the 1916 edition.. Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes. ISBN 0-06-065304-3 Writings attributed to Pope Anacletus/Cletus The Society of Pope Saint Anacletus, an Independent Catholic association in the United States
Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
The Papal Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls known as St. Paul's Outside the Walls, is one of Rome's four ancient, major basilicas, along with the basilicas of St. John in the Lateran, St. Peter's, St. Mary Major; the basilica is within Italian territory and not the territory of the Vatican City State, but the Holy See owns the Basilica, Italy is obligated to recognize its full ownership and to concede to it "the immunity granted by International Law to the headquarters of the diplomatic agents of foreign States". James Michael Harvey was named Archpriest of the basilica in 2012; the basilica was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I over the burial place of St. Paul, where it was said that, after the Apostle's execution, his followers erected a memorial, called a cella memoriae; this first basilica was consecrated by Pope Sylvester in 324. In 386, Emperor Theodosius I began erecting a much larger and more beautiful basilica with a nave and four aisles with a transept, it was consecrated around 402 by Pope Innocent I.
The work, including the mosaics, was not completed until Leo I's pontificate. In the 5th century it was larger than the Old St. Peter's Basilica; the Christian poet Prudentius, who saw it at the time of emperor Honorius, describes the splendours of the monument in a few expressive lines. Under Leo I, extensive repair work was carried out following the collapse of the roof on account of fire or lightening. In particular, the transept was presbytery installed; this was the first time that an altar was placed over the tomb of St. Paul, which remained untouched, but underground given Leo's newly elevated floor levels. Leo was responsible for fixing the triumphal arch and for restoring a fountain in the courtyard. Under Pope St. Gregory the Great the main altar and presbytery were extensively modified; the pavement in the transept was raised and a new altar was placed above the earlier altar erected by Leo I. The position was directly over St. Paul's sarcophagus. In that period there were two monasteries near the basilica: St. Aristus's for men and St. Stefano's for women.
Masses were celebrated by a special body of clerics instituted by Pope Simplicius. Over time the monasteries and the basilica's clergy declined; as it lay outside the Aurelian Walls, the basilica was damaged in the 9th century during a Saracen raid. Pope John VIII fortified the basilica, the monastery, the dwellings of the peasantry, forming the town of Johannispolis which existed until 1348, when an earthquake destroyed it. In 937, when Saint Odo of Cluny came to Rome, Alberic II of Spoleto, Patrician of Rome, entrusted the monastery and basilica to his congregation and Odo placed Balduino of Monte Cassino in charge. Pope Gregory VII was abbot of the monastery and in his time Pantaleone, a rich merchant of Amalfi who lived in Constantinople, presented the bronze doors of the basilica maior, which were executed by Constantinopolitan artists. Pope Martin V entrusted it to the monks of the Congregation of Monte Cassino, it was made an abbey nullius. The abbot's jurisdiction extended over the districts of Civitella San Paolo and Nazzano, all of which formed parishes.
The graceful cloister of the monastery was erected between 1220 and 1241. From 1215 until 1964 it was the seat of the Latin Patriarch of Alexandria. On 15 July 1823, a workman repairing the lead of the roof started a fire that led to the near total destruction of this basilica, alone among all the churches of Rome, had preserved much of its original character for 1435 years. Pope Leo XII issued, it was re-opened in 1840, reconsecrated in 1855 in the presence of Pope Pius IX and fifty cardinals. The basilica was reconstructed identically to what it had been before, utilizing all the elements which had survived the fire; the complete decoration and reconstruction, in charge of Luigi Poletti, took longer and many countries made their contributions. Muhammad Ali Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt sent pillars of alabaster, the Emperor of Russia the precious malachite and lapis lazuli of the tabernacle; the work on the principal façade, looking toward the Tiber, was completed by the Italian Government, which declared the church a national monument.
