Pope Leo X

Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was pope and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family of Florence, Giovanni was the second son of Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of the Florentine Republic, was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Early on in his rule he oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran, but struggled to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 he led a costly war that succeeded in securing his nephew as Duke of Urbino, but which reduced papal finances. In Protestant circles, Leo is associated with granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica, a practice, soon challenged by Martin Luther's 95 Theses, he refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the demands of what would become the Protestant Reformation, his Papal Bull of 1520, Exsurge Domine, condemned Martin Luther's condemnatory stance, rendering ongoing communication difficult.

He was a significant patron of the arts. Under his reign, progress was made on the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and artists such as Raphael decorated the Vatican rooms. Leo reorganised the Roman University, promoted the study of literature and antiquities, he is buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. He was the last pope not to have been in priestly orders at the time of his election to the papacy. Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici was born on December 11, 1475 in the Republic of Florence, the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, head of the Florentine Republic. From an early age Giovanni was destined for an ecclesiastical career, he was soon granted rich benefices and preferments. His father prevailed on his relative Innocent VIII to name him cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica on 8 March 1488 when he was age 13, although he was not allowed to wear the insignia or share in the deliberations of the college until three years later. Meanwhile, he received an education at Lorenzo's humanistic court under such men as Angelo Poliziano, Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino and Bernardo Dovizio Bibbiena.

From 1489 to 1491 he studied canon law at Pisa. On 23 March 1492, he was formally admitted into the Sacred College of Cardinals and took up his residence at Rome, receiving a letter of advice from his father; the death of Lorenzo on the following 8 April, temporarily recalled the 16-year-old Giovanni to Florence. He returned to Rome to participate in the conclave of 1492 which followed the death of Innocent VIII, unsuccessfully opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia, he subsequently made his home with his elder brother Piero in Florence throughout the agitation of Savonarola and the invasion of Charles VIII of France, until the uprising of the Florentines and the expulsion of the Medici in November 1494. While Piero found refuge at Venice and Urbino, Giovanni traveled in Germany, in the Netherlands, in France. In May 1500, he returned to Rome, where he was received with outward cordiality by Pope Alexander VI, where he lived for several years immersed in art and literature. In 1503 he welcomed the accession of Pope Julius II to the pontificate.

On 1 October 1511 he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and the Romagna, when the Florentine republic declared in favour of the schismatic Pisans, Julius II sent Giovanni with the papal army venturing against the French. The French captured Giovanni; this and other attempts to regain political control of Florence were frustrated until a bloodless revolution permitted the return of the Medici. Giovanni's younger brother Giuliano was placed at the head of the republic, but Giovanni managed the government. Giovanni was elected Pope on 9 March 1513, this was proclaimed two days later; the absence of the French cardinals reduced the election to a contest between Giovanni and Raffaele Riario. On 15 March 1513, he was ordained priest, consecrated as bishop on 17 March, he was crowned Pope on 19 March 1513 at the age of 37. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope. Leo had intended his nephew Lorenzo for brilliant secular careers, he had named them Roman patricians. The death of Giuliano in March 1516, caused the pope to transfer his ambitions to Lorenzo.

At the time that peace between France, Spain and the Empire seemed to give some promise of a Christendom united against the Turks, Leo obtained 150,000 ducats towards the expenses of the expedition from Henry VIII of England, in return for which he entered the imperial league of Spain and England against France. The war lasted from February to September 1517 and ended with the expulsion of the duke and the triumph of Lorenzo. Francesco Guicciardini reckoned the cost of the war to Leo at the sum of 800,000 ducats. However, Lorenzo was confirmed as the new duke of Urbino; the war of Urbino was further marked by a

720 Park Avenue

720 Park Avenue is a historic residential building in Lenox Hill on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City, USA. A cooperative, the building has a gymnasium and storage spaces, it is secured by a full-time doorman. The 17-story building was completed in 1928, it was designed by Rosario Candela in the Neoclassical architectural style. It is 62.18 meters tall. In the 1930s, Jesse I. Straus, the co-owner of Macy's who served as the United States Ambassador to France from 1933 to 1936, lived in a duplex in this building. In 2008, diplomat Carl Spielvogel, who served as the United States Ambassador to the Slovak Republic from 2000 to 2001, sold his apartment in the building to businessman Peter S. Kraus, the chairman and chief executive officer of AllianceBernstein, for US$37 million. In 2013, an apartment was listed for US$25 million

