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Pope Nicholas II

Pope Nicholas II, born Gérard de Bourgogne, was pope from 24 January 1059 until his death. At the time of his election, he was Bishop of Florence. Gérard de Bourgogne was born in what is now Savoy, he was canon at Liege. In 1046 he became Bishop of Florence, where he restored the canonical life among the clergy of numerous churches. Benedict X was elected in his election having been arranged by the Count of Tusculum. However, a number of cardinals alleged that the election was irregular, that votes had been bought. Hildebrand, was away on a diplomatic mission to Germany; when he heard of Benedict X's election, he decided to oppose it, obtained support for the election of Gérard de Bourgogne instead. In December 1058, those cardinals who had opposed Benedict X's election met at Siena and elected Gérard as pope instead, he took the name Nicholas II. Nicholas II proceeded towards Rome, along the way holding a synod at Sutri, where, in the presence of Duke Godfrey of Lorraine-Tuscany and the imperial chancellor, Guibert of Parma, he pronounced Benedict X deposed and excommunicated.

The supporters of Nicholas II gained control of Rome and forced Benedict X to flee to Gerard of Galeria. Having arrived in Rome, Nicholas II proceeded to wage war against Benedict X and his supporters with Norman assistance. At an initial battle in Campagna in early 1059, Nicholas II was not wholly successful, but that same year, his forces conquered Praeneste and Numentanum, in the autumn took Galeria, forcing Benedict X to surrender and renounce the Papacy. To secure his position, Nicholas II at once entered into relations with the Normans; the Pope wanted to re-take Sicily for Christianity, he saw the Normans as the perfect force to crush the Muslims. The Normans were by this time established in southern Italy, in the year 1059 the new alliance was cemented at Melfi, where the pope, accompanied by Hildebrand, Cardinal Humbert, Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino, solemnly invested Robert Guiscard with the duchies of Apulia and Sicily, Richard of Aversa with the principality of Capua, in return for oaths of fealty and the promise of assistance in guarding the rights of the Church.

This arrangement, based on no firmer foundation than the forged "Donation of Constantine", was destined to give the papacy independence from both the Eastern and Western Empires. Its first substantial result was Norman aid in taking Galeria, where Antipope Benedict X was hiding, the end of the subordination of the papacy to the Roman nobles. Meanwhile, Nicholas II sent Peter Damian and Bishop Anselm of Lucca as legates to Milan, to resolve the conflict between the Patarenes and the archbishop and clergy; the result was a fresh triumph for the papacy. Archbishop Wido, facing ruinous ecclesiastical conflict in Milan, submitted to the terms of the legates, which subordinated Milan to Rome; the new relation was advertised by the unwilling attendance of Wido and the other Milanese bishops at the council summoned to the Lateran Palace in April 1059. This council not only continued the Hildebrandine reforms by sharpening the discipline of the clergy, but marked an epoch in the history of the papacy by its famous regulation of future elections to the Holy See.

Papal elections had been controlled by the Roman aristocracy, unless the Holy Roman Emperor was strong enough to be able to intervene from a distance to impose his will. As a result of the battles with the Antipope Benedict X, Nicholas II wished to reform papal elections. At the synod held in the Lateran at Easter, 1059, Pope Nicholas brought 113 bishops to Rome to consider a number of reforms, including a change in the election procedure; the electoral reform adopted by that synod amounted to a declaration of independence on the part of the church. Henceforth, popes were to be selected by the Cardinals in assembly at Rome. List of popes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nicholas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 649–651. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Nicholas II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton

Love Has Come

"Love Has Come" is singer-songwriter Mark Schultz's third single for his fifth studio album Come Alive. Mark says. One passage in particular was Philippians 2:5-11, he used Isaiah 45:22-24. Mark said that he wrote two bridges with no verses: Every knee shall bow, Every tongue confess, That God is love, And love has come for us all. Glory, hallelujah, Thank You for the cross, Singing glory, hallelujah, Christ has paid the cost. Producer Brown Bannister helped write the verses and an extra bridge: Oh, on that day, We will stand amazed, At our Savior and King, Just to see the face, Of amazing grace, As our hearts rise up and sing; the music video features Mark singing with a gospel choir. The video was released on March 22. NRT Contributor Kevin Davis called the single "a great song to sing and praise to."The music video was voted #4 of 10 during the 4th Annual GMC Music Video Awards. The song debuted at #13 on the Billboard Hot Christian Songs chart in its first week of release, has since peaked at #11.

