Pope Paul II, born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 30 August 1464 to his death in 1471. When his maternal uncle, Gabriele Condulmer, became Pope Eugenius IV, Pietro switched from training to be a merchant to religious studies, his rise in the Church was rapid. Elected pope in 1464, he amassed a great collection of art and antiquities. Paul was born in a nephew of Pope Eugenius IV through his mother. Through his father he was a member of the noble Barbo family, his adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as pope. His consequent promotion was rapid, he boasted. After having been lay abbot of Santa Maria in Sylvis since 1441, in 1445 he succeeded Giuliano Cesarini as archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. Platina reported that Pius II suggested he should have been called Maria Pietissima, as "when he could not obtain what he aimed at by praying and requesting, he would join tears to his petitions to make them the sooner believed." Some historians have suggested the nickname may have been an allusion either to Paul's propensity to enjoy dressing up in sumptuous ecclesiastical finery, or a lack of masculinity.
He was elected to succeed Pope Pius II by the accessus in the first ballot of the papal conclave of 1464 with a majority of fourteen of the nineteen cardinals present. Beforehand, to secure to the cardinals a greater share of power than they had enjoyed under Pius II, a capitulation was subscribed by all except Ludovico Trevisan, it bound the future Pope to continue the Turkish war, but he was not to journey outside Rome without the consent of a majority of the cardinals, nor to leave Italy without the consent of all. The maximum number of cardinals was limited to twenty-four, any new Pope was to be limited to only one cardinal-nephew. All creations of new cardinals and advancements to certain important benefices were to be made only with the consent of the College of Cardinals. Upon taking office, Paul II was to convene an ecumenical council within three years, but these terms of subscription were modified by Paul II at his own discretion, this action lost him the confidence of the College of Cardinals.
The justification for setting aside the capitulations, seen to be under way by the Duke of Milan's ambassador as early as 21 September, lay in connecting any abridgement of the Pope's absolute monarchy in the Papal States with a consequent abridgement of his sole authority in spiritual matters. From his coronation, Paul withdrew and became inaccessible: audiences were only granted at night and good friends waited a fortnight to see him, his suspiciousness was attested. He wore rouge in public; the story of Cardinal Ammanati that he meant to take the name Formosus II, but was persuaded not to, is more repeated than the story that he was dissuaded from Marcus, being Venetian and the Cardinal of San Marco, because it was the war-cry of Venice. He had a papal tiara made for his own use studded with "diamonds, emeralds, large pearls, every kind of precious gem", he built the Palazzo San Marco and lived there as pope, amassing a great collection of art and antiquities. A sore point was his abuse of the practice of creating cardinals in pectore, without publishing their names.
Eager to raise new cardinals to increase the number who were devoted to his interests, but restricted by the terms of the capitulation, which gave the College a voice in the creation of new members, in the winter of 1464–65 Paul created two secret cardinals both of whom died before their names could be published. In his fourth year as Pope, he created eight new cardinals on 18 September 1467. Five were candidates pressed by kings, placating James II of Cyprus, Edward IV of England, Louis XI of France, Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and Ferdinand I of Naples. Two further cardinal-nephews were added on 21 November 1468. In a sign of his increasing secretiveness and paranoia, he added two more cardinals secretly at the same consistory, four more at the beginning of 1471, expecting to reveal them only in his testament. Tensions with the College of Cardinals came to the fore when in 1466, attempting to eliminate redundant offices, Paul II proceeded to annul the College of Abbreviators, whose function it was to formulate papal documents.
Platina, one of these, wrote a threatening letter to the Pope, was imprisoned, but discharged. However, in February 1468, Platina was again imprisoned on the charge of having participated in a conspiracy against the Pope, was tortured along with other abbreviators, such as Filip Callimachus, who fled to Poland in 1478, all of whom had been accused of pagan views. Not unaccountably, Platina, in his Vitae pontificum, set forth an unfavorable delineation of the character of Paul II. Though Platina's writing after the conflict would tarnish the legacy of Paul II, the conflict would prove to have a greater effect on the intellectual environment of Rome. Peter Partner explains, "Probably its most important result was to convince men of letters that cultural conformity would be enforced in Rome." More tangibly, after the crackdown of Paul II, the Roman Academy took on a more relig
Wang Yan is a Chinese race walker, who won the bronze medal over 10 km at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. She won the 1993 IAAF World Race Walking Cup, as well as a silver medal at the 1999 World Championships and a bronze at the 2001 East Asian Games, she was the world record holder for the 20 km walk from 2001 to 2005. She held the Asian record for the women's 20 km walk with her best of 1:26:22 hours from 2001 to 2012, until it was beaten by Liu Hong. China at the World Championships in Athletics Wang Yan at World Athletics
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