Pope Silverius ruled the Holy See from 8 June 536 to his deposition in 537, a few months before his death. His rapid rise to prominence from a deacon to the papacy coincided the efforts of Ostrogothic king Theodahad, who intended to install a pro-Gothic candidate just before the Gothic War. Deposed by Byzantine general Belisarius, he was tried and sent to exile on the desolated island of Palmarola, where he starved to death in 537, he was a legitimate son of Pope Hormisdas, born in Frosinone, some time before his father entered the priesthood. Silverius was consecrated 8 June 536, he was a subdeacon when king Theodahad of the Ostrogoths forced his consecration. Historian Jeffrey Richards interprets his low rank prior to becoming pope as an indication that Theodahad was eager to put a pro-Gothic candidate on the throne on the eve of the Gothic War and "had passed over the entire diaconate as untrustworthy"; the Liber Pontificalis alleges. On 9 December 536, the Byzantine general Belisarius entered Rome with the approval of Pope Silverius.
Theodahad's successor Witiges gathered together an army and besieged Rome for several months, subjecting the city to privation and starvation. In the words of Richards, "What followed is as tangled a web of treachery and double-dealing as can be found anywhere in the papal annals. Several different versions of the course of events following the elevation of Silverius exist." In outline, all accounts agree: Silverius was deposed by Belisarius in March 537 and sent into exile after being judged by the wife of Belisarius, who accused him of conspiring with the Goths. Not only did Belisarius exile Silverius, he banished a number of distinguished senators, Flavius Maximus—a descendant of a previous emperor—among them. Vigilius, in Constantinople as apocrisiarius or papal legate, was brought to Rome to replace Silverius as the pontiff; the fullest account is in the Breviarium of Liberatus of Carthage, who portrays Vigilius "as a greedy and treacherous pro-Monophysite who ousted and murdered his predecessor."
In exchange for being made Pope, Liberatus claims he promised Empress Theodora to restore the former patriarch of Constantinople Anthimus to his position. Silverius was sent into exile at Patara in Lycia, whose bishop petitioned the emperor for a fair trial for Silverius. Rattled by this, Justinian ordered. However, when Silverius returned to Italy, instead of holding a trial Belisarius handed him over to Vigilius, who according to The Liber Pontificalis banished Silverius to the desolate island Palmarola, where he starved to death a few months later; the account in the Liber Pontificalis is hardly more favorable to Vigilius. That work agrees with Liberatus that the restoration of Anthimus to the Patriarchate was the cause of Silverius' deposition, but Vigilius was sent to persuade Silverius to agree to this, not replace him. Silverius refused and Vigilius claimed to Belisarius that Pope Silverius had written to Witiges offering to betray the city. Belisarius did not believe this accusation, but Vigilius produced false witnesses to testify to this, through persistence overcame his scruples.
Silverius was summoned to the Pincian palace, where he was stripped of his vestments and handed over to Vigilius, who dispatched him into exile. Procopius omits all mention of religious controversy in Vigilius' actions, he writes. Upon learning of this, Belisarius had him put in a monk's habit and exiled to Greece. Several other senators were banished from Rome at the same time on similar charges. Belisarius appointed Vigilius. Deprived of sufficient sustenance, Silverius starved to death on the island of Palmarola. Richards attempts to reconcile these divergent accounts into a unified account, he points out that Liberatus wrote his Breviarium at the height of the Three-Chapter Controversy, "when Vigilius was being regarded by his opponents as anti-Christ and Liberatus was prominent among these opponents", the Liber Pontificalis drew from an account written at the same time. Once these religious elements are removed, Richards argues that it is clear "the whole episode was political in nature." He points out for Justinian's plans to recover Rome and Italy, "that there should be a pro-Eastern pope substituted as soon as possible.
The ideal candidate was at hand in Constantinople. The deacon Vigilius' principal motivation throughout his career, as far as can be ascertained, was the desire to be pope and he was not concerned about which faction put him there." Silverius was recognized as a saint by popular acclamation, is now the patron saint of the island of Ponza, Italy. The first mention of his name in a list of saints dates to the 11th century, he is called Saint Silverius. While Pope Silverius perished without fanfare and unlamented during the 6th century, the people from the neighboring island of Ponza have honored the virtuous St. Silverio, a heritage the reaches from the island to the United States, where many settlers from the island have carried settled in the Morisania section of the Bronx. From there, they celebrate the Festival of San Silverio at Our Lady of Pity Church on 151st Street and Morris Avenue, just as they have for centuries, calling on him for help. After the Church of Our Lady of Pity closed, the statue of San Silverio found a home at St. Ann's Church at 31 College Place, New York.