Songwriting - Brown Bannister, Matthew West, Mark Schultz Production - Brown Bannister Vocals - Mark Schultz Music video Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

USS Peggy (SP-1072)

USS Peggy was a United States Navy patrol vessel in commission from 1917 to 1918. Peggy was built as a private motorboat of the same name in 1914 or 1915 by Vanderslice at Camden, New Jersey. On 14 August 1917, the U. S. Navy acquired her from her owner, G. F. Dieser of Philadelphia, for use as a section patrol boat during World War I, she was commissioned the same day as USS Peggy. Assigned to the 4th Naval District and based at Philadelphia, Peggy conducted patrols for the rest of World War I; the Navy returned Peggy to Dieser on 23 November 1918. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. SP-1072 Peggy at Department of the Navy Naval History and Heritage Command Online Library of Selected Images: U. S. Navy Ships -- Listed by Hull Number: "SP" #s and "ID" #s -- World War I Era Patrol Vessels and other Acquired Ships and Craft numbered from SP-1000 through SP-1099 NavSource Online: Section Patrol Craft Photo Archive Peggy


An asterisk. It is so called. Computer scientists and mathematicians vocalize it as star. In English, an asterisk is five-pointed in sans-serif typefaces, six-pointed in serif typefaces, six- or eight-pointed when handwritten, it is used to censor offensive words, on the Internet, to indicate a correction to a previous message. In computer science, the asterisk is used as a wildcard character, or to denote pointers, repetition, or multiplication; the asterisk has been used as a symbol in ice age cave paintings. There is a two thousand year old character used by Aristarchus of Samothrace called the asteriskos, ※, which he used when proofreading Homeric poetry to mark lines that were duplicated. Origen is known to have used the asteriskos to mark missing Hebrew lines from his Hexapla; the asterisk evolved in shape over time, but its meaning as a symbol used to correct defects remained. In the Middle Ages, the asterisk was used to emphasize a particular part of text linking those parts of the text to a marginal comment.

However, an asterisk was not always used. One hypothesis to the origin of the asterisk is that it stems from the five thousand year old Sumerian character dingir, though this hypothesis seems to only be based on visual appearance; when toning down expletives, asterisks are used to replace letters. For example, the word "fuck" might become "f**k", "f*ck" or "****". Vowels tend to be censored with an asterisk more than consonants, but the intelligibility of censored profanities with multiple syllables such as "b*ll*cks" or uncommon ones is higher if put in context with surrounding text. In colloquial usage, an asterisk is used to indicate that a record is somehow tainted by circumstances, which are putatively explained in a footnote referenced by the asterisk; the usage of the term in sports arose during the 1961 baseball season in which Roger Maris of the New York Yankees was threatening to break Babe Ruth's 34-year-old single-season home run record. Ruth had amassed 60 home runs in a season with only 154 games, but Maris was playing the first season in the American League's newly expanded 162-game season.

Baseball Commissioner Ford Frick, a friend of Ruth's during the legendary slugger's lifetime, held a press conference to announce his "ruling" that should Maris take longer than 154 games both records would be acknowledged by Major League Baseball, but that some "distinctive mark" be placed next to Maris', which should be listed alongside Ruth's achievement in the "record books". The asterisk as such a mark was suggested at that time by New York Daily News sportswriter Dick Young, not Frick; the reality, was that MLB had no direct control over any record books until many years and it all was a suggestion on Frick's part. Within a few years the controversy died down and all prominent baseball record keepers listed Maris as the single-season record holder; the stigma of holding a tainted record remained with Maris for many years, the concept of a real or figurative asterisk denoting less-than-accepted "official" records has become used in sports and other competitive endeavors. A 2001 TV movie about Maris's record-breaking season was called 61* in reference to the controversy.

Uproar over the integrity of baseball records and whether or not qualifications should be added to them arose again in the late 1990s, when a steroid-fueled power explosion led to the shattering of Maris' record. Though it was obvious - and admitted - by Bunyonesque Mark McGwire that he was juiced on steroids when he hit 70 homers in 1998, baseball did the annoyance of many fans and sportswriters. Three years evident steroid-user Barry Bonds pushed that record out to 73, fans once again began to call for an asterisk in the sport's record books. Fans were critical and clamored louder for baseball to act during the 2007 season, as Bonds approached and broke Hank Aaron's career home run record of 755. Antagonized fans would hold up signs bearing asterisks whenever Bonds came up to bat. After Bonds hit his record-breaking 756th home run that season, a fashion designer and entrepreneur purchased the home run ball from the fan who caught it, ran a poll on his website to determine its fate.

