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Pope Martin I

Pope Martin I reigned from 21 July 649 to his death in 655. He succeeded Pope Theodore I on 5 July 649, he was the only pope during the Eastern Roman domination of the papacy whose election was not approved by a mandate from Constantinople. Martin I was died at Cherson, he is considered a martyr by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the Orthodox church he is known as the Pope of Rome, he was born near Umbria, in the place now named after him. According to his biographer Theodore, Martin was of noble birth, of commanding intelligence, of great charity to the poor. Piazza states. In 641, Pope John IV sent the abbot Martin into Dalmatia and Istria with large sums of money to alleviate the distress of the inhabitants, redeem captives seized during the invasion of the Slavs; as the ruined churches could not be rebuilt, the relics of some of the more important Dalmatian saints were brought to Rome, where John erected an oratory in their honour. He acted as papal apocrisiarius or legate at Constantinople in the early years of the pontificate of Pope Theodore I, was a deacon at the time of his election in 649.

At that time Constantinople was the capital of the Roman Empire and the patriarch of Constantinople was the most influential Church leader in the eastern Christian world. After his election, Martin had himself consecrated without waiting for the imperial confirmation. One of his first official acts was to summon the Lateran Council of 649 to deal with the Monothelites, whom the Church considered heretical; the Council met in the church of St. John Lateran, it was attended by 105 bishops, held five sessions or secretarii from 5 October to 31 October 649, in twenty canons condemned Monothelitism, its authors, the writings by which Monothelitism had been promulgated. In this condemnation were included not only the Ecthesis, but the Type issued by the reigning emperor, Constans II. Martin was energetic in publishing the decrees of the Lateran Council of 649 in an encyclical, Constans replied by enjoining his exarch in Italy to arrest the pope should he persist in this line of conduct and send Martin as a prisoner from Rome to Constantinople.

He was accused by Constans of unauthorised contact and collaboration with the Muslims of the Rashidun Caliphate—allegations which he was unable to convince the infuriated imperial authorities to drop. The arrest orders were impossible to carry out for a considerable period of time, but at last Martin was arrested in the Lateran on 17 June 653 along with Maximus the Confessor, he was hurried out of Rome and conveyed first to Naxos and subsequently to Constantinople, where he arrived on 17 September 653. He was saved from execution by the pleas of Patriarch Paul II of Constantinople, himself gravely ill. After suffering an exhausting imprisonment and many alleged public indignities, he was banished to Chersonesus, where he arrived on 15 May 655 and died on 16 September of that year. Since the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar, the memorial of Saint Martin I, which earlier versions of the calendar place on 12 November, is on 13 April, celebrated as the formal anniversary of his death.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, his feast day is 14 April. Pope Pius VII made an honourable reference to Martin in his 1800 encyclical Diu satis: Indeed, the famous Martin who long ago won great praise for this See, commends faithfulness and fortitude to Us by his strengthening and defense of the truth and by the endurance of labors and pains, he was driven from his See and from the City, stripped of his rule, his rank, his entire fortune. As soon as he arrived in any peaceful place, he was forced to move. Despite his advanced age and an illness which prevented his walking, he was banished to a remote land and threatened with an more painful exile. Without the assistance offered by the pious generosity of individuals, he would not have had food for himself and his few attendants. Although he was tempted daily in his weakened and lonely state, he never surrendered his integrity. No deceit could trick, no fear perturb, no promises conquer, no difficulties or dangers break him, his enemies could extract from him no sign which would not prove to all that Peter "until this time and forever lives in his successors and exercises judgment as is clear in every age" as an excellent writer at the Council of Ephesus says.

