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Pope Sergius I

Pope Sergius I was Bishop of Rome from December 15, 687, to his death in 701. He was elected at a time when two rivals, the Archdeacon Paschal and the Archpriest Theodore, were locked in dispute about which of them should become pope, his papacy was dominated by his response to the Quinisext Council, whose canons he refused to accept. Thereupon the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II ordered Sergius' arrest, but the Roman people and the Italian militia of the Exarch of Ravenna refused to allow the exarch to remove Sergius to Constantinople. Sergius I came from an Antiochene Syrian family. Sergius left Sicily and arrived in Rome during the pontificate of Pope Adeodatus II, he may have been among the many Sicilian clergy in Rome due to the Islamic Caliphate battles against Sicily in the mid-7th century. Pope Leo II, ordained him cardinal-priest of Santa Susanna on 27 June 683, he rose through the ranks of the clergy, he remained cardinal-priest of Santa Susanna until his selection as pope. When on 21 September 687, after a long illness and a reign of less than a year, Pope Conon died, his archdeacon Paschal had bribed the Exarch of Ravenna, John II Platyn, to make him Pope Conon's successor.

However, a more numerous faction wanted the Archpriest Theodore to become pope. The two factions entered into armed combat, each in possession of part of the Lateran Palace, the papal residence. To break the deadlock, a group of civic authorities, army officers and other citizens met in the Palatine imperial palace, elected Sergius and stormed the Lateran, forcing the two rival candidates to accept Sergius. Though pretending to accept Sergius, Paschal sent messengers to Platyn, promising a large sum of gold in exchange for military support; the Exarch arrived, recognized that Sergius had been elected, but demanded the gold anyway. After Sergius's consecration on 15 December 687, Platyn departed. Paschal continued his intrigues and was confined to a monastery on charges of witchcraft. Sergius's consecration ended the last disputed sede vacante of the Byzantine Papacy. On 10 April 689, Sergius baptised King Cædwalla of Wessex in Rome, he ordained Saint Willibrord as bishop of the Frisians. After Berhtwald was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury by Godwin, Archbishop of Lyon, he traveled to Rome and received the pallium from Pope Sergius.

He was active in ending the Schism of the Three Chapters with Old-Aquileia in 698. Sergius founded the diaconia of Santa Maria in Via Lata on Via del Corso, encompassing a city quarter that developed in the 8th century, he "restored and embellished" the Eastern church of Santi Cosma e Damiano. Sergius I did not attend the Quinisext Council of 692, attended by 226 or 227 bishops, overwhelmingly from the patriarchate of Constantinople; the participation of Basil of Gortyna in Crete, belonging to the Roman patriarchate, has been seen in the East as representing Rome and as signifying Roman approval, but he was in fact no papal legate. Sergius rejected the canons of the council as invalid and declared that he would "rather die than consent to erroneous novelties". Though a loyal subject of the Empire, he would not be "its captive in matters of religion" and refused to sign the canons. Writers such as Andrew J. Ekonomou have speculated on which canons in particular Sergius found objectionable. Ekonomou himself excludes the anathemizing of Pope Honorius I, the declaration of Constantinople as equal in privileges but second in honour to Rome.

However, all popes since Leo I had adamantly rejected the 28th canon of the Council of Chalcedon, which on the basis of political considerations tried to raise the ecclesiastical status of the Patriarchate of Constantinople to equality with that of old Rome. Ekonomou mentions rather the approval by the Quinisext Council of all 85 Apostolic Canons, of which Sergius would have supported only the first 50. Many of the regulations that the Quinisext Council enacted were aimed at making uniform the existing church practices regarding ritual observance and clerical discipline. Being held under Byzantine auspices, with an Eastern clergy, the council regarded the customs of the Church of Constantinople as the orthodox practice. Practices in the Church in the West that had got the attention of the Eastern Patriarchates were condemned, such as: the practice of celebrating Mass on weekdays in Lent. Larger disputes were revealed regarding Eastern and Western attitudes toward celibacy for priests and deacons, with the Council affirming the right of married men to become priests and prescribing excommunication for anyone who attempted to separate a clergyman from his wife, or for any cleric who abandoned his wife.

