click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pope Lucius III

Pope Lucius III, born Ubaldo Allucingoli, reigned from 1 September 1181 to his death in 1185. A native of the independent republic of Lucca, he was born c. 1100 as Ubaldo, son of Orlando. He is referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Allucingoli, but this is not proven, he had close ties to the Cistercians. Pope Innocent II named him cardinal in December 1138 as cardinal-deacon of San Adriano as cardinal-priest of Santa Prassede. Pope Adrian IV promoted him to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri in December 1158, he was dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and one of the most influential cardinals under his predecessor Pope Alexander III, whom he had consecrated bishop in 1159. After being elected Pope in 1181, he lived at Rome from November 1181 to March 1182, but dissensions in the city compelled him to pass the remainder of his pontificate in exile at Velletri and Verona, he was in dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I over the disposal of the territories of the late Countess Matilda of Tuscany.

The controversy over the succession to the inheritance of the Countess had been left unsettled by an agreement of 1177, the Emperor proposed in 1182 that the Curia should renounce its claim, receiving in exchange two-tenths of the imperial income from Italy, one-tenth for the Pope and the other tenth for the cardinals. Lucius consented neither to this proposition nor to another compromise suggested by Frederick I the next year, nor did a personal discussion between the two potentates at Verona in October 1184 lead to any definite result. During the conflict between Frederick I and the papacy, the problem of heresy required a political solution. In 1184, Pope Lucius III decreed Ad abolendam that all "counts, rectors, consuls of cities and other places" who did not join in the struggle against heresy when called upon to do so would be excommunicated and their territories placed under interdict – and declared that these provisions joined the apostolic authority of the church with the sanction of imperial power.

In the meantime other causes of disagreement appeared when the Pope refused to comply with Frederick I's wishes as to the Imperial regulation of German episcopal elections which had taken place under the authority of the German-sponsored antipopes, both during and after the recent schism as regards an election to the See of Trier in 1183 contested between the papal candidate Folmar of Karden and the imperial candidate Rudolf of Wied. In pursuance of his anti-imperial policy, Lucius declined in 1185 to crown Henry of Hohenstaufen as Frederick I's destined successor, the breach between the Empire and the Curia became wider on questions of Italian politics. In November 1184 Lucius held a synod at Verona which condemned the Cathars, Paterines and Arnoldists, anathematized all those declared as heretics and their abettors. Contrary to what is said, he did not institute the Inquisition, not created until the reign of Pope Gregory IX in 1234. Despite the fulminations of the first three Lateran Councils against married clergy, Lucius wrote in 1184 to the abbot of St. Augustine Canterbury suggesting that the parson of Willesborough should retire and pass the benefice to his promising son, who could pursue his studies, showing continued papal tolerance of married clergy at this late date.

In 1185 preparations began for the Third Crusade in answer to the appeals of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. Before they were completed, Lucius III died in Verona. List of popes Cardinals created by John W. O'Malley, The Papacy. An Encyclopedia, 2002 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lucius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed.. "article name needed". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls

Philips Angel I

Philips Angel I was a Dutch painter of still lifes. Philips Angel I left his native Middelburg in 1639 to establish himself as a still life painter in Haarlem, he entered the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke in 1639 and was still mentioned as a member in 1643, he remained there until his death. Philips Angel I's life and work are mixed up with those of a relative, the contemporary painter of the same name, born in 1618 in Leiden. Philips Angel II was active as a painter in Leiden from 1637 to 1645 sailed to Batavia, Dutch East Indies where he died after 11 July 1664. 30 paintings are attributed to Philips Angel I, some with dates between 1642 and 1664 or 1668. He was a still life painter. Due to confusion resulting from the signatures and dates which he added to his paintings it is difficult to determine the development of his art with its divergent subgenres his sober still lifes with food and kitchen-objects sometimes known as ontbijtjes, his works fall into three main groups: barn interiors with an emphasis on the still life element,'ontbijtjes' and still lifes with dead fowl.

The influence of François Ryckhals can be seen in the first two groups. Ryckhals may have been Angel’s teacher in Middelburg. His'ontbijtjes' show the influence of Haarlem painters such as Floris van Dyck in their tendency to build compositions from individually studied components and in the rendering of various details; the still lifes with dead fowl belong to his best works and are similar to the game pieces of the Flemish painters Jan Fyt and Alexander Adriaenssen. These works demonstrate Angel's skill at painting fur and feathers. A still-life, signed P. Angel, 1660 — is in the Berlin Museum. Still-life with crayfish, Museum Bredius Still-life with dead birds on a table, 1649, Old Town Hall of Middelburg Still life paintings on Artnet