The feast of San Silverio is observed here every year on June 20 with a special Mass and procession of the Statue of San Silverio. The statue is on perm
The Council of Independent Colleges is an association in the United States of more than 650 independent, liberal arts colleges and universities and more than 100 higher education affiliates and organizations that work together to strengthen college and university leadership, sustain high-quality education, enhance private higher education’s contributions to society. To fulfill its mission, CIC provides ideas and programs that help institutions improve their leadership expertise, educational programs and financial performance, institutional visibility. Member institutions are drawn from across the spectrum of independent higher education, including selective liberal arts colleges, medium-sized private universities, religious colleges black colleges, single-sex institutions; the Council is headquartered at One Dupont Circle in Washington, DC. To join the Council as a full member, a U. S. college or university must grant baccalaureate degrees, must demonstrate a commitment to liberal arts and sciences through its curricular offerings and degree requirements, must have been in operation for at least three years, must be accredited or have candidate status with a U.
S. regional accrediting association. Similar institutions outside the U. S. may join as international members, independent, nonprofit two-year institutions may qualify for associate membership. One of CIC's services to its member institutions is its Tuition Exchange Program, a network of more than 430 CIC colleges and universities that are willing to accept, tuition-free, students from families of full-time employees of other participating institutions. In October 2010, the Foundation for Independent Higher Education merged with CIC; this merger has enabled CIC to expand its role in supporting independent colleges by working with, providing grant support to, state consortia of private colleges and universities. Official website
Jaggu is a 1975 Bollywood crime film directed by Samir Ganguly. Azaad Irani Indira Bansal Master Bhagwan... Qawal Leena Chandavarkar... Geeta Mohan Choti... Pandit Hercules Anwar Hussain... Desai Imtiaz... Kaalia Aruna Irani... Courtesan Jagdeep... Birju Jyoti... Sayeeda Viju Khote... Baniya Paintal... Nandu Khade Purnima... Geeta's mom Shivraj... Kedar Nipon Goswami Shatrughan Sinha... Jagtap aka'Jaggu' Bindu... Cabaret Dancer "Pyaar Me Tere Piya Aisa Thadpa Hai Jiya" - Lata Mangeshkar "Chanda Kiran Pyaasi Hai" - Asha Bhosle "Mere Naam Ka Chala Hai Yeh Jaam" - Asha Bhosle "Kasme Dekhe Vaade Dekhe" - Asha Bhosle "Mere Dum Se Chand Tare" - Aziz Nazan, Narendra Chanchal, Kumar Sonik "Meri Payal Chanke Chanak" - Lata Mangeshkar Jaggu on IMDb
Nicholas "Nick" Stavrou is an English football midfielder and coach, who played thirteen years of professional indoor soccer with the Dallas Sidekicks. He serves as head coach of Fort Worth Vaqueros FC in the National Premier Soccer League and as the assistant coach for the Mesquite Outlaws of the Major Arena Soccer League. A standout midfielder at Cleveland State University, Stavrou was a 1990 Second Team All-America. A two-time MVP of the Mid-Continent Conference, Stavrou was honored as a defender in 1989 and a midfielder in 1990; the all-time leader in games played at Cleveland State, he ranks fourth among the school's all-time points leaders, fourth in goals, tied for ninth in assists. In 2002, he was inducted into the school's Athletic Hall of Fame. After a stellar college career, Stavrou was selected by the Dallas Sidekicks in the second round of the 1991 Major Indoor Soccer League, draft, he played 10 seasons with the team, which played in the MISL, World Indoor Soccer League, Continental Indoor Soccer League in 1993, the Premiere Soccer Alliance in 1998.
A member of the Dallas Sidekicks MISL championship teams in 1993, 1998 and 2001, he earned second team All-PSA honors in 1998 and second team All-WISL honors in 2000. Stavrou scored 199 goals in 292 games with the Sidekicks from 1991–2004. In November 2012, he began playing for the new Dallas Sidekicks of the Professional Arena Soccer League. Stavrou retired as a player on July 1, 2014, he was named Director of Soccer Operations for the Dallas Sidekicks on the same date. These decisions were announced via a detailed press release on August 11, 2014, he scored his 1st MISL professional goal on November 4th 1989 against St. Louis, he is one of a select group of 8 players too have won 2 professional championships with the sidekicks. After his playing career ended, he was a women's soccer assistant coach at Texas Woman's University in Denton and for youth teams around Dallas, he is now the head coach for the Fort Worth Vaqueros of the National Premier Soccer League. On 22 July 2019, Stavrou was named to the first-ever coaching staff for the Major Arena Soccer League's Mesquite Outlaws.
