Pope John XXI, born Peter Juliani, was Pope from 8 September 1276 to his death in 1277. Apart from Damasus I, he has been the only Portuguese pope, he is sometimes identified with the logician and herbalist Peter of Spain, which would make him the only pope to have been a physician."Pope John XXI" was the 19th pope named John, but decided to skip the number XX. Pedro Julião was born in Lisbon between 1210 and 1220, he started his studies at the episcopal school of Lisbon Cathedral and joined the University of Paris, although some historians claim that he was educated at Montpellier. Wherever he studied, he concentrated on medicine, logic, physics and Aristotle's dialectic, he is traditionally and identified with the medical author Peter of Spain, an important figure in the development of logic and pharmacology. Peter of Spain taught at the University of Siena in the 1240s and his Summulae Logicales was used as a university textbook on Aristotelian logic for the next three centuries. At the court in Lisbon, he was the spokesman for King Afonso III in church matters.
He became prior of Guimarães. He was Archdeacon of Vermoim in the Archdiocese of Braga, he was defeated. Instead, he became the Master of the school of Lisbon. Peter became the physician of Pope Gregory X early in his reign. In March 1273 he did not assume that post. After the death of Pope Adrian V on 18 August 1276, Peter was elected Pope on 8 September, he was crowned a week on 20 September. One of John XXI's few acts during his brief reign was the reversal of a decree passed at the Second Council of Lyon. Though much of John XXI's brief papacy was dominated by the powerful Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, who succeeded him as Pope Nicholas III, John attempted to launch a crusade for the Holy Land, pushed for a union with the Eastern church, did what he could to maintain peace between the Christian nations, he launched a mission to convert the Tatars, but he died before it could start. To secure the necessary quiet for his medical studies, he had an apartment added to the papal palace at Viterbo, to which he could retire when he wished to work undisturbed.
On 14 May 1277, while the pope was alone in this apartment, it collapsed. He was buried in the Duomo di Viterbo. After his death, it was rumored that John XXI had been a necromancer, a suspicion directed towards the few scholars among medieval popes, it was said that his death had been an act of God, stopping him from completing a heretical treatise. Since the works of "Peter of Spain" continued to be studied and appreciated, Dante Alighieri placed "Pietro Spano" in his Paradiso's Sphere of the Sun with the spirits of other great religious scholars. List of popes Guiraud, J. and L. Cadier, Les registres de Grégoire X et de Jean XXI. Walter, Die Politik der Kurie unter Gregor X. Stapper, Papst Johannes XXI. Eine Monographie. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V. part 2, second edition, revised. H. D. Sedgwick, Italy in the Thirteenth Century Volume II. Mazzi-Belli, V. "Pietro Hispano papa Giovanni XXI," Rivista di storia della medicina 15, 39-87. Morceau, Joseph, "Un pape portugais: Jean XXI, dénommé Pierre d'Espagne," Teoresi 24, 391-407.
Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present, Thames & Hudson, 2002, p. 119. ISBN 0-500-01798-0. José Francisco Meirinhos: Giovanni XXI. In: Massimo Bray: Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Vol. 2, Rome, 2000, OCLC 313581688 Meirinho, José Francisco. "Giovanni XXI, papa". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Volume 55: Ginammi–Giovanni da Crema. Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana. Jean Claude Bologne: La Naissance Interdite. Orban, Paris, 1988, ISBN 2-85565-434-3. Michael Hanst. "Johannes XXI". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 3. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 224–228. ISBN 3-88309-035-2. Joachim Telle: Petrus Hispanus in der altdeutschen Medizinliteratur und Texte unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des ‚Thesaurus pauperum‘. 2 vols. Heidelberg, 1972. Literature by and about Pope John XXI in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Pope John XXI in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek J. P. Kirsch: Art.
Pope John XXI, in: The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. VIII Salvino Leone: John XXI: The physician who became pope at the Wayback Machine Joke Spruyt: Peter of Spain, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The green national product is an economic metric that seeks to include environmental features such as environmental degradation and resource depletion with a country's national product. The gross national product measures the welfare of a nation's economy through the aggregate of products and services produced in that nation. Although GNP is a proficient measurement of the magnitude of the economy, many economists, environmentalists and citizens have been arguing the validity of the GNP in respect to measuring welfare. Joseph Stiglitz, Nobel Prize–winning economist, states that this standard measurement for any national economy has become deficient as a measure of long-term economic health in our resource-driven and globalizing world. Critics suggest that GNP includes the environment on the wrong side of the balance sheet because if someone first pollutes and another person cleans the pollution, both activities add to GNP making environmental degradation look good for the economy. Critics of mainstream economics complain that GNP compiles spending that makes us worse off, spending that allows us to stay in the same place, spending that makes us better off all in a single measure, giving a nation no clue if they are making progress or not.
