click links in text for more info

Pope Linus

Pope Linus was the second Bishop of Rome and Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic Church. His pontificate endured from c. AD 67 to his death. Among those to have been Pope, Peter and Clement are named in the New Testament. Linus is named in the valediction of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul the Apostle in Rome near the end of Paul's life; the earliest witness to the episcopate of Linus was Irenaeus, who in c. AD 180 wrote that "the blessed apostles having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes mentions that according to the earliest succession lists of bishops of Rome, passed down by Irenaeus and Hegesippus and attested by the historian Eusebius, he was entrusted with his office by the Apostles Peter and Paul after they had established the Christian church in Rome. By this primitive reckoning he was therefore the first pope, but from the late 2nd or early 3rd century the convention began of regarding Peter as first pope.

Jerome described Linus as "the first after Peter to be in charge of the Roman Church" and Eusebius described him as "the first to receive the episcopate of the church at Rome, after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter". John Chrysostom wrote that "this Linus, some say, was second Bishop of the Church of Rome after Peter", while the Liberian Catalogue described Peter as the first Bishop of Rome and Linus as his successor in the same office; the Liber Pontificalis enumerated Linus as the second Bishop of Rome after Peter, stated that Peter consecrated 2 bishops and Cletus/Anacletus for the priestly service of the community, while devoting himself instead to prayer and preaching, that it was Clement to whom he entrusted the universal Church and appointed as his successor. Tertullian wrote of Clement as the successor of Peter. Jerome named Clement as "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter, if indeed the second was Linus and the third Anacletus, although most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the apostle."The Apostolic Constitutions note that Linus, whom Paul the Apostle consecrated, was the first Bishop of Rome and was succeeded by Clement, whom Peter the Apostle ordained and consecrated.

The Liberian Catalogue and the Liber Pontificalis date the episcopate of Linus as AD 56 to 67, during the reign of Nero, but Jerome dated it as AD 67 to 78, Eusebius dated the end of his episcopate in the second year of the reign of Titus, scire licet, AD 80. Linus is named in the valediction of the Second Epistle to Timothy. In that epistle, Linus is noted as being with Paul the Apostle in Rome near the end of Paul's life. Irenaeus stated that this is the same Linus who became Bishop of Rome, this conclusion is still accepted. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Linus was an Italian born in Volterra in Tuscany, his father's name was recorded as "Herculanus". The Apostolic Constitutions denominated his mother "Claudia". According to the Liber Pontificalis, Linus decreed that women should cover their heads in church, created the first 15 bishops, died a martyr, was buried on the Vatican Hill adjacent to Peter the Apostle, it dated his death as 23 September. His name is included in the Roman Canon of the Mass.

With respect to Linus' purported decree prescribing the covering of women's heads, J. P. Kirsch commented in the Catholic Encyclopedia that "without doubt this decree is apocryphal, copied by the author of the Liber Pontificalis from Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians and arbitrarily attributed to the first successor of the Apostle in Rome; the statement made in the same source, that Linus suffered martyrdom, cannot be proved and is improbable. For between Nero and Domitian there is no mention of any persecution of the Roman Church; the Roman Martyrology does not enumerate Linus as a martyr. However a note by Torrigio reveals that these were the final 5 letters of a longer name, e. g. "Aquilinus" or "Anullinus". A letter on the martyrdom of Peter and Paul was once attributed to Linus, but in fact it was determined to date to the 6th century. Absent evidence to the contrary the Liber Pontificalis is correct that Linus was buried on the Vatican Hill adjacent to Peter the Apostle in what is now the Vatican Necropolis beneath Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, despite any absence of recent, corroborating evidence.

