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Pope John XIII

Pope John XIII was Pope from 1 October 965 to his death in 972. His pontificate was caught up in the continuing conflict between the Emperor, Otto I, the Roman nobility. Born in Rome, John was the son of Giovanni, a bishop, it has been conjectured that his father was the Roman noble Giovanni Crescentius, a member of the Crescentii family who had married into the family of Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum. If so, his father had been a duke, even appointed consul, prior to his ordination as bishop. John was the brother of Crescentius the Elder, as well as Stephania, lady of Palestrina and Marozia, who married Gregory I, Count of Tusculum. Brought up at the Lateran palace, he was a member of the schola cantorum, his career during that time saw him pass through a number of positions, including that of Ostiarius, Reader and Acolyte before reaching the ranks of Subdeacon and Deacon. After leaving the schola, he took an active part in papal administration, serving in the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs under popes John XII and Leo VIII.

He served as Librarian of the Holy Apostolic See in 961. At some point he was appointed as the bishop of Narni, as which he participated in the Synod of Rome which deposed Pope John XII, as well as the Synod of Rome which saw his restoration. After the death of Leo VIII, the Roman nobility asked the Emperor, Otto I for the reinstatement of Pope Benedict V; when this was not possible, Bishop John Crescentius was suggested as a compromise candidate by Otto's envoys, the bishops Otger of Spiers and Liutprand of Cremona. Elected unanimously, John was consecrated on Sunday, 1 October 965, five months after the death of Leo VIII. John took on the task of curbing the power of the Roman nobility, he gave members of the Crescentii family important positions to shore up his support, while he sought closer ties with the emperor. However, with the emperor back in Germany, various local powers decided to take advantage of his absence to intrigue against John XIII; the former king Adalbert of Italy had appeared in front of an army in Lombardy, whilst the Roman nobility, disliking John's behaviour, resenting his imposition by a foreign power, staged a revolt.

Under the leadership of Peter, the Prefect of the city, together with Rofred, the Count of Roman Campagna and the Vestararius Stephen, they roused the Roman nobility by declaring that ”The Saxon kings were going to destroy their power and influence, were going to lead their children into captivity.” The leaders of the Roman militia captured the pope on December 16, 965, imprisoned him in Castel Sant'Angelo. However, fearing John's presence there would inspire resistance from his followers, the pope was moved to one of Rofred's castles in the Campagna. Word reached Otto of all these disturbances, who entered Italy in late summer of 966 at the head of an enormous army. In the meantime, John had managed to escape from Campagna, made his way to Capua, placing himself under the protection of Pandulf Ironhead. In thanks for Pandulf's aid, John converted Capua into a Metropolitan see, consecrated as its first archbishop Pandulf's brother John, on August 14, 966. In Rome, the pope's supporters rose up, Rofred and Stephen were killed by John Crescentius, the pope's nephew.

Pope John left Capua, crossed into Sabina, where he was met by his brother-in-law, who offered John his support. With Rome back in his hands, John returned and was welcomed back into the city on November 14, 966. Although he was lenient towards the rebels, the arrival of Otto saw a change in approach; the emperor banished to Germany the two men appointed consul. Other plotters were either blinded; the Prefect of the City, was handed over to John, who ordered him to be hung by his hair from the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, after which he was taken down, placed naked and backwards on an ass. A bag of feathers was placed two more at his thighs. With a bell fastened round its neck, Peter was driven through the city, after being thus exposed to the ridicule of the people, Peter was cast into a dungeon before being sent by the emperor into Germany. In gratitude for the emperor's intervention, John lauded him by declaring him to be the liberator and restorer of the Church, the illustrious guest, three times blessed emperor.

In 969, he met Gerbert d'Aurillac, the future Pope Sylvester II, was so impressed by his scholarly brilliance that he kept him on in Rome in order to learn from him. After John XIII's restoration, he worked with the Emperor on ecclesiastical improvements, it was decided in a council held at Rome in the beginning of 967 in the emperor's presence that Grado was to be the patriarchal and metropolitan church of the whole of the Veneto. At another council at Ravenna in April 967, Otto again “restored to the apostolic Pope John the city and territory of Ravenna and many other possessions which had for some time been lost to the Popes.” At around this time he created, at Otto's request, the Archbishopric of Magdeburg. On Christmas Day in 967, John XIII crowned Otto I's son Otto II as co-Emperor. Various synods were held before the emperors left Rome for the south of Italy, in which, sometimes at their request, John XIII took several German monasteries under his special protection, or decided that in some cases they were to remain forever “under the patronage of the kings or emperors.”