In a step, symbolically important in view of the council's prohibition of depicting Christ as a Lamb, Sergius introduced into the liturgy the chant "Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us" at the breaking of the Host during Mass, restored the damaged facade mosaic in the atrium of Saint Peter's that depicted the Worship of the Lamb. The Agnus Dei would have been chanted in both Greek and Latin during this period, in the same manner as the other liturgical changes of Sergius. Enraged, Emperor Justinian II dispatched his magistrianus named Sergius, to arrest Bishop John of Portus, the chief papal legate to the Third Council of Constantinople and Boniface, the papal counselor; the two high-ranking officials were brought to Constantinople as a warning to the pope. Justinian II ordered Sergius's arrest and abduction to Const

George Walter (1790–1854)

George Walter was an English entrepreneur, known for his involvement with early railways of the 1830s. He was the second son of the Rev. Edward Newton Walter, he became a Royal Marines 2nd lieutenant in 1811. Towards the end of the Napoleonic Wars he was serving on HMS Chatham. Well-connected, he was a member of the London Stock Exchange from 1823 to 1828. In 1825 he was involved in the unrealised project of Nicholas Wilcocks Cundy of a Portsmouth-London ship canal, he founded in 1829 the General Annuity Endowment Association the Sovereign Life Assurance Company. Walter was one of the founders of the Southampton and London Railway and Dock Company, in 1831, with Abel Rous Dottin, Robert Johnston from Jamaica; the company failed. George Thomas Landmann in October 1831 brought Walter into planning for the London and Greenwich Railway, an initial meeting was held in Dottin's house in Argyle Street, London; the company's base was Walter's insurance office. In 1831, Walter took the position of secretary of the Greenwich.

At that time, the London Bridge – Greenwich Railway Viaduct was close to completion, the prospect existed that the London & Greenwich would be the first railway running into the metropolis. The capital position of the company was not healthy and the raising of additional finance depressed the share price. In July 1837, Dottin and Walter resigned as directors. In 1835 Walter founded and subsidised the Railway Magazine, having seen the potential in the Mechanics' Magazine and its railway promotion, it was the first specialist railway periodical, Walter used it to publicise the London & Greenwich, where Akerman was his replacement as secretary, his other interests. In 1836 he sold it to John Herapath. In 1844 Walter became manager of the company manufacturing Kamptulicon. In the same year his partnership with Ebenezer Gough, to manufacture Kamptulicon ended. Walter died at Prittlewell, Essex on 24 August 1854. Walter married twice, had 12 children, they included Dottin Alleyne Walter, an architect known as an antiquarian

Giancarlo Pagliarini

Giancarlo Pagliarini is an Italian politician. Born in Milan, he was elected to the Italian Senate for Lega Nord in 1992 and re-elected in 1994 elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1996 and in 2001, he was Minister of the Budget in Berlusconi I Cabinet in 1994, "President of Padania" in 1996 and floor leader of Lega Nord in the Chamber of Deputies from 1999 to 2001. He is married to a lady of Armenian origin whose family survived the Armenian Genocide, they have a son and a daughter. Before joining the League, Pagliarini worked as accountant and was close to the Radical Party, for its battle in favour of divorce. Anyway, he never joined that party, being only a voter, so he made his first political experience in the League. Pagliarini is a moderate, sometimes dissenting with the party's social-conservative agenda, a libertarian on economic issues, a prominent supporter of fiscal federalism and fiscal conservatism, he was known as maverick politician and, prior to leaving Lega Nord criticized the line imposed by Umberto Bossi.