List of Catholic saints List of popes Papal selection before 1059 Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book of Popes. Merchantville, New Jersey, USA: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope St. Linus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company

Sudanese nomadic conflicts

Sudanese nomadic conflicts are non-state conflicts between rival nomadic tribes taking place in the territory of Sudan and, since 2011, South Sudan. Conflict between nomadic tribes in Sudan is common, with fights breaking out over scarce resources, including grazing land and drinking water; some of the tribes involved in these clashes have been the Messiria, Maalia and Bani Hussein Arabic tribes inhabiting Darfur and West Kordofan, the Dinka and Murle African ethnic groups inhabiting South Sudan. Conflicts have been fueled by other major wars taking place in the same regions, in particular the Second Sudanese Civil War, the War in Darfur and the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Over the years, clashes between rival ethnic militias have resulted in a large number of casualties and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. In recent years violent clashes broke out in 1993 between Jikany Nuer and Lou Nuer in Upper Nile, in 2009-2012 between Lou Nuer and Murle in Jonglei and in 2013-2014 between Maalia, Messiria and Bani Hussein in Darfur and West Kordofan.

Fighting in 2008 between the Misseriya and the Rizeigat tribes claimed around 70 lives. Early 2009 saw several instances of fighting between nomadic tribes in Sudan which killed around 900 people women and children, in the south of the country. On 26 May 2008 a large scale clash occurred between the Misseriya and the Rizeigat tribes when 2,000 Rizeigat men, mounted on horses and 35 vehicles, attacked a group of Misseriya near to the village of Meiram. Sudanese police attempted to intervene and establish a buffer zone between the tribes but as they were doing so were attacked by around 3,000 Rizeigat horsemen; the attack killed 75 police officers, 75 from the Rizeigat tribe and between 89 and 109 from the Misseriya. The Interior Minister, Ibrahim Mahmoud Hamad, has pledged to bring those responsible for the fighting to justice and to take steps to disarm civilians; the United Nations Mission in Sudan, which earlier in May deployed 120 peacekeepers to Jonglei state to prevent tribal conflict, is investigating.

In the meantime Sudanese authorities have asked both tribes to move at least 5 km from each other to avoid fresh outbreaks of fighting. Whilst fighting in the area appears to have calmed down, the situation remains tense and there are concerns over security for the February national general election; the 2009 Sobat River ambush was a battle between Jikany Nuer tribesmen and the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, escorting a United Nations aid convoy on 12 June 2009. In early morning on 2 August 2009, more than 180 members of the Lou Nuer community were killed, more than 30 others injured and further numbers were declared missing in a "well coordinated and planned" attack carried out whilst they were fishing for food by Murle fighters. Eleven protective soldiers were killed; the dead were searching for food amidst severe shortages after barges which were shipping aid to them were attacked the previous June. People were pursued with some bodies becoming tangled in fishing nets; the majority of the dead were children and women, with entire families claimed to have been "wiped out".

The death toll was predicted to rise. At least 139 people were killed in tribal clashes following a cattle raid in southern Sudan which took place on 2 January 2010. On 11 January 2010 Nuer attackers targeted a Dinka village killing forty-five civilians and injuring a hundred and two civilians in a brutal attack. In April 2010 the UN stated that over 400 people have been killed across South Sudan in civil war revenge attacks and cattle raids so far in 2010. At least 55 people were killed in an attack in South Darfur between the Sudan People's Liberation Army in South Sudan and another unidentified, disputed party, thought to be either the Rizeigat or Sudan People's Armed Forces; the UN received reports that Messiria tribe members clashed with members of the Sudanese armed forces in mountainous territory to the west of Kass in South Darfur on 9 and 10 November 2010. The Sudanese army denied being involved in fighting in the area but a spokesman for the Arab United Revolutionary Force Front said that helicopters and jets had attacked their positions, killing seven civilians and two fighters.

Men from the Messiria tribe stopped 150 cars in the state of South Kordofan and took 1,000 of the passengers hostage. The hostages were travelling from Khartoum to the south to take part in the 9 January 2011 Southern Sudanese independence referendum; the Messiria say they will continue to hold the hostages until the South Sudan's Unity State pays blood money it promised after three Messiria shepherds were killed by southern tribes earlier in the year. At least 76 people were killed in the Abyei region in clashes between the Messiria and Ngok Dinka that began on 7 January 2011. Casualties amounted to 50 from the Messiria killed and 26 Ngok Dinka and local police killed; the violence took place during the voting in the Southern Sudan independence referendum. Both Sudanese and Southern Sudanese governments accused the other of becoming involved in the fighting but observer, former US president, Jimmy Carter stated that he believed the "national forces in the north and the south have been careful not to become involved in the conflict".