With Otto I seeking a marriage alliance with the Byzantine Empire t

2017 Czech Social Democratic Party leadership election

The Czech Social Democratic Party leadership election of 2017 was held on 10 March 2017, prior October 2017 legislative elections. The current leader and Prime Minister of the Czech Republic Bohuslav Sobotka was the only candidate. According to Hospodářské Noviny Sobotka said that he would seek another term as the leader of ČSSD only if the party succeeded in the 2016 regional and Senate elections, defining success as the ČSSD remaining the strongest party at the regional level and in the Senate; the se words were late commented as misinterpreted. When the ČSSD was defeated in both sets of elections, speculation began that the Governor of South Bohemia Jiří Zimola would run against Sobotka due to his performance in the regional elections and his criticism of Sobotka, saying that Sobotka should reconsider his candidature for leadership. Zimola stated that he thought Sobotka could remain Prime Minister until the 2017 elections if the ČSSD was led by someone else. Zimola said that he would not run for the party leadership as he did not want to divide the party.

Sobotka was endorsed by 12 regional organisations of the party. South Bohemian organisation refused to support Sobotka's candidature. Bohuskav Sobotka was reelected. Though Sobotka was reelected the result was considered a proof of low support for his politics in the party though he stated that he believes he has a strong mandate

Kevin Williamson (writer)

Kevin Williamson is a writer and activist from Caithness. He was an activist for the Scottish Socialist Party, he was the architect of their radical drug policy, which included the legalisation of cannabis and the provision under the National Health Service of free synthetic heroin to addicts under medical supervision to combat the problems of drugs in working class communities. He wrote "Rebel Ink", for the Scottish Socialist Voice. In 1992 Williamson launched a literary magazine called Rebel Inc and through its pages was one of the first publishers of such Scottish writers as Irvine Welsh, Laura Hird, Alan Warner, Toni Davidson, he has championed such major Scottish writers as James Kelman, Duncan McLean, Gordon Legge and Alasdair Gray. In 1996 Williamson joined forces with Edinburgh-based Canongate Books to create the Rebel Inc imprint which, in the following five years, published sixty titles, mixing Scottish fiction with the international counter-culture and the politics of dissent. Within the Rebel Inc imprint Williamson re-published a series of out of print titles under the heading of Rebel Inc Classics that included writers such as Richard Brautigan, Alexander Trocchi, Charles Bukowski, Nelson Algren, John Fante, Knut Hamsun, Jim Dodge, Robert Sabbag and Jack London.

He is a long-time campaigner for the legalisation of cannabis, unsuccessfully tried to open a "hash cafe" in Edinburgh. In 1997 Williamson went on a "National Change The Drug Laws" tour with former cannabis smuggler Howard Marks. In 1999, Williamson stood as an SSP candidate in the first elections to the Scottish Parliament in the Edinburgh Central constituency. In 2001, he stood again for the SSP in Edinburgh Central in the Westminster General Election. In 2003, Williamson became the first person to be physically ejected by the police from the Scottish Parliament when he made an anti-war protest wearing a George Bush mask. Williamson is strong supporter of Independence First. However, in contrast to the civic nationalism of the Scottish National Party, his nationalism is inspired by what he sees as the unique qualities of the Scottish people, noting that "the English are a justice-loving people, according to charter and statute" whose legislature "accentuates stuffy tradition and order, rules and regulations, keeping social order", whereas the Scots put "more emphasis on openness and addressing social concerns".

He suggested that Unionism is an intrinsically "right wing" concern, compared to the "progressive" nature of Scots and Scottish nationalists. In August 2006, in the aftermath of Tommy Sheridan's libel case against the News of the World, Williamson parted company with the Scottish Socialist Party. In November 2007, Williamson signalled a clear break with party politics and his previous Marxian background in an article entitled Scotland's Libertarian Left, published by Bella Caledonia - a free newspaper Williamson co-edits aimed at stimulating discussion around left libertarian and Scottish republican ideas. Since acrimoniously parting company with Canongate Books, Williamson has worked as a newspaper columnist and cultural commentator appearing in print and on television and radio. In 2002, his regular weekly column in The Herald was controversially axed because of his outspoken views on Israel, his published work includes "A Visitor's Guide To Edinburgh", "Drugs and the Party Line". His poetry has been published in magazines.