He subsequently donated the ball, marked with a die-cut asterisk, to the Baseball Hall of Fame. In recent years, the asterisk has come into use on baseball scorecards to denote a "great defensive play." By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the association of baseball and its records with doping had become so notorious that the term "asterisk" had become associated with doping in sport. In February 2011 the United States Olympic Committee and the Ad Council launched an anti-steroid campaign called "Play Asterisk Free" aimed at teens; the campaign, whose logo uses a heavy asterisk, first launched in 2008 under the name Don't Be An Asterisk. In cricket, it signifies a total number of runs scored by a batsman without losing his wicket. Where only the scores of the two batsmen that are in are being shown, an asterisk following a batsman's score indicates that he is due to face the next ball to be delivered; when written before a player's name on a scorecard, it indicates the captain of the team.

It is used on television when giving a career statistic during a match. For example, "47 *" in a number of matches column means. In co

Don't Cry Mommy

Don't Cry Mommy is a 2012 South Korean crime drama film directed by Kim Yong-han. The story was about a mother's revenge against her daughter's rapists, it premiered at the 2012 Busan International Film Festival before its theatrical release. The film was inspired by Kim Bu-Nam case. Director Kim Yong-han said he wanted to raise awareness about sex crimes by charting "the tragic course of the lives of victims and their families as vividly as possible. Sexual abuse is like devastating a human's soul." Divorced, Yoo-lim now lives with her only daughter, Eun-ah. Upon arriving at her new school, Eun-ah is picked on, though she has feelings for classmate Jo-han. One day she is brutally raped by Jo-han and his friends who threaten to upload footage of the rape online to keep her quiet. Unable to cope with the trauma she was forced to endure, Eun-ah takes her own life; as all of the boys involved in the rape are still minors, the law is helpless to prosecute them to the fullest extent possible, they walk away with little more than a slap on the wrist.

Despite the police detective Oh's attempts to appease her, Yoo lim was still filled with frustration and anger. Hence, You-lim sets out to make the boys' lives a living hell, she was about to kill Jo-han first but when he lied that it was his friend's plan to rape Eun-ah,she went ahead to brutally murder the two Jo-han mentioned. When Yoo-lim realised that it was Jo-han whom was behind all of this, she entered his school and attempts to kill him, but police detective Oh, investigating Eun-ah's death rushes over to stop her; when confronted, Yoo-lim, having had enough of all she had to go through, makes an attempt to deliver the fatal blow, forcing detective Oh to shoot her with his gun, killing her. Yoo Sun as Yoo-lim Nam Bo-ra as Eun-ah, daughter of Yoo-lim Shin Dongho as Jo-han, schoolmate of Eun-ah Yu Oh-seong as police detective Kwon Hyun-sang as Park Joon Choi Dae-chul as Yoo-lim's ex-husband 2013 Baeksang Arts Awards Nomination - Best New Actress - Nam Bo-ra2013 Blue Dragon Film Awards Nomination - Best New Actress - Nam Bo-ra This movie highlights the prevalence of sexual abuse throughout the world and how it goes unattended by the governments.

In the movie, Eun-ah had to go through checks that made her insecure, despite obvious scars and bruises inflicted onto her, to have the 3 boys released with no penalties, it depicts out the reality of how sexual abuse cases are treated. The 3 boys showed no remorse at all after the incident. Despite prompts by the mother after Eun-ah died, they denied what they have done and all 3 stated that she was stupid to have resorted to suicide. Official website Don't Cry Mommy at the Korean Movie Database Don't Cry Mommy on IMDb Don't Cry Mommy at HanCinema

Nord Drum

The Clavia Nord Drum is a virtual analog drum synthesizer, that Clavia claims is capable of'retro-futuristic' percussion sounds. It was unveiled by Clavia at NAMM 2012, released in March 2012; the Nord Drum has four channels, in other words it is capable of creating four different drum sounds at once. Each channel can be triggered either from MIDI or from drum triggers, the Nord Drum can therefore both be used to add electronic sounds to a drum kit, or be controlled from sequencers or MIDI keyboards; each sound can be made up of a click and noise. "Reviews: Nord Drum". Future Music. No. 252. May 2012. Pp. 78–81. ISSN 0967-0378. OCLC 1032779031. "Clavia Nord Drum". Sound on Sound. August 2012. "Clavia Nord Drum 2". Sound on Sound. May 2014. "Clavia Nord Drum 3P". Sound on Sound. April 2017