He dissented with the continuation of the alliance with the other House of Freedoms parties, favouring an autonomous path for the League, flirted with the independentist wing of the party, led by Gilberto Oneto, a libertarian himself, maintained relations with the Liberal Reformers. On 19 January 2007 Pagliarini, not candidate for re-election in the 2006 general election left Lega Nord. In June he took part to the libertarian network founded by Daniele Capezzone. On 18 January 2008 he unexpectedly joined The Right of Francesco Storace and was candidated in Lombardy in the 2008 general election, despite declaring to be "leghista in the soul and the mind", he wasn't elected. He was a candidate for mayor of Milan for local elections in 2011, but he wasn't able to enter the runoff election. Subsequently he joined Act to Stop a federalist and liberal party. Official website

Zama (novel)

Zama is a 1956 novel by Argentine writer Antonio di Benedetto. Existential in nature, the plot centers around the eponymous Don Diego de Zama, a minor official of the colonial Spanish Empire stationed in remote Paraguay during the late 18th century and his attempts to receive a long-awaited promotion and transfer to Buenos Aires in the face of personal and professional stagnation. Di Benedetto drew from Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky; these existential themes of inward and outward stasis because of circumstance drive the novel's narrative as being in motion yet never changing. Together with two of his other novels, El silenciero and Los suicidas, Zama has been published as part of Benedetto's informal La trilogía de la espera; the novel is considered by various critics to be a major work of Argentine literature. Don Diego de Zama is a servant to the Spanish crown in remote Paraguay. Separated from his wife and children, he continuously schemes for professional advancement as he struggles with his mental and emotional state as isolation, bureaucratic setbacks, self-destructive choices begin to compound themselves in his life.

The novel is divided chronologically into three sections: 1790, 1794, 1799, which focus on Zama's sexual and existential conflicts. Obscure on its original release and unknown to English readers before its translation in 2016, Zama has since been considered by various critics to be a major work of Argentine literature. Roberto Bolaño used Antonio di Benedetto and Zama as the basis of his short story "Sensini" from the collection Last Evenings on Earth, about fictional writer Luis Antonio Sensini and his novel Ugarte about an 18th-century colonial bureaucrat, described as having been written with "neurosurgical precision." The 2016 translation in English was lauded in The New Yorker by novelist Benjamin Kunkel as "a neglected South American masterpiece", by Nobel Prize in Literature laureate J. M. Coetzee in The New York Review of Books: "Zama remains the most attractive of Di Benedetto’s books, if only because of the crazy energy of Zama himself, vividly conveyed in Esther Allen’s excellent translation."Esther Allen's translation into English won the 2017 National Translation Award.

In 2017 Zama was adapted into a feature film by Argentine director Lucrecia Martel. Zama – New York Review Books

Northern and Southern dynasties

The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 386 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states. It is sometimes considered as the latter part of a longer period known as the Six Dynasties. Though an age of civil war and political chaos, it was a time of flourishing arts and culture, advancement in technology, the spread of Mahayana Buddhism and Daoism; the period saw large-scale migration of Han Chinese to the lands south of the Yangtze. The period came to an end with the unification of all of China proper by Emperor Wen of the Sui dynasty. During this period, the process of sinicization accelerated among the non-Chinese arrivals in the north and among the indigenous people in the south; this process was accompanied by the increasing popularity of Buddhism in both northern and southern China and Daoism gaining influence as well, with two essential Daoist canons written during this period. Notable technological advances occurred during this period.

The invention of the stirrup during the earlier Jin dynasty helped spur the development of heavy cavalry as a combat standard. Historians note advances in medicine, astronomy and cartography. Intellectuals of the period include astronomer Zu Chongzhi. After the collapse of a united China under the Han dynasty in 220 due in large part to the Yellow Turban and the Five Pecks of Rice rebellions, China coalesced into the Three Kingdoms. Of these, Cao Wei was the strongest, followed by Eastern Wu and Shu Han, but they were in a stable formation. After a 249 coup by Sima Yi, the Sima family controlled Cao Wei and the conquest of Shu by Wei followed. Following a failed coup by the ruling Cao family against the Sima family, the final Cao ruler abdicated. Sima Yan founded the Jin Dynasty as Emperor Wu of Jin and the conquest of Wu by Jin occurred in 280, ending the Three Kingdoms period and reuniting China; the Jin dynasty was weakened after the War of the Eight Princes from 291–306. During the reigns of Emperor Huai and Emperor Min, the country was put into grave danger with the uprising of the northern non-Han people collectively known as the Five Barbarians.