The breviary of the Orthodox Church states: "Glorious definer of the Orthodox Faith... sacred chief of divine dogmas, unstained by error... true reprover of heresy... foundation of bishops, pillar of the Orthodox faith, teacher of religion.... Thou didst adorn the divine see of Peter, since from this divine Rock, thou didst immovably defend the Church, so now thou art glorified with him.” Bury, John Bagnell. History of the Later Roman Empire Vols. I & II. London: Macmillan & Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-1402183683. Ekonomou, Andrew J.. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes: Eastern influences on Rome and the papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A. D. 590–752. Lexington Books. Pietro Conte. "Martin I. Papst". Lexikon des Mittelalters, VI: Lukasbilder bis Plantagenêt. Stuttgart and Weimar: J. B. Metzler. Col. 341. ISBN 3-7608-8906-9. Kreuzer, Georg. "Martin I". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 5

Björk: Biophilia Live

Biophilia Live is a 2014 British concert film by Björk, directed and edited by Peter Strickland and Nick Fenton. The film features Björk performing tracks from her Biophilia Tour, which started in June 2011 and ended in September 2013, it was filmed at Alexandra Palace in London on 3 September 2013, had a theatrical premiere at the Tribeca Film Festival on 26 April 2014 with screenings across the world throughout the same year. The film was released on home video in three separate editions on 25 November 2014; the Biophilia Tour began on 27 June 2011 at the Manchester International Festival and spanned 3 years. Several innovate instruments were created and utilized for the tour, including a musical Tesla coil, a midi-controlled gamelan-celesta hybrid, a pendulum harp and the concert's most unwieldy instrument, The Sharpsichord created by Henry Dagg in the UK. Björk chose a specific format for the tour to show off all the instruments and create an intimate feeling: she and the musicians would be on a circular stage at the center of the venue and the audience would form all around them, free to move about and get a look at the various instruments placed throughout different parts of the stage.

The in the round format proved the single greatest challenge for filmmakers Nick Fenton and Peter Strickland when they co-directed the last in the round show of the Biophilia Tour where to place the 16 HD cameras. “Brett Turnbull was the head cinematographer and it was a big job for him to make sure we wouldn’t disturb the performers or the audience with our presence,” said Strickland. The film was shot on a mixture of Red Epic cameras. "In my mind we were there to serve Björk's vision,” continued Strickland. He wanted to use nature photography from the 1970s but revealed that Björk “was cautious of going down a retro path, she didn’t want to have a romantic view of nature. She wanted something modern and clinical... For me, it’s about marveling at the universe on an infinite and microscopic level and finding these connections. We tried to introduce this by having magnified tissue cells and linking them with overhead shots of forests and sand dunes. Visually they look identical.”Nick Fenton revealed that they did not take inspiration from famous concert films of the past like D. A. Pennebaker's Monterey Pop or the Maysles brothers' Gimme Shelter, instead choosing to do "something, true to what works represents."

During the night of the concert at Alexandra Palace on 3 September 2013, several songs were retaken to perfect them for filming, including "Sonnets/Unrealities XI" and "Sacrifice", the only song to use The Sharpsichord on the tour. Björk explained that they were only just getting familiar with the instrument as The Sharpsichord's size and weight prevented it from traveling. Despite its difficulties, Strickland revealed it was his favorite of the instruments utilized for the Biophilia Tour; the film had its world premiere on 26 April 2014 at the Tribeca Film Festival. The film's trailer debuted on YouTube on 14 August 2014 before the movie played at a variety of venues and dates around the world, including the Downtown Independent in Los Angeles. On 7 October 2014, Bjork skipped the British premiere at the BFI London Film Festival because she was busy working on her follow up to Biophilia, 2015's critically acclaimed Vulnicura; the concert film was released on CD, 3xLP, DVD and Blu-ray on 25 November 2014.