Manfred Max-Neef, Chilean economist, explains that politicians feel that it is irrelevant whether the spending is productive, unproductive, or destructive. In this sense, it is common to see political policies that call to depredate a natural resource in order to increase the GNP. To take into account the environmental depredation and resource depletion, there is a call to shift away from the traditional GNP and construct an assessment of national product that takes into account environmental effects. Since the Industrial Revolution and economists have warned of an inflection point for the United States economy where expansion is limited by the decreasing availability of natural resources. In 1973, William D. Nordhaus and James Tobin, Yale economists, were the first to question the GNP in "is growth obsolete?" Nordhaus and Tobin developed a Measure of Economic Welfare and stated that welfare must be sustainable, in the sense that nations that devour their stock of capital are not as "well" as the national income would suggest.
However, in "The Green National Product", Clifford Cobb and John Cobb argue that the Measure of Economic Welfare failed to encompass the depletion of natural capital. In 1989, Herman Daly, John Cobb, Clifford Cobb created what is known as the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare; this new measurement of welfare was created in the hopes that it would replace the flawed GNP. Herman Daly stated that the key flaw of the traditional GNP was that it ignored core accounting principles of business where all revenues and expenses are allocated to income. ISEW called for ecological and economic sustainability to coincide since the economy is dependent on the natural resources that the earth provides. Rather than the original GNP, ISEW takes into account costs that are unsustainable. By creating ISEW, they wanted to expand the current national product so that individuals and governments could take actions that will enhance welfare, rather than enhancing the traditional GNP. In 1995, Redefining Progress created the genuine progress indicator as an alternative to the traditional GNP.
This new measurement of national income would allow policymakers to gauge how well citizens are and socially. Unlike welfare adjustments in the past like MEW and ISEW, GPI adjusts not only for environmental depredation, but for income distribution, volunteering, changes in leisure time, life-span of consumer durables and public infrastructure; this was one of the first alternatives to the traditional GNP to be used by the scientific community and governmental organizations globally. In 1992, the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the U. S. Department of Commerce initiated intensive work to create an environmental accounting system; the BEA began by creating satellite accounts with measurable commodities such as petroleum and coal. The first BEA publication was the U. S. Integrated Environmental and Economic Satellite Accounts in 1994; the initial results were quite significant, showed how GNP was overestimating the impact of mining industries in respect to the nations economic wealth. Mining companies didn't care for the initial publications, for obvious reasons, soon Alan Mollohan, a Democratic House Representative from West Virginia's coal country, sponsored an amendment to the 1995 Appropriation Bill.
In response, Congress directed the BEA to suspend further work in environmental accounting, to obtain an external review on their findings. Many people are calling for a green national product that would indicate if activities benefit or harm the economy and well-being; this green national product would revolve around the social and economic issues on which many green movements have focused: care for the earth and all that sustain it. This new national product would differ from the traditional GNP by addressing both the sustainability and well-being of the planet and its inhabitants, it is essential that this system takes into account natural capital, hidden from our traditional measurement. Bhutan GNH Index Genuine progress indicator Green gross domestic product Gross National Happiness Happiness economics Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare
These are the episodes of the anime television series Kimba the White Lion. The series ran from October 6, 1965, to September 28, 1966, in Japan and from September 11, 1966, to September 3, 1967, in the United States. There were two English dubs produced for this anime series; the first English dub was produced by Titan Productions for NBC Enterprises to license and run in syndication in the United States, with a handful of talented voice actors. Despite the fact that they dubbed all 52 episodes of the series, 49 of them have been aired in a mixed-up order in the United States, due to the NBC catalog order of how they aired them in sequence. On September 30, 1978, the license for NBC to hold the rights to the English dub has dropped due to the bankruptcy of Mushi Productions earlier in 1973. Afterwards, the Titan Productions English dub was no longer available to view at that time. In 1993, Fumio Suzuki made plans to bring the series to television once more to the English-speaking market. After the legal battles of, going to gain ownership, a Canadian company from Toronto known as Zaza Sound Productions Ltd. won the rights to produce a second English dub of the anime series with a handful of Canadian voice actors, as well as airing this dub in several English-speaking regions, with CEG Distribution distributing the series.
Landmark Entertainment Group Inc. Susuki Associates and CEG Cinema Partners have contributed to this dub. Fans have labeled this as the "Canadian dub", it was said to be a remake of the 1966 US English dub, with a more faithful translation of the original Japanese scripts, but had to create a whole new soundtrack composed by Paul J. Zaza, since they were unable to use the original soundtrack composed by Isao Tomita, used in the 1966 US English dub; this version was more edited including heavy cuts and changes. In 1995, A low-budget American company known as UAV Corporation released a limited number of episodes of the 1993 Canadian English re-dub on VHS in North America, under the title Kimba the Lion Prince. Osamu Tezuka
Centre Academy East Anglia known as The Old Rectory School is an independent special school in Brettenham, founded in 1981. The school offers an educational opportunity for children with dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, AD/HD and related SpLD, it is well known for its specialist, whole school approach and attempts to return pupils to mainstream education. Boarding places are available; the school's curriculum is designed for children with specific learning difficulties aged 8–19. Pupils have access to balanced National Curriculum. Classes are small and set by ability, not year group. English and Maths are taught in groups of no more than 7.