In 2005, he won the Robert Louis Stevenson Award for literature. His first collection of poetry, "In A Room Darkened", was published by Two Ravens Press in October 2007. Williamson was a contributor to Pax Edina: The One O' Clock Gun Anthology Since 2011, Williamson has been involved in Neu! Reekie! Selected poetry by Williamson Letter of Resignation from SSP

James Motley

James Motley was a Yorkshireman associated with South Wales and Borneo. Born in Leeds, the son of Thomas Motley and Caroline Osburn, sister of noted Egyptologist William Osburn. James was educated at St Peter's School, in St John's College, Cambridge, he spent at least some of his youth in South Wales where his father, a woolstapler, had investments in iron and tin works, being an early partner in the Maesteg Ironworks, Yskyn Colliery at Briton Ferry, Margam tinworks, the Dafen tinworks at Llanelli. He published a volume of poetry Tales of Cymry in 1848, he worked as an manager. After the family hit substantial financial problems, he went out to Labuan in 1849 to pioneer coal mining and other enterprises for the Eastern Archipelago Company, he was accompanied by his wife and a brother and made the most of opportunities to study the natural history. He did not have a good relationship with the other naturalist in Labuan at the time, Hugh Low, but he corresponded with some eminent geologists and botanists William Jackson Hooker at Kew Gardens, William Mitten.

He sent specimens to various places. The council of the learned society of his home city, the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, was appreciative of his contributions to their museum, calling him "one of its most useful and disinterested friends", he left the Eastern Archipelago Company in acrimonious circumstances in 1853 but, after some time in Singapore and exploring the coast of Sumatra, he obtained a similar job as superintendent of the private Julia Hermina coal mine at Kalangan, south-east of Banjarmasin in South Eastern Borneo where he, his wife, two daughters, a son made good progress until a local uprising at the start of the Bandjermasin War cost their lives, along with all the other Europeans living in the area. Had he lived longer it is arguable that he might have been comparable to his near contemporary in both South Wales and Borneo, Alfred Russel Wallace, they both contributed to Lewis Weston Dillwyn's natural history book presented to participants in the 1848 British Association Conference in Swansea and Wallace acquired some specimens of Borneon birds collected by Motley, as recorded by British Museum catalogues of the late 19th century.

Some of the ethnobotanical specimens he sent to Kew were transferred to the British Museum and can be seen online. His name provides the basis for the generic name Motleyia and the specific name of a number of Malesian plants, the first two being named by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott in 1858, including the fruit tree Baccaurea motleyana

Stubbe – Von Fall zu Fall

Stubbe – Von Fall zu Fall is a German crime detective television series starring Wolfgang Stumph as detective Stubbe. It is being broadcast on ZDF, the second German public television channel since 1995. Stubbe chronicles the life of Wilfried Stubbe, a Hamburg police detective, in a both work- and family-related way. Stubbe lives with his daughter Christiane, his wife Caroline — until the character's death in the episode "Auf Liebe und Tod" — and his aunt-in-law Charlotte. Together with his colleague Bernd Zimmermann, Stubbe has to solve a variety of criminal acts committed in all circles of the Hamburg society. Stubbe is produced in Hamburg; the house in which Stubbe lives is located in the district of Moorfleet directly at the dike. Apart from Hamburg, other locations were used to film some sequences, for example Boizenburg and Dresden. Wolfgang Stumph as Wilfried Stubbe - Stubbe is the main focus of the show, he is a quiet and professional detective with the Hamburg police with a sense of humor.

Unlike his colleague, Stubbe is more receptive to emotions who trusts his gut. After his wife's death, he has a hard time trying to cope with the new role as a widower. Lutz Mackensy as Bernd Zimmermann - Zimmermann is Stubbe's counterpart and colleague. Unlike Stubbe, he prefers to deal with facts. Marie Gruber and Renate Krößner as Caroline Stubbe - Stubbe's wife and mother of Christiane, she works as a saleswoman in the beginning but founded her own business. She dies due to an embolism after being hit by a car in the episode Auf Liebe und Tod. Stephanie Stumph as Christiane Stubbe - Christiane is Stubbe's daughter. After the death of her mother, she begins to study journalism. Margret Homeyer as Charlotte Hoyn - Charlotte is Caroline's aunt who goes on to live with Stubbe, she has weird hobbies and her character serves as a running gag in the show. Stubbe is the most successful ZDF detective series, with 6-7 million viewers on average and 15-20% market share; the series has been praised for the way it displays a police inspector with real family troubles to handle.