Invading non-Han armies destroyed the dynasty in the Disaster of Yongjia of 311, when the Five Barbarians sacked Luoyang. Chang'an met a similar fate in 316. However, a scion of the royal house, Sima Rui, Prince of Langya, fled south of the Huai River to salvage what was left in order to sustain the empire, establishing himself as Emperor Yuan. Cementing their power in the south, the Jin established Jiankang on the existing site of Jianke as their new capital, renaming the dynasty as the Eastern Jin since the new capital was located southeast of Luoyang. In the north, the Five Barbarians established numerous kingdoms, leading to the period being known as the Sixteen Kingdoms; the Northern Wei conquered the rest of the northern states in 386. Although the Eastern Jin and successive southern dynasties were well-defended from the northern states by placement of naval fleets along the Yangtze, there were still various problems faced with building and maintaining military strength; the designation of specific households for military service in the tuntian system led to a falling out in their social status, causing widespread desertion of troops on many occasions.

Faced with shortage of troop numbers, Jin generals were sent on campaigns to capture non-Chinese people in the south in order to draft them into the military. The Eastern Jin dynasty fell not because of external invasion, but because General Liu Yu seized the throne from Emperor Gong and establishing himself as Emperor Wu of Liu Song, which began the Northern and Southern dynasties; the Northern dynasties began in 439 when the Northern Wei conquered the Northern Liang to unite northern China and ended in 589 when Sui dynasty extinguished the Chen dynasty. It can be divided into three time periods: Northern Wei; the Northern and Western Wei along with the Northern Zhou were established by the Xianbei people while the Northern Qi was established by Sinicized barbarians. In the Sixteen Kingdoms period, the Tuoba family of the Xianbei were the rulers of the state of Dai. Although it was conquered by the Former Qin, the defeat of the Former Qin at the Battle of Fei River resulted in the collapse of the Former Qin.

The grandson of the last prince of Dai Tuoba Shiyijian, Tuoba Gui restored the fortunes of the Tuoba clan, renaming his state Wei with its capital at Shengle. Under the rule of Emperors Daowu and Taiwu, the Northern Wei progressively expanded; the establishment of the early Northern Wei state and economy was greatly indebted to the father-son pair of Cui Hong and Cui Hao. Tuoba Gui engaged in numerous conflicts with the Later Yan that ended favorably for the Northern Wei after they received help from Zhang Gun that allowed them to destroy the Later Yan army at the Battle of Canhe Slope. Following this victory, Tuoba Gui conquered the Later Yan capital of Pingcheng; that same year he declared himself as Emperor Daowu. Due to Emperor Daowu's cruelty, he was killed by his son Tuoba Shao, but crown prince Tuoba Si managed to defeat Tuoba Shao and took the throne as Emperor Mingyuan. Though he managed to conquer Liu Song's province of Henan, he died soon afterwards. Emperor Mingyuan's son Tuoba Tao took the throne as Emperor Taiwu.

Due to Emperor Taiwu's energetic efforts

Clark v. Martinez

Clark v. Martinez, 543 U. S. 371, was a United States Supreme Court case about the detention of inadmissible immigrants during the deportation process. An alien can be found inadmissible on the grounds of poor health, criminal history, substance trafficking, prostitution/human trafficking, money laundering, terrorist activity, etc; the deportation process requires a ruling from an immigration judge for violating immigration laws. The case attempted to resolve the conflicting rulings made by the 9th and 11th circuits on whether Zadvydas v. Davis was applicable to inadmissible immigrants, Sergio Martinez and Daniel Benitez; the cases of Martinez and Benitez were consolidated by the Supreme Court. Zadvydas v. Davis stated that the government can detain admissible and admitted aliens only long enough beyond the 90-day removal period if necessary for deportation. If deportation is unforeseeable the immigrant must be released. Zadvydas v. Davis fails to define if immigrants inadmissible to the U. S. have these same protections.