The same content with all the sound effects accompanying the super imposed images is carried over throughout all the formats, as is David Attenborough's narration over the opening track "Oskasteinn". However, the release is not the first live material from Biophilia to be available officially; the special Manual and Ultimate Art Editions of the original studio album contained a bonus disc of 15 songs performed live at the Manchester International Festival from June and July 2011. However, that original CD contains performances of Björk's prior to her vocal chord surgery in late 2012. Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a score of 76% based on reviews from 21 critics, with an average score of 6.59/10. Metacritic, another review aggregator, assigned the film a weighted average score of 67 based on 6 reviews from mainstream critics, considered to be "generally favorable reviews". Official website Björk: Biophilia Live on IMDb Björk: Biophilia Live at Box Office Mojo Björk: Biophilia Live at Rotten Tomatoes Björk: Biophilia Live at Metacritic Björk: Biophilia Live at the 2014 Tribeca Film Festival

American Invitational Mathematics Examination

The American Invitational Mathematics Examination is a 15-question 3-hour test given since 1983 to those who rank in the top 5% on the AMC 12 high school mathematics examination, starting in 2010, those who rank in the top 2.5% on the AMC 10. The AIME is the second of two tests used to determine qualification for the United States Mathematical Olympiad, the first being the AMC; the use of calculators is not allowed on the test. The exam consists of 15 questions of increasing difficulty, where each answer is an integer between 0 and 999 inclusive, thus the test removes the element of chance afforded by a multiple-choice test while preserving the ease of automated grading. Leading zeros must be gridded in. Concepts covered on the exam include topics in elementary algebra, trigonometry, as well as number theory and combinatorics. Many of these concepts are not directly covered in typical high school mathematics courses. One point is earned for each correct answer, no points are deducted for incorrect answers.

No partial credit is given. Thus AIME scores are integers from 0 to 15 inclusive; some old results are: A student's score on the AIME is used in combination with their score on the AMC to determine eligibility for the USAMO. A student's score on the AMC is added to 10 times their score on the AIME. In 2006, the cutoff for eligibility in the USAMO was 217 combined points. During the 1990s it was not uncommon for fewer than 2,000 students to qualify for the AIME, although 1994 was a notable exception where 99 students achieved perfect scores on the AHSME and the list of high scorers, distributed in small pamphlets, had to be distributed several months late in thick newspaper bundles; the AIME began in 1983. It was given once per year on a Thursday in late March or early April. Beginning in 2000, the AIME is given twice per year, the second date being an "alternate" test given to accommodate those students who are unable to sit for the first test because of spring break, illness, or any other reason.

However, under no circumstances may a student take both exams. The alternate test called the "AIME2" or "AIME-II," is given two weeks after the first test, on a Tuesday in early April. However, like the AMC, the AIME has been given on a Tuesday in early March, on the Wednesday 15 days e.g. March 7 and 22, 2006. Given that! 3! = k ⋅ n!, where k and n are positive integers and n is as large as possible, find k + n. Solution: 839 If the integer k is added to each of the numbers 36, 300, 596, one obtains the squares of three consecutive terms of an arithmetic series. Find k. Solution: 925 Complex numbers a, b and c are the zeros of a polynomial P = z 3 + q z + r, | a | 2 + | b | 2 + | c | 2 = 250; the points corresponding to a, b, c in the complex plane are the vertices of a right triangle with hypotenuse h. Find h 2. Solution: 375 American Mathematics Competitions List of mathematics competitions Mandelbrot Competition The Official AMC Home Page Complete Archive of AIME Problems and Solutions

Lectures of the Three Degrees in Craft Masonry

The Lectures of the Three Degrees in Craft Masonry is a series of manuals on Freemasonry that are arranged in the form of catechisms to be memorized. They cover rituals and symbolism associated with the three degrees of Craft Freemasonry in question and answer form. During the second half of the 19th century, the Lectures ceased to be used in English Lodges; the question and answer procedure was the traditional way in which Freemasons were instructed in Masonic ritual and symbolism before printed ritual books became more available. The members of a Masonic Lodge would sit around a table and the Worshipful Master would ask set questions of each member in turn to test their knowledge of the Masonic ritual and moral teachings. Replies and questions were stylized and a Freemason would have to demonstrate proficiency in answering the questions about his Masonic Degree before he would be allowed to proceed to the next degree; these catechisms became known as "Lectures of the Craft" and were developed into a comprehensive instructional system that covered not only the ritual and symbolism, but the spirit and morals of Freemasonry.