In mathematics, a finite subdivision rule is a recursive way of dividing a polygon or other two-dimensional shape into smaller and smaller pieces. Subdivision rules in a sense are generalizations of regular geometric fractals. Instead of repeating the same design over and over, they have slight variations in each stage, allowing a richer structure while maintaining the elegant style of fractals. Subdivision rules have been used in architecture and computer science, as well as in the study of hyperbolic manifolds. Substitution tilings are a well-studied type of subdivision rule. A subdivision rule takes a tiling of the plane by polygons and turns it into a new tiling by subdividing each polygon into smaller polygons, it is finite. Each way of subdividing a tile is called a tile type; each tile type is represented by a label. Every tile type subdivides into smaller tile types; each edge gets subdivided according to finitely many edge types. Finite subdivision rules can only subdivide tilings that are made up of polygons labelled by tile types.
Such tilings are called subdivision complexes for the subdivision rule. Given any subdivision complex for a subdivision rule, we can subdivide it over and over again to get a sequence of tilings. For instance, binary subdivision has one tile type and one edge type: Since the only tile type is a quadrilateral, binary subdivision can only subdivide tilings made up of quadrilaterals; this means. The tiling can be regular, but doesn't have to be: Here we start with a complex made of four quadrilaterals and subdivide it twice. All quadrilaterals are type A tiles. Barycentric subdivision is an example of a subdivision rule with one tile type. Any triangulated surface is a barycentric subdivision complex; the Penrose tiling can be generated by a subdivision rule on a set of four tile types: Certain rational maps give rise to finite subdivision rules. This includes most Lattès maps; every prime, non-split alternating knot or link complement has a subdivision rule, with some tiles that do not subdivide, corresponding to the boundary of the link complement.
The subdivision rules show what the night sky would look like to someone living in a knot complement. The subdivision rule describes that pattern; the subdivision rule looks different for different geometries. This is a subdivision rule for the trefoil knot, not a hyperbolic knot: And this is the subdivision rule for the Borromean rings, hyperbolic: In each case, the subdivision rule would act on some tiling of a sphere, but it is easier to just draw a small part of the night sky, corresponding to a single tile being subdivided; this is what happens for the trefoil knot: And for the Borromean rings: Subdivision rules can be generalized to other dimensions. For instance, barycentric subdivision is used in all dimensions. Binary subdivision can be generalized to other dimensions, as in the proof of the Heine–Borel theorem. A finite subdivision rule R consists of the following.1. A finite 2-dimensional CW complex S R, called the subdivision complex, with a fixed cell structure such that S R is the union of its closed 2-cells.
We assume that for each closed 2-cell s ~ of S R there is a CW structure s on a closed 2-disk such that s has at least two vertices, the vertices and edges of s are contained in ∂ s, the characteristic map ψ s: s → S R which maps onto s ~ restricts to a homeomorphism onto each open cell. 2. A finite two dimensional CW complex R, a subdivision of S R. 3. A continuous cellular map ϕ R: R → S R called the subdivision map, whose restriction to every open cell is a homeomorphism onto an open cell; each CW complex s. An R -complex for a subdivision rule R is a 2-dimensional CW complex X, the union of its closed 2-cells, together with a continuous cellular map f: X → S R whose restriction to each open cell is a homeomorphism. We can subdivide X into a complex R by requiring that the ind
Katrin Krabbe is a German former track and field athlete. She represented East Germany at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, went on to win the 100 metres and 200 metres titles at the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo, representing a unified Germany, her best times are 21.95 secs for 200m. Krabbe was a successful track star, winning the 100 m and 200 m titles in the 1990 European Athletics Championships and the same titles at the 1991 World Championships in Athletics, she was part of the winning 4 × 100 metres relay East German women's team in the European Championships. In 1992, Krabbe along with teammates Silke Möller and Grit Breuer tested positive for the stimulant clenbuterol. All three athletes were suspended for one year by the German Athletics Federation, but the International Association of Athletics Federations extended this to two years. Krabbe sued the IAAF and received damages, while Breuer did not and was able to compete again after the ban; the suspension kept Krabbe from competing in the 1992 Summer Olympics, ended her athletic career.
100 m – 10.89 +1.8 200 m – 21.95 +0.3 List of sportspeople sanctioned for doping offences German all-time top lists – 100 metres German all-time top lists – 200 metres Katrin Krabbe at World Athletics RunnersWeb.com article Sports Illustrated article