Brigitte Massin

Brigitte Massin was a French musicologist and journalist. With her husband Jean Massin, she published numerous works on music. Brigitte Massin is the mother of a specialist of Baroque dance. Massin has written extensive biographical works on romantic composers, she specialized in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Beethoven. 1955: Ludwig van Beethoven. Bibliothèque des grands musiciens. Paris: Fayard. P. 845. ISBN 978-2213003481. 1959: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Les indispensables de la musique. Paris: Fayard. P. 1293. ISBN 978-2213003092. 1970: Recherche de Beethoven. Paris: Fayard. P. 379. 1997: Histoire de la musique. Paris: Messidor. P. 945. 1987: Histoire de la musique occidentale. Les indispensables de la musique. Paris: Fayard. P. 1312. ISBN 978-2213020327. 1977: Franz Schubert. Les indispensables de la musique. Paris: Fayard. P. 1005. ISBN 978-2213025032. 1989: Olivier Messiaen. De la musique. Paris: Alinéa. P. 23. ISBN 978-2904631771. 1991: Mozart. Paris: Plon. p. 190. ISBN 978-2-259-02459-4. 1991: Guide des opéras de Mozart.

Paris: Fayard. P. 1005. ISBN 978-2213025032. 1999: Les Joachim. Paris: Fayard. P. 449. ISBN 978-2213604183. Brigitte Massin on Encyclopedia Universalis Obituary in L'Humanité Brigitte Massin on France Culture Brigitte Massin on Babelio Massin, Brigitte et Jean on IMEC Portrait de Jean et Brigitte Massin on INA.fr

Christine Fong

Christine Fong Kwok-shan is an engineer and politician in Hong Kong, as well as a former child actress. She is a current member of the Sai Kung District Council. Fong was a child actress at ATV in the 1980s. Actor Bowie Wu is her godfather, she got famous from her role, Nezha, in the 1986 TV series The Boy Fighter from Heaven, is nicknamed after the role. After she graduated from the University of Hawaii with a bachelor's degree in Business Administration, she obtained the qualification of a building engineer and worked as secretary of Cheung Yan-lung, a powerful rural leader, she joined the Liberal Party in 2004 and served as the chairman of the New Territories East Branch until 2010 when she quit the Liberals. She was appointed to the Sai Kung District Council in 2008 and elected to the Council through the new Wan Po constituency in the 2011 election with high votes, she has been outspoken against the government's plan of the extension of the Tseung Kwan O landfill, located in her constituency of Wan Po North.

She launched a 35-hour fast outside the Legislative Council building to protest against the landfill extensions in 2013. Fong was involved in an assault case against Elizabeth Quat, a Legislative Councillor of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong, when Fong and a group of protestors confronted Quat in a protest against the extension of the Tseung Kwan O landfill, she was found not guilty of the charge on 22 February 2016. In 2015 election, she was re-elected through the new Wan Po North constituency, split from her original constituency after a boundary review, she clung on to her seat in 2019 District Council elections in Hong Kong by 170 votes, following a rout of pro-Beijing candidates amidst the 2019 Hong Kong protests. She ran for the 2012 Legislative Council election in New Territories East, receiving 24,594 votes, about 4,000 votes short for claiming a seat, she announced to run for the 2016 New Territories East by-election, a seat left vacant by Ronny Tong who resigned in the light of the 2015 Hong Kong electoral reform.

She finished fourth place in the election by receiving 33,424 votes, around 8,000 more than the 2012 election. Fong and Professional Power has been considered as a centrist political candidates and organization, has been competing directly with both pro-Beijing camp and pro-Democracy camp, and yet, in 2016 Hong Kong legislative election, it was reported that the Hong Kong Liaison Office has been trying to "allocate" the votes to Fong. In 2019 Hong Kong local elections, many candidates of the Professional Power were not challenged by any parties or independent politicians from the pro-Beijing camp.. Prior to the polling day, there was a list circulated in LIHKG and Factcheck.io. The list claimed itself as a list of candidates endorsed by Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions; the list has included six candidates from the Professional Power

Ashinagatenaga

Ashinaga-tenaga are a pair of yōkai in Japanese folklore. One, Ashinaga-jin, has long legs, while the other, Tenaga-jin, has long arms, they were first described in the Japanese encyclopedia Wakan Sansai Zue. They are said to be found in Kyūshū; the pair is described as people from two countries, the "Long-legged Country", the "Long-armed Country". As the names suggest, the inhabitants of these two countries possess unusually lengthy arms and legs; the two work together as a team to catch fish by the seashore. In order to do this, the long-armed man, climbs onto the back of the long-legged man, ashinaga; the ashinaga wades out into the shorewaters, staying above water with his long legs, while the tenaga uses his long arms to grab fish from his partner's back. According to the Wakan Sansai Zue, the tenaga is known as chōhi, his arms can reach three jō in length, or a bit over nine meters; the ashinaga's legs stretch to two jō, or just over six meters. An essay from the Kasshiyawa by Matsura Seizan describes the ashinaga.