Like the actual Lodge rituals the Lectures were revised from time to time as Freemasonry developed. From the 18th century onwards, there were different systems of Masonic Lectures in circulation. William Preston's system of Lectures, developed from 1772 onwards, John Browne's Master Key, first published in full in 1801, were the first to reach a broader audience. By the time the United Grand Lodge of England was formed in 1813 there were at least three systems of Masonic Lectures current in the London area. At the formation of the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813, the various Masonic rituals in use in England and Wales were standardized under the supervision of the Duke of Sussex. A new Masonic ritual for use by UGLE was worked out by the "Lodge of Reconciliation" and it was soon realized that the system of Lectures would have to be adapted, for the purpose of instruction in the new UGLE procedures and to suit the Masonic symbolism to the new UGLE practice; when the Duke of Sussex was asked what should be done about the Lectures, he replied to the effect that the Worshipful Masters of the various Masonic Lodges should adapt their existing Lectures to the new standardized UGLE ceremonies and give them in their own words.

Accordingly, none of the different systems of Masonic Lectures in circulation received formal approval from UGLE in the same way as approval was accorded in 1816 to the new Masonic ritual worked out by the "Lodge of Reconciliation". The result was that the Lectures were not revised and they ceased to be given as part of regular Lodge meetings. Only a few Lodges continued using the Lectures regularly. Over time, the version of the Lectures developed for the Grand Stewards' Lodge in London became the most accepted; the system of questions and answers demonstrated by the Grand Stewards' Lodge was based on the catechism contained in John Browne's Master Key, which itself represented the standard usage of the Lectures by the former Premier Grand Lodge of England. By 1817, this had been adapted to conform to the new UGLE ritual put forward by the "Lodge of Reconciliation", arranged into 15 individual sections that were grouped into three Lectures, one for each degree of Craft Freemasonry; when the regular demonstrations of the Lectures by the Grand Stewards' Lodge ceased in the 1860s, the Emulation Lodge of Improvement, formed in 1823, became the leading body working them.

The Emulation Lodge of Improvement has demonstrated the Grand Steward's Lodge system of Lectures continuously since 1823, although rehearsal of the Emulation Ritual has always been its main work. While some light alterations have been made since the 1860s to the version of the Lectures, developed for the Grand Stewards' Lodge, the Lectures still demonstrated by the Emulation Lodge of Improvement are those which were worked in 1817 and, except for the necessary corrections to fit them to the new UGLE procedures after 1813, they have much the same content as the Lectures worked in English Freemasonry in the late 18th century. History of Freemasonry

Typhlodaphne purissima

Typhlodaphne purissima is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Borsoniidae. The shell grows to a length of 27 mm; this marine species occurs off Argentina, Tierra del Fuego and South Georgia Islands at depths between 94 m and 160 m. Strebel, 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Südpolar-Expedition, 1901-1903 "Typhlodaphne purissima". Retrieved 14 August 2011. Bouchet P. Kantor Yu. I. Sysoev A. & Puillandre N. A new operational classification of the Conoidea. Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273-308 Griffiths, H. J.. A.. SOMBASE - Southern Ocean mollusc database: a tool for biogeographic analysis in diversity and evolution. Organisms Diversity and Evolution. 3: 207-213 Kantor Y. I. Harasewych M. G. & Puillandre N.. A critical review of Antarctic Conoidea. Molluscan Research. 36: 153-206

White Nights Festival

The White Nights Festival is an annual summer festival in Saint Petersburg celebrating its near-midnight sun phenomena due to its location near the Arctic Circle. Organised by the Saint Petersburg City Administration, the festival begins in June 12 with the "Stars of the White Nights" at Mariinsky Theatre and ends on July 2. However, some performances connected to the festival take place after the official dates. Numerous night-time cultural festivals called White Nights, have been inspired by this; the "Stars of the White Nights" is a series of classical ballet and orchestral performances at the Mariinsky Theatre and the Mariinsky Concert Hall, as the essential part of the White Nights Festival in St. Petersburg; the artistic director of the festival is Valery Gergiev. During the festival, there are daily evening performances at the Mariinsky Theatre and daily evening performances at the Mariinsky Concert Hall. Evening performances start at 7 pm, but sometimes may start at 6 pm or 8 pm. In addition, sometimes there are morning or daytime performances as well, that can start either at 12 noon, or at 2 pm or at 4 pm.