Human rights in Rwanda have been violated on a grand scale. The greatest violation is the Rwandan genocide of Tutsi in 1994; the post-genocide government is responsible for grave violations of human rights. As decolonization ideas spread across Africa, a Tutsi party and Hutu party were created. Both became militarized, in 1959, Tutsi attempted to assassinate Grégoire Kayibanda, the leader of PARMEHUTU; this resulted in the wind of destruction known as the "Social Revolution" in Rwanda, violence which pitted Hutu against Tutsi, killing 20,000 to 100,000 Tutsi and forcing more into exile. After the withdrawal of Belgium from Africa in 1962, Rwanda separated from Rwanda-Urundi by referendum, which eliminated the Tutsi monarchy, the mwami. In 1963, the Hutu government killed 14,000 Tutsi, after Tutsi guerillas attacked Rwanda from Burundi; the government maintained mandatory ethnic identity cards, capped Tutsi numbers in universities and the civil service. During the Rwandan genocide in 1994, about 800,000 people were slaughtered.
Subsequent governments, including the current government led by President Paul Kagame, have committed grave violations of human rights. On 22 April 1995 the Rwandan Patriotic Army killed more than 4,000 people in the Kibeho massacre. In September 1996 Rwanda invaded Zaire; the immediate targets of the invasion were the large Hutu refugee camps located right across the border in the vicinity of Goma and Bukavu, which were organized under the leadership of the former regime. The Rwandan army chased the refugees in hot pursuit clear across Zaire, while helping to install AFDL in power in Kinshasa; the historian Gérard Prunier estimated the death toll among the fleeing refugees to lay between 213,000–280,000. In 2010, the United Nations issued a report investigating 617 alleged violent incidents occurring in the Democratic Republic of Congo between March 1993 and June 2003, it reported that the "apparent systematic and widespread attacks described in this report reveal a number of inculpatory elements that, if proven before a competent court, could be characterized as crimes of genocide" against Hutus.
The report was categorically rejected by the Rwandan government. In December 1996 the Rwandan government launched a forced villagization program which sought to concentrate the entire rural population in villages known as Imidugudu, which resulted in human rights violations of tens of thousands of Rwandans, according to Human Rights Watch. According to a report by Amnesty International, between December 1997 and May 1998, thousands of Rwandans "disappeared" or were murdered by members of government security forces and of armed opposition groups. Most of the killings took place in Rwanda's northwestern provinces of Gisenyi and Ruhengeri where there was an armed insurgency. Amnesty wrote that "Thousands of unarmed civilians have been extrajudicially executed by RPA soldiers in the context of military search operations in the northwest."When Kagame visited Washington in early 2001, Human Rights Watch criticized Rwanda for its involvement in the Second Congo War in which "as many as 1.7 million" civilians had died.
Regarding human rights under the government of President Paul Kagame, Human Rights Watch in 2007 accused Rwandan police of several instances of extrajudicial killings and deaths in custody. In June 2006, the International Federation of Human Rights and Human Rights Watch described what they called "serious violations of international humanitarian law committed by the Rwanda Patriotic Army". According to The Economist in 2008, Kagame "allows less political space and press freedom at home than Robert Mugabe does in Zimbabwe", "nyone who poses the slightest political threat to the regime is dealt with ruthlessly". Kagame has been accused of using memories of the genocide to muzzle his opposition. In 2009, Human Rights Watch claimed that under the pretense of maintaining ethnic harmony, Kagame's government displays "a marked intolerance of the most basic forms of dissent." It claimed that laws enacted in 2009 that ban "genocide ideology" are used to gag the opposition. In 2010, along similar lines, The Economist claimed that Kagame accuses his opponents of "divisionism," or fomenting racial hatred.
In 2011, Freedom House noted that the government justifies restrictions on civil liberties as a necessary measure to prevent ethnic violence. These restrictions are so severe that mundane discussions of ethnicity can result in being arrested for divisionism; the United States government in 2006 described the human rights record of the Kagame government as "mediocre", citing the "disappearances" of political dissidents, as well as arbitrary arrests and acts of violence and murders committed by police. U. S. authorities listed human rights problems including the existence of political prisoners and limited freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and freedom of religion. Reporters Without Borders listed Rwanda in 147th place out of 169 for freedom of the press in 2007, reported that "Rwandan journalists suffer permanent hostility from their government and surveillance by the security services", it cited cases of journalists being threatened and arrested for criticising the government. According to Reporters Without Borders, "President Paul Kagame and his government have never accepted that the press should be guaranteed genuine freedom".