Wolfgang Stumph has received several awards for his portrayal of Stubbe, amongst them the Bayerischer Fernsehpreis in 2004. Since the median age of the ZDF audience is 58, Stubbe has been used to attract younger audiences with storylines that focus more on the problems of teenagers and half its audience is younger than 50. Stubbe – Von Fall zu Fall at Stubbe – Von Fall zu Fall on IMDb

Virke Lehtinen

Virke Lehtinen is a Finnish film director, film producer and screenwriter. He is the main owner of Filmiryhmä Oy, a Finnish film production company which started in 1964. Lehtinen's first breakthrough film project was the short film Tori in 1962, it was the incentive which gave the start for the carriers of director Erkko Kivikoski 27 and cinematographer Virke Lehtinen, 22, with experienced editor Juho Gartz 30. Their film won Silver Bear for Best Short Film of the Berlin International Film Festival. Next year the trio made the feature Kesällä kello 5, which got an enormous popularity and personal awards for the trio and entered 14th Berlin International Film Festival. Kivikoski and Gartz wanted to start a production company of their own, they wanted along Virke Lehtinen, who had left for Paris, his aim was to study film making and enter Institut des hautes études cinématographiques. He could however not find the famous film school, but he was lucky to make acquaintance with some excellent film makers.

First and foremost Virke Lehtinen appreciates, that director Jean-Paul Le Chanois gave the young film maker a great opportunity to accompany his working. This strengthened Lehtinen's professional attitude and his lasting love for the French art of film making - and above all it made him to understand the warm humanism Le Chanois had. Lehtinen had to return Helsinki; the new film was a commercial flop, however. The trio started their common production company, they gave it the name Filmiryhmä Oy - because the name depicts their ideals of working as a team, the name was modern then. Company didn't get any financing for a new feature, when the trio tried to get financiers for their short films, it was falling into boycott of the big traditional production companies. After one year Kivikoski and Gartz were bored of being producers, thus Virke Lehtinen was forced to stay alone to end a couple of started productions, he made his first short Onninen with the talented and popular actor Leo Jokela in 1968.

The script was by Anssi Mänttäri. Onninen was shown on several festivals. To keep his production company going, Lehtinen made partnerships with some banks and big industrial companies, started some productions and some long time sponsor relations, he asked his old friend Aito Mäkinen. They produced a big number of shorts their first TV-documentary The Berlin Film Festival. In 1968 Mäkinen directed the first feature of the company Vain neljä kertaa, in 1969 Virke Lehtinen directed in Lapland his first feature Muurahaispolku, it got the Finnish State Film Award. Company started to get fame, it produced educational films. Their social documentary Silta was awarded as the best European industrial film, they made "The Finnish way” for Finnair, Marimekko and in Lapland "Reindeer", awarded in Venice. In 1975 Virke Lehtinen started to prepare a feature to be made in Lapland, ”Fires on the Arctic”; the project was interrupted. It got the name Diana. Before its opening Filmiryhmä was in boycott: big cinema companies didn't accept the new player to the market, not a small art house cinema.

Big companies imported traditional films, they could make agreements with the American distributors, who needed more cinema chains than a single small cinema. Lehtinen and Mäkinen decided to import own films for Diana; the other cinemas around Finland didn't show the films of Diana. Lehtinen and Mäkinen were forced to open other own cinemas, by the names Amanda. During 15 years Diana imported cinema classics and modern films, it introduced in Finland to new film countries and both new directors. There were more than 80 French films, the Japanese film culture was presented with more than 30 films; the company imported more than 200 films around the world. They showed every independent Finnish film on 16 mm. Diana created a new film culture in Finland, it had a faithful audience which grew bigger. At that time in Finland, there were no film foundations to support cinema culture. To be able to import new films for the small cinemas - all between 85 and 180 seats, to pay the advertising and marketing, Virke Lehtinen was forced to travel around Finland and beyond.

He made a big number of documentaries, like Work Työ which won the main award at Chicago International Film Festival. At that time, Lehtinen's the second feature Kolme miestä, script by Lehtinen and Solja Kievari, shot in Lapland; the dream of the film project ”Fires” was pushed forward, again. Diana cinemas, which started in 1976 by the film of Bertrand Tavernier, Que la fête commence were closed in 1992 by the remarkable film of Louis Malle, Au revoir les enfants. One of the most beautiful periods of the Finnish cinema culture was over. From that golden period of film, Mäkinen and Lehtinen made a beautiful documentary Public Shadows. In the same year when Virke Lehtinen ended Diana, he presented at the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam IDFA his project ”Fires”, now as documentary; the reception was so overwhelming, that he decided to make his ”Fires” as feature as he planned. Planning and writing take time, collecting financing takes time, his latest documentary Hazards, 2013, has been shown on many internati