At least 10 people were killed and others injured in a confrontation between the Misseriya and local police in Todach, Abyei on 27 February 2011. The attack occurred within days of a meeting between the leaders of the Misseriya and Ngok Dinka to discuss compensation for the 12 Dinka Ngok killed in the January attacks; the meeting failed to reach a resolution. Leaders of the Abyei administration alleged; the con

Queensland Police Museum

Queensland Police Museum collects and exhibits items related to the Queensland Police Service and the history of policing in Queensland, Australia. It was established in 1893 as a collection of items for study by police for technical purposes, it was not until 20 May 1979. It is located at Queensland Police Headquarters at 200 Roma Street, Brisbane. On 27 November 1893 Mr Finucane, Chief Clerk of the Queensland Police, signed a memorandum on behalf of Commissioner David Thompson Seymour, which instructed all police officers to send in items of interest concerning crimes and suicides, that they might come across in the course of their duties; this was the basis of the collection of the Queensland Police Museum. It was not established as a museum for the public at that time, it consisted of a glass cupboard and later a small room. On 31 May 1895 the Police Museum collection was written up in the Brisbane Courier:… the exhibits in the museum, founded by Mr Finucane, speaking of the seamy side of colonial life, are a painful reminder that criminal instincts, slumbering in the hearts of men, like extinct volcanoes, belch forth at times in full eruption…The collection was by nature eclectic and included some gruesome things.

The objects were housed at the Petrie Terrace Police Depot and police officers were required to see the display as part of their training. By 1930 the Museum was still located at Petrie Terrace Barracks. In 1934, a new appeal for objects was made by Cecil James Carroll; the Museum was written about in several newspapers in the 1930s. In the Truth on 17 September 1933 the article was titled as Brisbane Chamber of Horrors: Grisley Relics of Ghastly Crimes and summarised as:… reminders of dark and dreadful deeds in the wild days when Queensland pioneers were waging a fierce and furious fight in the cause of justice lie there, amid dust and stillness and mutely bear witness to many a strange and terrible tale…The museum was described by The Sunday Mail in May 1936 as Queensland’s Black Museum and the article titled as Grim Relics of Early Crimes; such newspapers give insight into the early collection. On 13 July 1949, the collection was handed over into the care of Detective Constable Les Bardwell head of the Technical Section, Criminal Investigation Branch, at the old church building in George Street and the basement level of Morcome House across the road.

Bardwell was keen to study and set them up as museum pieces to join his extensive firearm reference collection. Bardwell wanted to show off the collection and in September 1949 requested the purchase of display cases to be used at the annual Royal National Exhibition. Displays were organised for this show every year and people still remember the police display as a room “stuffed with unusual objects”. In February 1978, Commissioner Terry Lewis approved the formation of a museum committee which included members of the Public Relations Branch, Criminal Investigation Bureau, Photographic Section and Commissioner’s Office, it was their job to decide what was to be kept and displayed. On 20 May 1979, the “new” Police Museum opened. Located on the 7th floor of Forbes House in Makerston Street, it was not open to the public but group bookings were taken. In 1980 the museum was opened to the public on Wednesday afternoons and in 1981 Ross Chippindall, an assistant in the Media Liaison office was appointed as part-time curator.

Although Chippindall had no museum qualifications, he was an avid scrounger of collection material and a firearm enthusiast. By the end of 1982, 4,000 people had visited the museum and displays were being mounted at school fetes and country shows. In 1985, Sergeant 2/c Bob Good temporarily took over the running of the museum and over a year or so, managed to have the museum displays refurbished and a system in place for evaluating the collection material. In 1986 Gabrielle Flynn, with skills in historical research and education, was appointed as fulltime curator and the museum began opening for 5 and a half hours per week. By the late 1980s plans were in place to build a new Police Headquarters in Roma Street, to include a purpose-built home for the museum; the building, along with the new museum, opened in August 1990. The display area was divided into six colour-themed areas – Heritage; the colour scheme won two Dulux Colour Awards. The curator, Gabrielle Flynn was kept busy with visiting school groups, designing photographic displays and answering historical enquiries.