On 23 April 1891 the explosion of the gunpowder magazine at Forte Portuense destroyed the stained glass windows. On 31 May 2005 Pope Benedict XVI ordered the basilica to come under the control of an archpriest and he named Archbishop Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo as its first archpriest; the covered portico that precedes the façade is a Neo-classicist addition of the 19th-century reconstruction. On the right is the Holy Door, opened only during the Jubilees; the new basilica has maintained the original structure with four side aisles. It is 131.66 metres long, 65 metres -wide, 29.70 metres -high, the second largest in Rome. The nave's 80 columns and its wood and stucco-decorated ceiling are from the 19th century. All that remains of the ancient basilica are the interior portion of the apse with the triumphal arch; the mosaics of the apse were damaged in the 1823 fire. The 5th-century mosaics of the triumphal arch are original: an inscription in the lower section attest they were done a
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, which covers the northern regions of England as well as the Isle of Man; the Archbishop of York is an ex officio member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England. The archbishop's throne is in York Minster in central York and the official residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe outside York; the incumbent, from 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu who signs as +Sentamu Ebor:. Six of the early bishops of York and one archbishop were canonised by the Roman Catholic Church, five more recent archbishops achieved the supreme Archbishopric of Canterbury. There was a bishop in Eboracum from early times. Bishops of York are known to have been present at the councils of Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was destroyed by the pagan Anglo-Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones.
The diocese was refounded by Paulinus in the 7th century. Notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid; these early bishops of York acted as diocesan rather than archdiocesan prelates until the time of Ecgbert of York, who received the pallium from Pope Gregory III in 735 and established metropolitan rights in the north. Until the Danish invasion the archbishops of Canterbury exercised authority, it was not until the Norman Conquest that the archbishops of York asserted their complete independence. At the time of the Norman invasion York had jurisdiction over Worcester and Lincoln, as well as the dioceses in the Northern Isles and Scotland, but the first three sees just mentioned were taken from York in 1072. In 1154 the suffragan sees of the Isle of Man and Orkney were transferred to the Norwegian archbishop of Nidaros, in 1188 all the Scottish dioceses except Whithorn were released from subjection to York, so that only the dioceses of Whithorn and Carlisle remained to the archbishops as suffragan sees.
Of these, Durham was independent, for the palatine bishops of that see were little short of sovereigns in their own jurisdiction. Sodor and Man were returned to York during the 14th century, to compensate for the loss of Whithorn to the Scottish Church. Several of the archbishops of York held the ministerial office of Lord Chancellor of England and played some parts in affairs of state; as Peter Heylyn wrote: "This see has yielded to the Church eight saints, to the Church of Rome three cardinals, to the realm of England twelve Lord Chancellors and two Lord Treasurers, to the north of England two Lord Presidents." The bishopric's role was complicated by continued conflict over primacy with the see of Canterbury. At the time of the English Reformation, York possessed three suffragan sees, Durham and Sodor and Man, to which during the brief space of Queen Mary I's reign may be added the Diocese of Chester, founded by Henry VIII, but subsequently recognised by the Pope; until the mid 1530s the bishops and archbishops were in communion with the pope in Rome.
This is no longer the case, as the Archbishop of York, together with the rest of the Church of England, is a member of the Anglican Communion. Walter de Grey purchased York Place as his London residence, which after the fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, was renamed the Palace of Whitehall; the Archbishop of York is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England after the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since 5 October 2005, the incumbent is the Most Reverend John Sentamu, an ex officio member of the House of Lords; the Province of York includes 10 Anglican dioceses in Northern England: Blackburn, Chester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and York, as well as 2 other dioceses: Southwell and Nottingham in the Midlands and Sodor and Man covering the Isle of Man. Accord of Winchester Story, Joanna. "Bede and the Letters of Pope Honorius I on the Genesis of the Archbishopric of York". English Historical Review. Cxxvii: 783–818. Doi:10.1093/ehr/ces142.
Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League; the city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC. The city was famed for the nearby Temple of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Among many other monumental buildings are the Library of Celsus, a theatre capable of holding 25,000 spectators. Ephesos was one of the seven churches of Asia; the Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th-century Christian Councils; the city was destroyed by the Goths in 263, although rebuilt, the city's importance as a commercial centre declined as the harbour was silted up by the Küçükmenderes River. It was destroyed by an earthquake in AD 614; the ruins of Ephesus are a favourite international and local tourist attraction owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport or from the cruise ship port of Kuşadası, some 30 km to the South.
The area surrounding Ephesus was inhabited during the Neolithic Age, as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük of Arvalya and Cukurici. Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at Ayasuluk Hill. According to Hittite sources, the capital of the Kingdom of Arzawa was Apasa; some scholars suggest that this is the Greek Ephesus. In 1954, a burial ground from the Mycenaean era with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John; this was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi settled in Asia Minor during the 14th and 13th centuries BC. The names Apasa and Ephesus appear to be cognate, found inscriptions seem to pinpoint the places in the Hittite record. Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on a hill, three kilometers from the centre of ancient Ephesus; the mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, King Kodros.