The "Stars of the White Nights" festival was started by the first mayor of St. Petersburg, Anatoly Sobchak, has been held annually since 1993; some of the stars who performed here include Plácido Domingo, Olga Borodina, Alfred Brendel, Anna Netrebko, Carlo Maria Giulini, Yuri Temirkanov, Gidon Kremer, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Alexander Toradze, Deborah Voigt, James Conlon and many other classical performers. The "Stars of the White Nights Festival" runs from May through July at the Mariinsky Theatre and the newly built Mariinsky Concert Hall - one of the best-sounding halls in the world. For 2008, expect world-class performances by Valery Gergiev, Christoph Eschenbach, Alfred Brendel, Maxim Vengerov, Maria Guleghina, Bryn Terfel and Thomas Hampson, not to mention the ultimate Mariinsky ballerinas Ulyana Lopatkina and Diana Vishneva. Tickets to the Festival performances: because of the high demand tickets are sold out several weeks or months before the performance date. For the ones with Valery Gergiev participation.

If you are a traveler to St. Petersburg, it is better to buy tickets in advance - getting tickets on the spot after your arrival to St. Petersburg may become quite expensive; the Scarlet Sails celebration in St. Petersburg is the most famous public event during the White Nights, known in Russian as "Alye Parusa" festivity; the event is popular for spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the school year: "Scarlet Sails" celebration in St. Petersburg This tradition began here after the end of World War II, when schools united to celebrate the ending of a school year in connection with symbolism of the popular children's book "Scarlet Sails" by Alexander Grin. At that time a boat with scarlet sails was sailing along the English Embankment and the Admiralty Embankment towards the Winter Palace. Although it was designed to update the rusty revolutionary propaganda, the "Scarlet Sails" tradition has become a popular public event, annually celebrating the ending of the school year in June.

The "Scarlet sails" appearance is now the most popular part of the White Nights celebration. The popularity of both the book and the tradition was boosted after the 1961 release of the movie titled "Alye parusa", starring Anastasiya Vertinskaya and Vasily Lanovoy. A series of carnivals take place during the White Nights Festival in St. Petersburg; the largest and most internationally renowned carnival takes place in the Peterhof suburb of St. Petersburg. There actors dressed in period costumes from the times of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great give performances reproducing some of the historic events of that period. Period carriages are ridden around the Peterhof park as part of the carnival. Carnivals at the Catherine Palace and in the Pavlovsk suburb of St. Petersburg are renowned for their artistic reproduction of the historic events that took place at those palaces. Period carriages are driven around the Catherine park as part of the carnival entertainment; the Palace Square in St. Petersburg serves as a natural stage for numerous carnival events and appearances showing period costumes of the Tsars and Tsarinas.

Every summer in St. Petersburg the Palace Square becomes a stage for international stars of popular music; this wide square has been used for official military parades and massive demonstrations, as well as for political events and large-scale shows and other entertainment. The most recent appearances were those of Paul McCartney, The Rolling Stones, Scorpions & other stars. Star appearances are connected with the White Nights, though some appearances may not coincide with the time of the White Nights Festival because of individual schedules or other reasons. In July 2007, they played their show in front of the Tsar's Winter Palace before a crowd of 50 thousand Russian fans. Several film festivals take place around the time of the White Nights Festival. During the entire season of the White Nights the St. Petersburg news media and television are focused on the White Nights Festival, showcasing its numerous events Official Site "Scarlet Sails" celebration: "Scarlet Sails" celebration in St. Petersburg