The Museum was now open every weekday. Since 1997 when the current curator was employed, staffing levels have grown to five. In 2009, Commissioner Bob Atkinson proposed that the museum compile a complete list of all Queensland police officers. In 2014, as part of the celebration of 150 years of the Queensland Police Service, the list was published and is available for viewing at the museum. At that time it contained approx 30,000 names, it is available online but limited to officers who commenced prior to 1975 for privacy reasons. History of the Queensland Police This article was based on Happy Birthday to Us – 119 years old today! © State of Queensland 2018, released under CC-BY-4.0 licence. "Book of Names 1864 - 1974". Queensland Police Museum. 2014. Archived (

Sean Longden

Sean Longden is an author and historian who specialises in British social history during World War II, his work extensively uses oral history interviews and first person accounts. He was educated at Sharnbrook Upper School and The School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London. To the Victor the Spoils. A social history of the British Army between D-Day and VE Day includes stories about the sex life and fashion of soldiers in the British Army. Hitler's British Slaves; this book deals with the brutal treatment of British POWs who worked in German agriculture and industry during World War Two. The book overturns the "Great Escape Myth" that most prisoners lived in POW camps which were a cross between a harsh boarding school and a holiday camp. Dunkirk, The Men They Left Behind. A history of the 40,000 soldiers of the British Expeditionary Force who were left behind following the evacuation of the BEF from the port of Dunkirk in France in 1940. T-Force: The Race for Nazi War Secrets, 1945.

The first history of the secret World War II British Army unit Target Forces known as T-Force, created in 1945 to search for German military researchers and scientists. T-Force's creation was inspired by the work of Ian Fleming who had helped to found the Royal Marine unit 30AU, which did similar work in France in 1944. Blitz Kids: The Children's War Against Hitler. A history of the experience of English children during World War II, this book includes accounts of evacuation, blackout and air raids

Greenfield News

The Greenfield News is a weekly newspaper founded in 1936 serving the city of Greenfield and the surrounding areas of southern Monterey County. Its circulation is estimated at 1,150 copies, it is a product of South County Newspapers, along with the King City Rustler, Gonzales Tribune, Soledad Bee. In 1905, Fred Godfrey Vivian, the publisher of the King City Rustler, was contracted by the Clark Colony Water Company to publish the Greenfield Courier for one year. Although short lived, the Courier was effective in drawing inquiries and people to the community of Clark's Colony from across the country, before Greenfield was incorporated in 1947. In 1936 the by Vivian and his family began publishing the Greenfield News. Irwin Coffey was listed as publisher in 1952. During the 1960s, Vivian's daughter Beatrice Vivian Casey assumed ownership along with her son Harry Casey. Harry Casey published the newspaper until 1995, when it was sold to Rochelle, Ill.-based News Media Corporation, along with the King City Rustler, Soledad Bee, the Gonzales Tribune.

Ryan Cronk was appointed the managing editor in 2017. After 23 years of ownership by News Media Corp. the Greenfield News and its sister publications were purchased by California publisher New SV Media, which owns the Gilroy Dispatch, Morgan Hill Times and Hollister Free Lance, on July 1, 2019. California News Publisher Association 2017 - 2nd Place Coverage of Youth & Education

Bagsværd Church

Bagsværd Church is a Lutheran church in Bagsværd on the northern outskirts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed in 1968 by Jørn Utzon, it was completed in 1976; the building is considered to be a masterpiece of contemporary church architecture its bright illuminated interior and its ceiling straddled with rounded vaulting. In 1538, the church in Bagsværd was pulled down on the orders of the king so that the stones could be used to repair the old Catholic bishop's palace which, after the Reformation, was to be used as a seminary for the new Lutheran Church. Thereafter, the parishioners had to use the church in Gladsaxe though there was increasing interest in building a new church in Bagsværd, it therefore came as no surprise that the congregational council took special interest in the church Utzon had included in a competition exhibit for the town centre in Farum when it was displayed in Gladsaxe at an architectural exhibition in 1967. When he was asked whether he would like to submit a proposal for a church at Bagsværd, Utzon was elated: "There I stood, was offered the finest task an architect can have — a magnificent time when it was the light from above that showed us the way."

