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Pope Pius IV

Pope Pius IV, born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565. Born in Milan, his family considered itself a branch of the House of Medici and used the same coat of arms. Although modern historians have found no proof of this connection, the Medici of Florence recognized the claims of the Medici of Milan in the early 16th century. Pope Paul III appointed Medici Archbishop of Ragusa, sent him on diplomatic missions to Germany and Hungary, he presided over the final session of the Council of Trent. His nephew, Cardinal Charles Borromeo, was a close adviser; as pope, Pius IV initiated a number of building projects in Rome, including one to improve the water supply. Giovanni Angelo Medici was born in Milan on 31 March 1499 as the second of eleven children to Bernardino de' Medici and Clelia Serbelloni, he was not related to the Medicis of Florence. Giovanni Medici was the younger brother of condottiero Gian Giacomo Medici, the maternal uncle of Charles Borromeo.

Medici studied medicine in Pavia. After studying at Bologna and acquiring a reputation as a jurist he obtained his doctorate in both canon and civil law on 11 May 1525. Medici went in 1527 to Rome, as a favourite of Pope Paul III was promoted to the governorship of several towns, the archbishopric of Ragusa, the vice-legateship of Bologna. In April 1549, Pope Paul III made Medici a cardinal. Under Papal authority, he was sent on diplomatic missions to Germany and to Hungary. On the death of Pope Paul IV, he was elected pope on 25 December 1559, taking the name Pius IV, installed on 6 January 1560, his first public acts of importance were to grant a general pardon to the participants in the riot after the death of his predecessor, to bring to trial the nephews of his predecessor. One, Cardinal Carlo Carafa, was strangled, Duke Giovanni Carafa of Paliano, with his nearest associates, was beheaded. On 18 January 1562 the Council of Trent, suspended by Pope Julius III, was convened by Pius IV for the third and final time.

Great skill and caution were necessary to effect a settlement of the questions before it, inasmuch as the three principal nations taking part in it, though at issue with regard to their own special demands, were prepared to unite their forces against the demands of Rome. Pius IV, aided by Cardinal Morone and Charles Borromeo, proved himself equal to the emergency, by judicious management – and concession – brought the council to a termination satisfactory to the disputants and favourable to the pontifical authority, its definitions and decrees were confirmed by a papal bull dated 26 January 1564. The more marked manifestations of stringency during his pontificate appear to have been prompted rather than spontaneous, his personal character inclining him to moderation and ease. Thus, a warning, issued in 1564, summoning Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, before the Inquisition on a charge of Calvinism, was withdrawn by him in deference to the indignant protest of Charles IX of France. In the same year he published a bull granting the use of the cup to the laity of Austria and Bohemia.

One of his strongest passions appears to have been that of building, which somewhat strained his resources in contributing to the adornment of Rome, in carrying on the work of restoration and fortification in various parts of the ecclesiastical states. On the other hand, others bemoaned the austere Roman culture during his papacy. Pius IV created 46 cardinals in four consistories during his pontificate, elevated three nephews to the cardinalate, including Carlo Borromeo; the pope made Ugo Boncompagni, who would be elected Pope Gregory XIII, a cardinal. A conspiracy against Pius IV, headed by Benedetto Accolti the Younger, the son of a cardinal, was discovered and crushed in 1565. During the reign of Pius IV, Michelangelo rebuilt the basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli and the eponymous Villa Pia, now known as Casina Pio IV. in the Vatican Gardens designed by Pirro Ligorio. It is now the headquarters of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Pius IV ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome.