According to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place. Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder, he was a successful warrior, as a king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. During his reign the city began to prosper, he died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze. Greek historians such as Pausanias and Herodotos and the poet Kallinos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons; the Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building of the ancient world according to Pausanias. Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus, before the arrival of the Ionians.
Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains. Ancient sources seem to indicate. About 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. After the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. Following a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council; the city prospered again under a new rule, producing a number of important historical figures such as the elegiac poet Callinus and the iambic poet Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus. About 560 BC, Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus, though a harsh ruler, treated the inhabitants with respect and became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis, his signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple. Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city.
In the same century, the Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians refused a peace offer from siding with the Lydians instead. After the Persians defeated Croesus, the Ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire, they were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC. The Persians incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire; those cities were ruled by satraps. Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbou
Linus was the second Bishop of Rome, is listed by the Catholic Church as the second pope. His papacy lasted from c. AD 67 to his death. Among those to have held the position of pope, Peter and Clement are mentioned in the New Testament. Linus is mentioned in the closing greeting of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul in Rome near the end of Paul's life; the earliest witness to Linus's status as bishop was Irenaeus, who in about the year 180 wrote, "The blessed apostles having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes interprets Irenaeus as classifying Linus as the first bishop of Rome. Linus is presented by Jerome as "the first after Peter to be in charge of the Roman Church" and by Eusebius as "the first to receive the episcopate of the church at Rome, after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter". John Chrysostom wrote, "This Linus, some say, was second Bishop of the Church of Rome after Peter", while the Liberian Catalogue presents Peter as the first Bishop of Rome and Linus as his successor in the same office.
The Liber Pontificalis presents a list that makes Linus the second in the line of bishops of Rome, after Peter, while stating that Peter consecrated two bishops and Anacletus, for the priestly service of the community, devoting himself instead to prayer and preaching, that it was to Clement that he entrusted the Church as a whole, appointing him as his successor. Tertullian too wrote of Clement as the successor of Peter. Jerome classified Clement as "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter", adding that, "most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the apostle."The Apostolic Constitutions denote that Linus, consecrated by Paul, was the first bishop of Rome and was succeeded by Clement, ordained and consecrated by Peter. Cletus is considered Linus's successor by Irenaeus, the others cited above, who present Linus either as the first bishop of Rome or, if they give Peter as the first, as the second; the Liberian Catalogue and the Liber Pontificalis date Linus's episcopate to 56–67, during the reign of Nero, but Jerome dates it to 67–78, Eusebius puts the end of his episcopate at the second year of the reign of Titus.
Linus is mentioned in the closing greeting of the Second Epistle to Timothy. In that epistle, Linus is noted as being with Paul in Rome near the end of Paul's life. Irenæus stated that this is the same Linus who became Bishop of Rome, a view, still accepted. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Linus was an Italian born in Volterra in the Tuscany region, his father's name was recorded as Herculanus. The Apostolic Constitutions name his mother as Claudia. According to Liber Pontificalis, Linus issued a decree that women should cover their heads in church, created the first fifteen bishops, that he died a martyr and was buried on the Vatican Hill next to Peter, it gives the date of his death as 23 the date on which his feast is still celebrated. His name is included in the Roman Canon of the Mass. With respect to Linus's supposed decree requiring women to cover their heads, J. P. Kirsch commented in the Catholic Encyclopedia: "Without doubt this decree is apocryphal, copied by the author of the Liber Pontificalis from Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians and arbitrarily attributed to the first successor of the Apostle in Rome.
The statement made in the same source, that Linus suffered martyrdom, cannot be proved and is improbable. For between Nero and Domitian there is no mention of any persecution of the Roman Church; the entry about him is as follows: "At Rome, commemoration of Saint Linus, who, according to Irenaeus, was the person to whom the blessed Apostles entrusted the episcopal care of the Church founded in the City, whom blessed Paul the Apostle mentions as associated with him."A tomb found in St. Peter's Basilica in 1615 by Torrigio was inscribed with the letters LINVS, was once taken to be Linus's tomb; however a note by Torrigio shows that these were the last five letters of a longer name. A letter on the martyrdom of Peter and Paul was once attributed to him, but in fact dates to the 6th century. List of Catholic saints List of popes Papal selection before 1059 Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book of Popes. Merchantville, New Jersey: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope St. Linus".
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company