In 2010, Rwanda fell to 169th place, out of 178, entering the ranks of the ten lowest-ranked countries in the world for press freedom. Reporters Without Borders stated that "Rwanda and Syria have joined Burma and North Korea as the most repressive countries in the world against journalists", adding that in Rwanda, "the third lowest-ranked African country", "this drop was caused by the suspending of the main independen
North Branch Bowman Creek is a tributary of Bowman Creek in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is 3.2 miles long and flows through Fairmount Township and Ross Township. The watershed of the creek has an area of 2.63 square miles. The creek is not designated as an impaired waterbody; the surficial geology in its vicinity includes Wisconsinan Till, alluvial fan, Boulder Colluvium, bedrock, a peat bog. The creek is in Pennsylvania State Game Lands and Ricketts Glen State Park; the drainage basin of North Branch Bowman Creek is designated as a High-Quality Coldwater Fishery and a Migratory Fishery. The creek has been stocked with fish in the past, but has wild trout. There is a hiking trail, located in its vicinity. An 11-acre natural lake is situated on the creek. North Branch Bowman Creek begins in a wetland in Fairmount Township, it flows in a northeasterly direction for a few tenths of a mile before turning south-southeast for several tenths of a mile, entering Ross Township. Here, the creek turns southeast for a few tenths of a mile, passing through a wetland and receiving an unnamed tributary from the left.
It turns south-southwest for a few tenths of a mile before receiving an unnamed tributary from the right. The creek turns south-southeast and enters a narrow valley before turning south. After several tenths of a mile, it turns southeast. Several tenths of a mile further downstream, it meets South Branch Bowman Creek to form Bowman Creek. North Branch Bowman Creek joins Bowman Creek 26.13 miles upstream of its mouth. North Branch Bowman Creek is not designated as an impaired waterbody. However, in the 1980s, the creek was considered to be vulnerable to acidification; the elevation near the mouth of North Branch Bowman Creek is 1,837 feet above sea level. The elevation of the creek's source is between 2,260 feet above sea level; the surficial geology in the vicinity of the lower reaches of North Branch Bowman Creek consists of alluvial fan and alluvium. Further upstream, in the creek's valley, there is Boulder Colluvium, rich in boulders made of quartz, sandstone, or conglomerate; the valleys of North Branch Bowman Creek and South Branch Bowman Creek are the only places in the Sweet Valley quadrangle where this type of surficial geology occurs.
Part of the creek's valley has surficial geology of bedrock consisting of sandstone and shale, which occurs on the valley walls and part of the valley floor. Most of the rest of the surficial geology along the creek consists of a till known as Wisconsinan Till, but there are wetlands and peat bogs as well. A talus deposit with sandstone boulders is located in the vicinity of North Branch Bowman Creek; the watershed of North Branch Bowman Creek has an area of 2.63 square miles. The mouth of the creek is in the United States Geological Survey quadrangle of Sweet Valley. However, its source is in the quadrangle of Red Rock; the mouth of the stream is located at Mountain Springs. A lake, known as Bowmans Pond or Bean Pond in the early 1900s is situated on North Branch Bowman Creek, it is a natural lake with a surface area of 11 acres. For most of its length, North Branch Bowman Creek is either in Pennsylvania State Game Lands Number 57 or Ricketts Glen State Park, its mouth is on land belonging to the Pennsylvania Boat Commission.
North Branch Bowman Creek was entered into the Geographic Names Information System on August 2, 1979. Its identifier in the Geographic Names Information System is 1182526. A hiking trail in Ricketts Glen State Park follows North Branch Bowman Creek for a short distance. A road known as Mountain Springs Road is in the vicinity of the creek. North Branch Bowman Creek has been stocked with trout in the past, though in 1984, it was said in The Morning Call that trout stocking was no longer being done there; the creek was stocked as early as 1952. In 1969, the creek was slated to be stocked with 350 brook trout. However, stocking of the creek was cancelled in 1978; the drainage basin of North Branch Bowman Creek is designated as a High-Quality Coldwater Fishery and a Migratory Fishery. Wild trout reproduce in the creek from its headwaters downstream to its mouth. Bean Run, next tributary of Bowman Creek going downstream South Branch Bowman Creek List of rivers of Pennsylvania List of tributaries of Bowman Creek