Pius IV died on 9 December 1565. He was buried in Santa Maria degli Angeli, his successor was Pius V. Cardinals created by Pius IV House of Medici List of popes from the Medici family Artaud de Montor, Alexis Francois; the Lives and Times of the Popes. Vol. V. New York: Catholic Publication Society of America. Bonora, Elena. Roma 1564: La congiura contro il papa. Rome: Gius. Laterza & Figli Spa. ISBN 978-88-581-1379-0. Freedberg, Sydney J.. Pelican History of Art. Painting in Italy, 1500–1600. Penguin Books Ltd. p. 429. Hinojosa, R. de, Felipe II y el conclave de 1559, según los documentos originales, muchos inéditos. Madrid 1889. Pastor, Freiherr von; the History of the Popes from the close of the Middle Ages. Volume XV, Volume XVI. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Pattenden, Miles. Pius IV and the Fall of The Carafa

Al-Bayhaqi

Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn Ḥusayn Ibn'Alī ibn Mūsa al-Khosrojerdi al-Bayhaqi, البيهقي known as Imām al-Bayhaqi was born 994 CE/384 AH in the small town of Khosrowjerd near Sabzevar known as Bayhaq, in Khurasan. During his lifetime, he became a famous Sunni hadith expert, following the Shafi'i school in fiqh and the Ash'ari school of Islamic Theology. Al-Bayhaqi's full name is أحمد بن الحسين بن علي بن موسى الخراساني البيهقي المشهور بالبيهقي. Al-Bayhaqi was a scholar of fiqh of the Shafi'i school of thought, as well as of that of hadith, he studied fiqh under Abū al-Fatḥ Nāṣir ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad al-Naysaburi as well as Abul Hasan Hankari. He studied hadith under Hakim al-Nishaburi, Abu Mansur Al-Baghdadi and others, was al-Nishaburi's foremost pupil, he died in 1066 CE. Bayhaqi was a prominent author in his time, having authored more than one thousand volumes according to Al-Dhahabi. Among the most well-known books authored by him are: Sunan al-Kubra lil Behaqi known as Sunan al-Bayhaqi Ma`arifa al-Sunan wa al-Athar Bayan Khata Man Akhta`a `Ala al-Shafi`i Al-Mabsut, a book on Shafi`i Law Al-Asma' wa al-Sifat Al-I`tiqad `ala Madhhab al-Salaf Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a Dala'il al-Nubuwwah Shuab ul Iman Al-Da`awat al-Kabir Al-Zuhd al-Kabir

Brenda Lindiwe Mabaso-Chipeio

Brenda Lindiwe Mabaso-Chipeio is an International Trade expert based in Pretoria, South Africa. She is a successful business entrepreneur as well as a motivational speaker, she has an interest in investment facilitation work and seeks to expand her business ventures to this industry. Born in Newcastle, part of Northern Natal, Mabaso is the fifth born of father John Tyrell Mabaso and Esther Thembi Mabaso. During her toddler years, the Mabaso family migrated to Swaziland, it is in Swaziland that Mabaso established herself as a top-achiever in her local school, having been recognised as the best student in her class. Her achievements in sports during her senior school years greatly contributed to her academic success in life. Mabaso completed her matric at Evelyn Bearing High School, she completed a Diploma in Commercial Teaching from Swaziland College of Technology. Her most notable academic achievement is the attainment of a Masters in Business Administration from the Durham University Business School in 1999.

To date, Mabaso undertakes special Management and Strategic Course as part of furthering her expertise in corporate management. Mabaso has extensive work experience in Tariff Investigations and SACU Relations, as she has spent the major and most recent part of her career at the International Trade and Administration Commission, she is part of the Women in Management and Leadership Conference. In addition to her professional roles, Brenda currently serves on the Families South Africa Board of Directors. East London Industrial Development Zone Corporation Mabaso was a Business Development Manager at ELIDZ from September 2002 to December 2003, she was responsible for formulating and implementing the investment promotion strategy and assist with the development of Small to Medium Enterprises. During her tenure at ELIDZ, Mabaso facilitated a successful International Investor Conference. A sit managed to anchor tenants for the Industrial Development Zone. Trade and Industry Mabaso, as the resident Marketing Deputy Director during the period of August 2001 to February 2002, was responsible for designing and administering thedti incentives schemes.

In addition, she was responsible for the management of external and internal relations as well as the overseeing of Pilot Projects. Makhosini Secondary SchoolMabaso practised as a Commercial Teacher from 1991 to 1994. During her teaching tenure, she achieved a 100 % pass rate in all the subjects. Itac.org.za