Jennifer Aldridge

Jennifer Aldridge is a fictional character from the BBC Radio 4 soap opera The Archers. The character first appeared in 1951; the role was played by a variety of actresses, until Angela Piper joined the cast in June 1963. As of 2019, Piper has been on the show for 56 years, making her the fourth longest-running cast member on the show. Jennifer is the daughter of Jack Archer and Peggy Woolley and the mother of Adam Macy, Debbie Aldridge, Kate Aldridge and Alice Carter. Jennifer has featured in some of the show's most high-profile and controversial storylines involving her family or her relationship with husband Brian Aldridge. Throughout her six-decades on the programme, Jennifer has experienced what some consider the usual ups-and-downs of soap opera characters. During her teenage years in Ambridge, she had a dalliance with the local cowman and the birth of their son out of wedlock, a divorce, her marriage to wealthy landowner Brian Aldridge, coping with his numerous affairs, the loss of her Home Farm farmstead and many financial woes.

Newspaper, The Derbyshire Life, has called Piper one of the "most recognisable and distinctive voices in Britain", while Piper herself calls Jennifer "capable, family-oriented, well-groomed and more intelligent than many are prepared to admit". The character's widespread popularity lead Piper to write Jennifer Aldridge's Cookbook, selling more than 40,000 copies. Various child actors played the role of Jennifer Archer from the show's inception right through to the early 1960s. Angela Piper was aged in her mid-20s when the chance arose to join The Archers in 1963; the actress, playing the role of Jennifer was leaving to join British medical soap opera Emergency – Ward 10. Piper was offered the role, after some years working in Repertory Theatre. "It was on an amazing level, The Archers. The characters were an intrinsic part of everyone’s home, and there they were, exciting," Piper said in a 2013 interview with the BBC. Piper recalls receiving notes from the directors to make the character more "couldn't care less" and "a bit of a tearaway" in those early years.

Jennifer was born on 7 January 1945 to Jack Archer. Despite having a small role in the series through the 1950s, it wasn't until the early 1960s that the "rebellious" Jennifer moved to the front burner of the show. At 16, Jennifer worried her mother by returning from a ski trip early with a boyfriend called Max, her father Jack bought a moped to travel home in while she was at teacher training college in Walsall. Her Aunt Laura appointed a chauffeur, young Roger Patillo. Jennifer began dating him, only to discover his real surname was'Travers-Macy'; the next year, Jennifer qualified as a teacher and began work at Hollerton Primary School and achieved some success as a writer. Jennifer has evolved from "rebellious" teenager to a loving member of the Ambridge community over her time on the programme. In 1966, Jennifer abandoned plans to become a teacher and a writer and slept with the local cowman, Paddy Redman, which led to the birth of her son Adam, out of wedlock. Piper recalled the "fabulous" storyline enabled Jennifer to be the "representative of a rebellious generation".

Shortly before Christmas Day in 1966, Jennifer tells her sister Lilian. At the time, Jennifer turns to Jill Archer, her grandmother, Doris Archer tells Jennifer she must marry Paddy upon finding out, her alcoholic father Jack threatens to throw her out of home. "One of my press cuttings says: Jennifer expects – by kind permission of the Director General’." Piper recalled in a BBC interview. A banner was held over Waterloo Bridge at the time with the line'Doris Archer is a prude' scrawled on it; the shockwaves to the birth were so great on the show, the character departed temporarily, but returned - with baby in tow - to face the town. "I got a letter written on lined notepaper from an elderly brother and sister living together in Plaistow," Piper recalled. "They said they were upset that I might be thrown out of my home, Peggy being as she is, so they said they would take me in. I thought ‘how sweet’ and ignored it, but I got another letter saying the brother had redecorated their front bedroom ready for me to come with the baby.

And I ignored that one. And I got a third letter, some time saying ‘my brother has been sitting at Paddington station waiting for the trains coming in from Hollerton Junction." In 2016, The Guardian journalist Susannah Clapp named the storyline of the "10 best Archers storylines", saying "Jennifer once had the waywardness of her daughter Kate, the romantic spirit of her youngest, Alice". In 1974, Jennifer moved in with her aunt, Christine Barford, after separating from Roger after he became a travelling salesman. Fresh from the divorce to her first husband, Roger Travers-Macy, Jennifer met the Sherborne-educated Brian Aldridge at a dinner party hosted by Carol Tregorran. Not long after, the couple wed on May 29, 1976; the official Archers website says this began "Jennifer's ascendance to the social pinnacle of Ambridge" and developed the character into "the elegant, capable pillar of the community". "She latched on to someone who had a fair amount of money," Piper says. "I don’t think it was knowingly done but she assumed the position of a wealthy farmer’s wife and she’s grown into that".

In an interview, Charles Collingwood said Brian was worth "millions" upon his introduction into the show in 1975. Jennifer continued to work part-time at Grey Gables. In 1978, Je