The proposal he submitted the following year included four sketches: the first one showed a group of people under the clouds on a beach, the last one depicted the same people as a congregation in a church where the clouds had become the sculptural roof. They were intended to illustrate Utzon's understanding of the overall concept. There were a series of difficulties over the funding of the building which cost DKK 10 million after Utzon had reduced its size by 10 percent and the Gladsaxe municipality had contributed DKK 1 million. A building permit was granted in 1973 but, experiencing financial difficulties, the church ministry attempted to halt construction. However, before their ruling came into force, the contractors Christiani & Nielsen established a presence on the site allowing work to begin; the new church was consecrated on 15 August 1976. Located on a narrow plot in a suburban setting, the building itself is narrow, has an austere façade which encloses the various rooms and a number of small courtyards.

Surrounded by birch trees, the exterior walls are faced with white prefabricated concrete panels and white glazed tiles. The aluminium roof gives the church a rather industrial look. Glass sections provide lighting over the connecting corridors. Covering an area of 1,700 square meters, the tight geometrical plan consists of three sections and a courtyard between two parallel corridors; the rectilinear, modular structure of the building and its integrated courtyards, as well as the connecting corridors, are said to be inspired by the design of Buddhist temples in China. The interior includes the nave and sacristy, rooms for confirmation classes, a meeting room, a whole section for youth activities, they are all linked by wide corridors which run both through the building and along the external walls where they are illuminated by skylights. The vaulted ceiling is made of reinforced concrete shells, only 12 centimetres thick and spanning 17 metres; the curved cylindrical shells rest on flanges supported by rows of double columns which act as flying buttresses.

A notable feature of the church is the natural lighting, facilitated by the all-white interior. It is achieved by means of high lateral windows across the entire width of the nave or, in the case of the smaller rooms, through sidelights bringing daylight in from the courtyards. In addition, there are extensive skylights which, in Utzon's words, result from "the inspiration that I derived from the drifting clouds above the sea and the shore a wondrous space in which the light fell through the ceiling — the clouds — down on to the floor represented by the shore and the sea." Indeed, Utzon was inspired to design the church when he was lying on a Hawaii beach, shortly after his premature departure from Australia as a result of disagreements over the Sydney Opera House. Contemplating a regular succession of cylindrical clouds, he concluded that they provided a perfect basis for modelling a church ceiling. Utzon himself designed the altar wall which consists of an airy triangular grid of thin white tiles, known as Flensborg bricks, while the church's colourful textiles and ceramic decorations were designed by his daughter, Lin Utzon.

The organ designed by Jørn Utzon, was constructed in 1979 by Poul-Gerhard Andersen, with woodwork by Kurt Kærsgaard. The light pine pews as well as the church's concert piano, built by Steingraeber & Söhne in Bayreuth, were designed by Utzon; the church's four bells were designed by Thubalka in Vejle and cast at the Royal Eijsbouts bell foundry at Asten in the Netherlands. The architectural critic Kenneth Frampton considers Bagsværd Church an outstanding example of critical regionalism owing to the synthesis it achieves between universal and regional cultures, he believes the design of the configurated concrete shell vault, unique in Western religious architecture, was inspired by the Chinese pagoda roof cited by Utzon in his essay "Platforms and Plateaus". Furthermore, the plan arrangement of the church's interior is reminiscent of Chinese Buddhist monasteries as described in a book by Johannes Prip-Møller. From the outside, constructed in reinforced concrete and aluminium with glass-covered sections, the building looks more like a factory than a traditional church but inside it offers an impressive combination of soft, rounded shapes and sharp edges.

Writing in Berlingske Tidende on the occasion of the church's consecration, architectural correspondent Martin Hartung commented: "Bagsværd Church has turned into an architectonic attraction, an example of how Jørn Utzon can combine the technique and the art of building to for