The Supreme Court decision found that Zadvydas v. Davis was in fact applicable to inadmissible immigrants. In the case of Martinez and Benitez where deportation to Cuba is implausible, further detention is unnecessary; the court however did not grant constitutional protection from indefinite detention to inadmissible immigrants. Cubans Sergio Suarez Martinez and Daniel Benitez gained access to the US in June 1980 via the Mariel Boatlift. By the time they had applied for legal permanent residence through the Cuban Refugee Adjustment Act. Both men, had racked up significant criminal charges thus they could not qualify for the adjustment from refugee to legal permanent resident."When Martinez sought adjustment in 1991, he had been convicted of assault with a deadly weapon in Rhode Island and burglary in California, Pet. for Cert. in No. 03-878, at 7. Both men were convicted of additional felonies after their adjustment applications were denied: Martinez of petty theft with a prior conviction, assault with a deadly weapon, attempted oral copulation by force, see Pet. for Cert. in No.

03-878, at 7-8. While being detained by INS, Martinez and Benitez, each filed a petition for the writ of habeas corpus to challenge their indefinite detention. On October 30, 2002, Martinez was granted petition by the United States District Court for the District of Oregon under Martinez v. Smith and was to be released at the digression of INS. Whereas Benitez was denied petition by the United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida under Benitez v. Wallis on July 11, 2002; these contracting interpretations of Zadvydas v. Davis led to the cases being consolidated by the United States Supreme Court; the Mariel Boatlift, was a series boatlifts that took place from April 15 to October 31, 1980. The boatlift was responsible for the transport of 125,000 Cubans from the port of Mariel to southern Florida. Within this time frame Fidel Castro allowed any Cuban who wanted to leave and had a permit to do so through the Port of Mariel; the United States Coast Guard began to see numerous personal vessels flood out of Key West and Miami, Florida.

The first flood out of the U. S. were 20–40 ft pleasure boats belonging to Cuban American's who had relatives in Cuba. By the 21st, a second flood of Cuban Americans attempting to rent or buy boats came. Not long after their departure for Mariel the Coast Guard began to receive distress calls and several search and rescue mission were required. Of the 125,000 refugees 2,300 had previous criminal charges in Cuba, under U. S. law 2,746 were considered criminals. Many of the 2,746 criminals that applied for US residency under the 1984 Cuban Refugee Adjustment Act were declared unfit due to the alien's disciplinary record and criminal record. Much of the controversy came from the ambiguous wording in Davis. Zadvydas v. Davis ruled that admissible aliens/ aliens, granted US residency facing deportation may not be detained longer than the 90-day removal period; the use of "may" and "admissible" in the passage below led to confusion for the lower courts. Justice Anthony Kennedy in dissent in Zadvydas had objected that The majority's unanchored interpretation ignores another indication that the Attorney General's detention discretion was not limited to this truncated period.

Section 1231 permits continued detention not only of removable aliens but of inadmissible aliens, for instance those stopped at the border before entry. Congress provides for detention of both categories within the same statutory grant of authority. Accepting the majority's interpretation there are two possibilities, neither of, sustainable. On the one hand, it may be that the majority's rule applies to both categories of aliens, in which case we are asked to assume that Congress intended to restrict the discretion it could confer upon the Attorney General so that all inadmissible aliens must be allowed into our community within six months. On the other hand, the majority's logic might be that inadmissible and removable aliens can be treated differently, yet it is not a plausible construction of § 1231 to imply a time lim