The essay documents a man's anecdotal account of an unfortunate encounter with a strange being. The man was fishing by the seashore on a clear, moonlit night, when he spots a figure with nine shaku long legs roaming around on the beach. Shortly after, the weather begins to rain heavily; the man's servant informs him that they had just seen an ashinaga, that sightings of this yōkai always brought bad changes in weather. List of legendary creatures from Japan Obake Yōkai Netsuke: masterpieces from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains many representations of Ashinagatenaga

Operation Tiger (1992)

Operation Tiger was a Croatian Army offensive conducted in areas of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina near Dubrovnik between 1 and 13 July 1992. It was designed to push the Army of Republika Srpska away from the city towards Popovo field and secure a supply route via Rijeka Dubrovačka, gained in early June as the Siege of Dubrovnik by the Yugoslav People's Army was lifted; the operation's success was facilitated by the establishment of the HV's Southern Front command and the successful conclusion of the May–June 1992 operations against the VRS in the Neretva River valley, which concluded with Operation Jackal. Although Operation Tiger captured only 40 square kilometres of territory, it secured the Ploče–Dubrovnik road and placed the HV in a position to capture the rest of southern Dalmatia over the following three-and-a-half months; that was achieved through a negotiated JNA withdrawal from Konavle followed by a HV amphibious operation in the area of Cavtat—capturing Konavle before the VRS could move in and reach the Adriatic Sea coast.

Two additional HV offensives aimed at securing the Dubrovnik area defences—Operation Liberated Land and an assault on the Vlaštica Peak—stabilized the HV hold on the area and threatened VRS-held Trebinje in the eastern Herzegovina. As a result of the JNA pullback, the Prevlaka peninsula was demilitarized and placed under United Nations control until 1996. In August 1990, a revolution took place in Croatia; the areas were subsequently named the Republic of Serbian Krajina. After declaring its intention to integrate with Serbia, the Government of Croatia declared the RSK a rebellion. By March 1991, the conflict escalated into the Croatian War of Independence. In June 1991, Croatia declared its independence. A three-month moratorium followed, after; the RSK initiated a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Croatian civilians, most non-Serbs were expelled by early 1993. By November 1993, fewer than 400 ethnic Croats remained in the UN-protected area known as Sector South, a further 1,500 – 2,000 remained in Sector North.

The Croatian National Guard was formed in May 1991 because the Yugoslav People's Army supported the RSK and the Croatian Police were unable to cope with the situation. The ZNG was renamed the HV in November; the establishment of the military of Croatia was hampered by a UN arms embargo introduced in September. The final months of 1991 saw the fiercest fighting of the war, culminating in the Battle of the barracks, the Siege of Dubrovnik, the Battle of Vukovar. In January 1992, the Sarajevo Agreement was signed by representatives of Croatia, the JNA and the UN, fighting between the two sides was paused. After a series of unsuccessful ceasefires, the United Nations Protection Force was deployed to Croatia to supervise and maintain the agreement; the conflict passed on to entrenched positions and the JNA retreated from Croatia into Bosnia and Herzegovina, where a new conflict was anticipated. Serbia continued to support the RSK after the JNA pullout; as the JNA disengaged from Croatia, its personnel prepared to set up a new Bosnian Serb army.

Between 29 February and 1 March 1992, a referendum on independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina—which would be cited as a pretext for the Bosnian War—was held. Bosnian Serbs set up barricades in the capital Sarajevo and elsewhere on 1 March, the next day the first fatalities of the war were recorded in Sarajevo and Doboj. In the final days of March, the Bosnian Serb army started shelling Bosanski Brod, the HV 108th Brigade crossed the border adjacent to the town in reply, and on 4 April, Serb artillery began shelling Sarajevo. The JNA and the VRS in Bosnia and Herzegovina were confronted by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Defence Council, under the control of the Bosniak-dominated central government and the Bosnian Croat leadership respectively; the HV sometimes deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina to support the HVO. In April 1992, the JNA renewed its offensive operations against the HV and the HVO near Kupres and Stolac in western and southern Herzegovina; the JNA's 2nd Military District, commanded by Colonel General Milutin Kukanjac, deployed elements of the 5th Banja Luka Corps and the 9th Knin Corps to the Kupres area, capturing the town from the HV and the HVO jointly defending the area in the Battle of Kupres on 7 April 1992 and threatening Livno and Tomislavgrad to the south-west.

The 4th Military District of the JNA, commanded by General Pavle Strugar, employed the 13th Bileća Corps and the 2nd Titograd Corps to capture Stolac and most of the eastern bank of the Neretva River south of Mostar. The JNA attacked Mostar with artillery and fighting around the city started on 6 April, the Yugoslav Air Force attacked Široki Brijeg on 7–8 April. A Croatian attack on 9 April failed to capture a JNA-controlled airfield in Mostar. On April 11, the Bosnian Serb Territorial Defence Force captured two nearby hydroelectric power plants on the Neretva River and the JNA pushed the HV/HVO force from Stolac. Čapljina, 25 kilometres south-west of Mostar, came under intermittent JNA air attacks. A ceasefire was arranged on 7 May, but the JNA and the Bosnian Serb forces resumed the attack the next day; the attack captured a large part of Mostar and some territory on the western bank of the Neretva Ri